Given his position in the global military, his case is more like Big Name, Bigger Ego.
Bender has a Big Ego constantly at odds with his Small Name, as most vividly seen in "A Pharaoh to Remember". Pointing the latter out is one of his biggest Berserk Buttons.
Peggy Hill from King of the Hill. She's a loving mother and wife, but she thinks she's much smarter and more attractive than she is.
Her, erm, unique take on the Spanish language.
Some examples include her stating that "in her opinion, the day after Thanksgiving is the busiest shopping day of the year", believing that being in a bunch of foot fetish videos was somehow advancing the cause of acceptance for big footed women like herself and claiming that her IQ is 170 (her own estimate which is 10 points below Einstein).
Later episodes explain that the reason for Peggy's inflated ego is because her own mother was an overly critical, judgmental, and controlling shrew who never praised Peggy for anything. Peggy has to believe she's the best at everything because it's the only way she can convince herself that her mother was wrong and she's not worthless. This is a retcon, as Peggy's mother was previously depicted in a very different, less critical fashion.
Eddy: I was born to fleece, Double D. Do you know who I think I am? Edd: Unfortunately, yes.
In The Movie, it's revealed that his behavior is all a Jerkass Façade due to him believing that if he acted more like his brother (who is an even bigger Jerkass), he'd be more popular.
When he breaks down and admits that he's nothing but a failure and that he doesn't deserve such loyal friends as Ed and Double D. It's a HUGE step towards Character Development for Eddy and it causes him to become less of a jerk.
Kevin fits this trope as well.
Finn from Storm Hawks, whilst a talented sniper, is nowhere near the ladies man he thinks he is.
Number 2 in Codename: Kids Next Door. Downplayed in that he is very competent, most of the time, but tends to overestimate even that. More than anything though, he thinks he's funnier than he actually is.
Cartman from South Park, though he displays a number of tropes at a number of different times. There are also several occasions where Cartman was incognito and openly tried to make his image look better if someone didn't say anything cool about him, even if he had to blow his own cover to do so.
Kent Powers from Quack Pack was presumably based on the original Ted Baxter.
In the episode where Marge stars in "A Street Car Named Desire" musical, the director, while competent, sees himself as this supreme director even though the only play he ever mentions directing was a school play.
He prides himself on it though, by carrying the review around and quoting it.
"Play enjoyed by all!"
Squidward from SpongeBob SquarePants aspires to be an artist, and thinks living next door to idiots like SpongeBob and Patrick while working as a cashier at the Krusty Krab is beneath him. He's not a very good musician, and all his paintings and sculptures seem to be of himself.
Subverted in one episode, where he takes credit for SpongeBob's sculpture and fails miserably at getting him to make another, better one to show the art critic. He snaps and goes insane, randomly throwing and chiseling like a madman, and then storms by the critic and angrily tells him that the janitor is now the artist and storms off. The art critic sees the sculpture, which is a magnificent work of art, and says:
Art critic (to janitor): "You, sir, are the greatest artist who ever lived!"
Mr. Krabs is turning into one of these.
Sandy plays with this. She is actually the most intelligent and talented member of Bikini Bottom by far. However this does lead her to overestimate her skills at times and sometimes gets rather overcompetitive and arrogant when someone implies she is isn't the best at something.
All Irkens are this trope, as the Almighty Tallest demonstrate. Zim just takes it much farther because he single-handedly destroyed their invasion fleet once - yet thinks he behaved properly.
Appropriately-named Dash Baxter from Danny Phantom is a slight variation in that only the audience and the main characters see through his self-image, the rest of the characters viewing him exactly as he views himself.
The title character himself fell into this a lot, especially early on. Jake was quick to praise himself - only to fall flat on his face when things got tough. When he shed the ego, he'd be a force to be reckoned with.
Sometimes it seems like half of it is just Plucky being a kid; hopefully he'll grow out of it and not become his mentor. He's been competent when he's wanted to be (except, unfortunately, in asking girls out).
Surprisingly, Daffy went through a bit of a deconstruction of this trope in Looney Tunes: Back in Action; in one scene, he actually acknowledges his lack of success relative to Bugs, lamenting his position at Warner Brothers and the fact that all Bugs has to do is "munch on a carrot" for everyone to love him. Not quite enough to qualify as Big Ego, Hidden Depths, since it only lasts the one scene, and throughout the movie there is every indication that the Small Name, Big Ego personality is the true one.
In House of Mouse Gaston is a recurring character, often saying "No one (verb)s like Gaston!"
Also a recurring character on the Internet in many forums and imageboards alike. Parodied in one ban message where he says "NO ONE SHUTS U-" followed by a beat panel where he realizes this means he'll have to stop talking, then he tells the viewer "Eh, I think I'll let you have that one."
Henry Masterson, aka the Headmaster from Transformers Animated is very deliberately a parody of this trope.
During the season two finale, Starscream builds a small army of clones of himself, each of whom represents an aspect of his personality and almost all of whom are references to the G1 Seekers. The Thundercracker homage, "Egomaniac Starscream", represents...well, it's in his name. Starscream has a pretty high opinion of himself, but at least he can back it up (to everyone except Megatron).
It seems a lot of ducks fall for this trope: Duckman is another main character who embodies this.
Duckman's awareness of how pathetic he is varies from episode to episode (and sometimes from scene to scene). When he's not being this trope he's usually being a Jaded Washout (with little middle ground in between).
Mung Daal in Chowder, who often thinks that he's the greatest chef around.
While his greatness is debatable, he does at least outstrip his rival Endive in actual commitment (Endive values dignity above all else, which leads to methods which seriously abrade Mung "It's not even edible if there's no love" Daal).
Tako from Sushi Pack considers himself to be a great artist worthy of the world's admiration, but his abstract paintings are less than admired by anyone, even his own teammates. One episode, in fact, had him chasing down the bad guy not because he stole all the art in the museum, but because he stole all the art in the museum except for Tako's paintings.
Finbar the mighty shark from Rubberdubbers who considers himself to be the most fearsome shark in the sea. Ar ar ar!
Ezekiel in World Tour is also one of these, thinking he's going all the way even when Gwen reminds him that he was voted out first last time.
Also Tyler, who thinks he is the greatest athlete around, but constantly proves to be possibly the worst.
Blaineley has a very high opinion about her TV host abilities that seems unwarranted considering the TDWT Aftermath's reveal she was fired from her old show.
Master Shake from Aqua Teen Hunger Force. He constantly refers to himself in ways that assume whoever he's talking to has heard of him and always believes everything should involve him in some way. He's also a No Nothing Know It All who's clearly making it up as he goes along, and more clearly thinks he's getting away with it.
Brainy Smurf, on The Smurfs. Often, he will brag and moralize to his fellow Smurfs in invariably any situation, only for his advice to be dubious at best and completely wrong at worst. (In the animated series, when one of the Smurfs tires of him, he will be thrown out of the village ...) He believes his quotations (compiled in volumes usually titled "Quotations From Brainy Smurf") will get other Smurfs to see him as a great orator and with insightful wisdom, although the quotes are little more than nonsensical ramblings, or copied wisdom from one of his fellow Smurfs. He thinks of himself as a de facto second-in-command whenever Papa Smurf is gone or needs someone to reinforce his authority, but this authority is often better handled by other Smurfs.
Birch Small of My Life Me, especially when it comes to her artworks. She shows off her own "manga art" to her manga idol Miyazaki Lee, which the idol claimed to like only to insult a different "local" comic also made by Birch, which prompts her to bitch him out and start insulting some of the very work of his she was praising earlier.
Antoine of Sonic Sat AM sees himself as a heroic, intelligent "and so very handsome" Freedom Fighter who can take Swatbots in their thousands. In reality he is a sniveling Dirty Coward that often acts as The Load. Sonic and Sally, though much more genuinely competent, frequently have Idiot Ball moments due to their conflicting egos.
Kuzco was this at the beginning of The Emperor's New Groove having absolutely no doubt that everyone admires him. That turned out not so right.
The Penguins of Madagascar episode "Hot Ice" gives us Cecil, a burglar who believes himself to be a criminal genius, to the point that he leaves handwritten signed notes declaring himself to be a criminal mastermind at the scenes of his crime.
Inspector Gadget, far more so than in the film version. This actually is a major element which preserves the status quo. Most notably, he is convinced that Dr. Claw is so terrified of him that MAD packs up and leaves as soon as Gadget is assigned to a case. This may be the main reason he canonically can't catch Dr. Claw, despite the number of times they've been physically close: Gadget cannot believe Dr. Claw would dare go near him, and thus cannot recognize him. To some extent, this is also why Inspector Gadget tends to not notice MAD agents trying to kill him or recognize the MAD logo.
Control Freak on Teen Titans. He’s actually fairly competent as villains go, but the Titans still don’t take him seriously. He wasn't even mentioned on the list of "villains to watch out for" the Titans East got when they were housesitting the tower!
Lampooned in the Animaniacs episode "Broadcast Nuisance". The Warner siblings provide (admittedly poor) service to Dan Anchorman, host of a news show, who has been shown to be arrogant, rude, demanding, and egotistical. Being rude to the Warner siblings is very bad for your mental health. (The Warner siblings have been shown capable of being polite and apologizing -when treated accordingly.)
Brian Griffin from Family Guy spent years working on a novel entitled Faster Than The Speed of Love which turned out be a complete rip-off of the Iron Eagle film series, even though Brian claimed he never saw any of them. Everyone who had heard of the book's plot mercilessly taunted Brian about it being a rip-off but he refused to acknowledge it. When the book did get published yet did not sell a single copy after being critically lambasted, the next day Brian read a rave review for a celebrity self-help book and thought self-help books were the reason the novel sold so terribly. He then decided to write a similar book out of spite; the book became popular and Brian slowly began raving "I have created a best selling PHENOMENON" until he was taken down on Real Time with Bill Maher.
Brian is also egotistical when it comes to women. Brian always tries to act intelligent and suave to impress women so that he can easily have sex with them, but whenever they break up, Brian tends to blame the women he dates as the reason they broke up instead of admitting that his negative behavior was his own fault. One episode has Brian being confronted by every single woman he ever dated and they all point out how flawed he is, only for Brian to retort with flaws he sees in every woman he dated, saying it's their fault their relationships with him went sour.
A more traditional example of this trope on the show would be Quahog Channel 5 news anchor Tom Tucker, who has earned multiple comparisons to Ron Burgundy (and not only due to his Badass Mustache).
"Do you know who I am? I'm Tom Tucker, dammit! I make more in an hour than you make in two hours!"
Grunkle Stan from Gravity Falls. Please, ladies, control yourselves.
Dr. Venture from The Venture Bros.. He is a slothful and incompetent "scientist" who has ridden his father's coattails his entire life. He often believe he is the life of the party and highly desirable even when no woman wants to have anything to do with him.
In the Batman: The Animated Series episode ""The Clock King", Temple Fugate sincerely thinks that the guy who shares his seat at the subway after one year had to know his name, or that Counselor Hill knows his impending legal case simply because his law firm is handling it, or that he gave the Advice Backfire on purpose.