"Oh, I'm begging on my kneesA Tongue-Tied character has some extremely important knowledge, and just Cannot Spit It Out... quite literally. Sometimes a victim has to be kept quiet about what exactly has happened to him, or he may have learned a secret that someone doesn't want him to share. He can be threatened or encouraged to lie, but this is unreliable. Some villains attempt elaborate brainwashing or Laser-Guided Amnesia, but these options are all startlingly reversible. In light of this, the occasional magically-inclined villain will place a curse on his victim that also leaves the victim Tongue Tied. He isn't silenced completely; the curse doesn't ordinarily prevent him from speaking or casting magic. The cursed individual just becomes unable to communicate a certain piece of information, like "I'm not really a frog, I'm a transformed prince!" or "I know where the villain's hideout is!" or "I'm under a curse!" If he tries to talk about this particular subject, he may be unable to speak at all, it may all come out as gibberish, or he may be magically forced to give a cover story in place of the truth he desperately wants to tell. In fact, this is often a secondary effect of a Baleful Polymorph curse, preventing the transformed character from getting help for his condition. This "curse" is usually magical in nature, since the character will find himself unable to share the secret regardless of how badly he wants or needs to, but mental conditioning can sometimes be used to similar effect. A Tongue-Tied character may occasionally function as The Speechless, and his problem is very similar to the character who Cannot Spit It Out. Compare Keeping Secrets Sucks. Tongue Twister is the mundane equivalent.
Sweet, sweet darling listen please
Understand me when I say:
Sweet, sweet darling listen please
Understand me when I say:
— Red Dwarf, "The Tongue-Tied Song"note
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Anime and Manga
- In Ah! My Goddess goddesses cannot speak of classified information. Belldandy has knowledge of the nature of Urd's goddess and demon halves, but experiences pain if she tries to tell anyone about it. Urd is able to get around this by asking yes or no questions and telling Belldandy to nod or shake her head.
- In Alice 19th, Mayura magically "forbids" Alice to tell Kyo about her feelings for him - and about the spell she uses to do this.
- Haruhi Suzumiya: "I was so shocked that I tried to use [classified information]... and then [classified information]..."
- In Howl's Moving Castle, Sophie is unable to tell anyone that the Witch of the Wastes has turned her into an old woman.
- This is an exact example in the movie, but not in the book. In the book it is a subversion, because almost everyone knows about it, and has tried to lift the spell from her.
- A similar case applies to the connection between Calcifer and Howl; he's unable to reveal what it is, but Sophie's allowed to guess or figure it out on her own.
- JoJo's Bizarre Adventure
- Thanks to its recent depiction in the anime, Bites The Dust from Part 4 (Diamond Is Unbreakable) is arguably the most popular and well-known example of weaponising this trope in JoJo. The final ability of Yoshikage Kira's Stand, "Killer Queen" requires him to divulge a secret to someone, after which time Killer Queen can be commanded to lie in wait and protect that secret, at the expense of Kira's (temporary) ability to use any of his Stand's other abilities. Whenever the keeper spills the secret to someone else - even if it's involuntarily, like when Rohan learns of Kira's new identity by using Heaven's Door on Hayato - the Stand will then jump to that "someone else" and instantly kill them. Whenever this happens, Bites The Dust creates a "Groundhog Day" Loop, starting the day over and erasing the disclosure. However, anyone who was killed with Bites The Dust will still die at the moment they died in a previous cycle, even if they unknowingly alter events to avoid the circumstances.
- Also from Part 4, Rohan can use his Stand, Heaven's Door, to read someone's memories, as well as write commands that their bodies have to follow, whether that's a mundane compulsion like "You cannot attack Rohan Kishibe!" or something that breaks the laws of physics such as "You will fly forwards at 60MPH". When he decides to read Koichi's memories to use them as inspiration for his manga, he also writes a command preventing him from telling others of what's going on. Whenever Koichi tries to alert his friends that his memories are being stolen, he suddenly finds himself unable to remember what he was going to say.
- When Koichi is sent on Jotaro's mission to encounter Giorno at the beginning of Part 5, he mentions that he had Rohan use Heaven's Door to give him fluency in Italian so that he could actually communicate with the locals.
- This is the effect of the Talking Heads stand from Part 5: the person affected by it is entirely incapable of telling the truth. He always communicate the opposite of his intent — even if it's writing or gesturing.
- When the Master Star Reader in Moribito: Guardian of the Spirit is sharing top secret and potentially highly dangerous information, he commands the servants who are present to cover their faces and ignore everything they are hearing. However this turns out to be actually purely ceremonial with no actual magical compulsion behind it and it's only their loyalty to their master that keeps them from ever revealing what is spoken within the sanctuary. At one point, a group of them aranges for Shuga to recieve information his master wanted to keep from him and sneak him into the forbidden archives, as they believe the master to making a terrible mistake.
- Sai of Naruto and all other members of Root had seals placed on their tongues to keep them from betraying any of Danzo's information. Should any of them attempt to reveal information about Danzo or root, the seal will activate and permanently paralyze them. However, when Danzo dies, those seals are gone.
- Ahiru in Princess Tutu cannot tell Mytho that she loves him, or else she will disappear in a speck of light. It turns out Ahiru's actual feelings for Mytho are non-romantic, and when she confesses her Platonic Declaration of Love, her alter ego Princess Tutu fades away and her true form, a duckling, lives on.
- In Re:Zero, Subaru's Time Travel - based immortality comes with the catch that if he tries to tell anyone about it, something will go horribly wrong - normally a magical hand crushing his heart until he stops talking, but also monsters appearing to interrupt him, whoever he's trying to tell dropping dead, or anything else that will make sure the secret never gets out. Being Subaru, he weaponizes this.
- Baron Mordo does this to Stephen Strange in order to prevent him from telling the Ancient One of Mordo's treachery. It doesn't prevent him from asking to learn magic himself, however, and once he does so, the Ancient One immediately releases him from the spell, admitting he knew about Mordo all along.
- Poison Ivy did this to the Wayne Foundation board members in one Batman story arc. She used mind control to get them to sign over the Foundation's assets to her and gave them a post-hypnotic suggestion that prevented them from telling anyone what had happened.
- In Mighty Avengers, Cassie learns that "Wanda" is actually Loki in disguise, but he curses her into not telling anyone.
- A staple of fairy tales. While most of the characters doing this to others can't otherwise do magic, oaths are treated as magically binding in fairytale-land - just not keeping them is not an option. Sometimes people get around this by telling their problem to an inanimate object.
- In "The Goose Girl'', a princess whose servant forced her to change places with her talks to the severed head of a horse, which addresses her as princess. This leads to the eventual discovery of the exchange.
- Power Games has a relatively benign example, with the translation function of the characters' Devices being used to replace their names with that of their assumed identities while they are in hiding, to prevent them from accidentally divulging their real names.
- The Discworld fic Why And Were sees two Howondalandian characters literally tongue-tied. They are aware of information which is vital to the plot, but both Clement N'Effabl and Ruth N'Kweze are bound to silence by a magical curse imposed by a native wizard. Both are Howondalandians and were indoctrinated from birth to realise exactly what it means when a Witch-Finder (native magic-user) points the bone at you. Not only potent "boffo" but deadly, on a world where magic is real. while Clement finds a way to finesse the curse and indirectly communicate the information, both need to be exorcised for the curse to be lifted. Then, and only then, they can speak freely. (Whys and Weres on Fan Fic Net).
- In the Danny Phantom/Beetlejuice crossover fanfiction, Say It Thrice, it is established that Betelgeuse cannot say his own name. This is carried over from what was observed in the film.And after his encounter with Aunt Melinda, he can't say Lydia's name.
- One straight example, and one semi-example, in The Keys Stand Alone: The Soft World:
- Straight example: The curse on Durothé means that she cannot communicate in any way, be it voice, gesture, written word, etc. The way to remove the curse is simply to tell her that she's cursed not to be able to communicate—but she has no way of letting you know that. She has to engage in complex maneuverings to get one of the four to tell her the right thing.
- Semi-example: Because it would be disastrous for the four to find out that they're actually in a giant telepathic MMORPG rather than reality, Durothé cast a spell on them when they first arrived so that they would never think or speak about games and gaming. George is particularly affected by this, because he learned a lot of new forms from gaming manuals, so whenever one of the others asks him where he learned these new shapes, he makes jokes or blows them off—and they accept him doing that. After they're pulled out of the game and de-curse Durothé, she tells them about what she did, and he admits that he'd been trying to tell the others about the game books he read, but always got the impression that it was too trivial or silly to mention.
- Several Abbott and Costello films have Costello needed to impart some important information, usually that the movie's villain is nearby. However, while he mimes speaking the words, he's so scared that he cannot make any kind of intelligible sound.
- In the movie Liar Liar; not only does a birthday wish prevent Jim Carrey from telling lies, he also cannot withhold the truth (lying by omission) or even ask a question that he knows will be answered with a lie.
- Tales from Muppetland: The Frog Prince: The princess is cursed to speak in scrambled sentences so that she couldn't unmask the witch. The frog prince is the only one able to understand her, perhaps because he was transformed by the same witch.
- Or because he's halfway competent, given that the princess, whenever asked who cursed her, points at her "Aunt Taminella" while shouting "Tant Aminella! Tant Aminella!" Her father, on the other hand ...
- "Bake the Hall in the Candle of her Brain" is a bit trickier, but manageable ( "Break the ball in the handle of her cane", if you haven't seen it).
- In Fire and Hemlock it is hinted at that Tom Lynn as either been made to promise or been cursed that he will not tell anyone that he is to be given to hell in an exchange for the immortality of someone else. Either that, or it's simply the fact that there are spies watching his every move.
- In the third book of The Immortals, Daine is prevented from telling anyone that there's a goddess running around causing havoc.
- In Ella Enchanted, Ella (who has been given the "gift" of obedience), is ordered to tell no one about this "gift," so of course, she is forced to obey.
- In the third book of Lynn Flewelling's TamÃr Trilogy, the evil wizard puts one of these spells on the girl he forces the prince to marry, so she can't tell the prince of the wizard's machinations, including the fact that she's only a virgin because the wizard magically recreated her hymen.
- The Summer Lady had this once in Jim Butcher's Small Favor; she'd been forbidden to talk about something by the Summer Queen.
- This comes up multiple other times, where someone can magically be forced to not reveal details of something. Depending on the specifics, they can create roundabout ways to give information (such as cryptic clues leading to someone else who can help).
- In Orson Scott Card's Shadow of the Hegemon, Sister Carlotta finds out the particulars of Bean's condition from a scientist who first proposed the theory. The scientist has to be very clever about telling her, because he has been conditioned to have a panic attack whenever he speaks about or even thinks about his old work.
- In Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell, whenever Lady Pole or Stephen Black tries to tell anyone about the gentleman with the thistledown hair, they end up saying something completely unrelated and frequently nonsensical.
- Apparently it's actually stories that almost match up with ancient faerie activities, being The Fair Folk it sounds total nonsense.
- The Aes Sedai in Robert Jordan's The Wheel of Time are unable to lie due to a magical promise on the Oath Rod; consequently, when asked a direct question about a secret, the best they can do is give a misleading but true answer. With the result that many people don't believe them at all, since they know about this oath. There's also reason to believe that the Black Ajah have a magical compulsion against betraying their fellow darkfriends, which is why they can't reveal names even under torture.
- The exact function of the Black Ajah oath is that is prevents them from divulging any of their secrets until the hour of their death. In the thirteenth book, one of them abuses this loophole by poisoning herself so that she can betray the Black Ajah to Egwene.
- Germain from Eric Nylund's A Game of Universe claims to have a Tongue-Tied spell placed on him, so that he can infiltrate a castle without anyone asking too many questions.
- One of the Big Bads (there were three) of Callahan's Lady, written by Spider Robinson, can make anyone do whatever she asks of them, including failing to convey information. Fortunately thinking outside the box/in terms of puns, tends to work very well. "Please do not go down the stairs," is solved by leaping into the dumpster from an upstairs window.
- In Harry Potter the Fidelius Charm might cause this. The charm makes it so that once a secret is entrusted to the Secret Keeper, the only way to discover the secret is for the Secret Keeper to tell you. One effect of this is that if you're told the secret by the Secret Keeper then you can't tell it to anyone else, but canon doesn't establish how this is done. In might do it via Tongue-Tied (which is always how it happens in fanfic), it could cause a Contrived Coincidence to prevent a confession whenever you open your mouth to speak it, or or it could be something else entirely.
- There actually is a literal and Canon example of a tongue-tying charm in Harry Potter. When a Secret Keeper dies, everyone who knows the secret becomes a Secret Keeper. This includes Snape, though he probably wouldn't have told anyway. To prevent him from blabbing, Moody places a literal tongue twister curse on the house, preventing him from revealing its location. Another example, also in book 7, occurs when Voldemort places a taboo on his name, causing Death Eaters to appear whenever anyone speaks it, in a delberate attempt to catch Harry & Co.
- Sheri S. Tepper's The True Game series has an unusual variant: a character is prevented from speaking a certain piece of information, but is perfectly capable of writing it down. However, this bit of Tongue-Tied is contagious: any person who reads the information will be unable to speak it aloud, even if they've never met the beings who laid the Tongue-Tied magic on it.
- In James Thurber's The 13 Clocks, the wicked duke had a curse put on the Princess Saralinda so that she can only say "I wish him well" in the duke's presence.
- Mages in the Heralds of Valdemar series can place this spell on others. Ethical mages will only do it with permission.
- In the Warcraft novel The War of the Ancients, Neltharion casts this spell on a Krasus coming from the future to prevent him from revealing his plans.
- In The Belgariad by David Eddings, the protaganist Belgarion is spied upon by the Grolim Asharak (aka Chamdar) from his childhood days but a magical compulsion prevents him speaking about it until the spell is broken.
- The prophecy that drives the story also has one in The Malloreon. Garion discovers a mysterious blot on his copy of the prophecy that drives him (and later Belgarath) into an uncharacteristic rage of frustration when he looks at it. But look away and its power fades. It turns out to have been the other prophecy tampering with the original prophet: even Belgarath's copy is affected. Garion needed the light of the Orb of Aldur to break the curse.
- In a short story by Selma Lagerlöf, a young girl kidnapped by bandits has to solemnly swear she'll never tell what happened and where they're hiding to anyone. After escaping, she tells how to find them to her cat, while the family's in the room.
- Part of Sophie's curse in Howl's Moving Castle includes the inability to explain or describe the curse to anyone else.
- Non-informational variant: In Master of Five Magics, sorcerers become progressively more Tongue-Tied when they recite their spells, which must be repeated three times without error to be effective. By the third recitation, they're usually struggling desperately to get their lips and tongue to shape the right sounds, not slip up and incur the mystical backlash from a botched spell.
- The title character of Spider's Song is born tongue-tied and mute. He's tongue is "accidentally" cut free by a friend who doesn't remember doing it afterward.
- A Phyllis Eisenstein character was trying to find out who his father was. His father (currently in the form of a young girl and by now a friend) was forbidden to tell anyone, but by silence and elliptical statements managed to make the whole story clear.
- Firebird (Tyers): Firebird inquires about a prophecy Brennen's family is under; in order to be allowed to tell her, he first has to set up a mental block that prevents her from ever revealing the information she learns to anyone else.
- The Laundry Files. The Laundry uses these to ensure its members don't talk about occult matters outside those who have a Need To Know. This causes problems when the protagonist's wife returns from a particularly nasty mission, and he has to get on the phone to the Laundry to get the geas taken off her so she can vent about it.
- In one of Labyrinths of Echo books, the villain has an entire town Tongue-Tied, preventing people from telling the truth. This works quite well... before Juffin asks a victim if he could tell a prefectly opposite lie...
- In Dracula, this is one of the things Count Dracula does to his victim Mina Harker after biting her and forming a Psychic Link so he can spy on the heroes (Dr. Seward observes that her "tongue seems tied" and she seems desperately to want to speak at certain times but can't), undoubtedly to prevent her from turning the tables on him and sharing his plans with her teammates. Unfortunately for the Count, Mina finds a way to break his control during the magically-critical times of sunrise and sunset and provides very helpful Psychic Radar.
- The Radchaai in Ancillary Justice "reeducate" troublesome citizens. This involves the use of powerful drugs to mentally condition a citizen to, for example, be unable to express anger.
- Ship and station AIs can be ordered not to disclose certain facts or discuss certain topics. With high level accesses these orders can be close to absolute, but AIs can drop enough subtle hints that someone paying attention can guess something about what they can't say.
- In Phoenix Rising, a sinister conspiracy is undermining the nation of Evanwyl, and Evanwyl's patron god Myrionar entrusts Kyri Vantage with the task of defeating it. When she goes to ask the advice of Toron, an old family friend who is a high-ranking official in a much larger and more powerful neighboring country, he suggests that he could easily persuade his king to raise an army and come over to sort things out. Kyri likes the idea but finds herself physically incapable of saying so. Toron concludes that Myrionar is preventing her from making the request because It knows of some reason why confronting the problem this way would only make matters worse.
Live Action TV
- In one episode of Angel Lorne returns from a mission to gather information saying, "I can't talk about it. No, literally, they did a spell." He then subverts it by giving it to Angel in writing instead.
- In a Muppet version of The Frog Prince, a princess is cursed to speak in scrambled sentences so that she couldn't tell that the witch who cast the spell is masquerading as the king's sister. The frog prince is the only one able to understand her, perhaps because he was transformed by the same witch.
- Or that Robin had more than two brain cells to rub together. The Princess's father wasn't exactly Einstein, you know.
- In Farscape, after Harvey (Scorpius's mental clone) has to reveal himself to John, he briefly edits his subconscious and makes him unable to talk about it.
- In one episode of Jam, a lift in an office breaks down but the security guard, who has a speech impediment, physically can't get the words out in time to warn people. Several people step into the lift and fall to their deaths because he can't call out to them in time.
- In The Sarah Jane Adventures, the Nightmare Man keeps Luke from ever saying his name to anyone. The protection doesn't apply to cameras, though.
- Raj, in The Big Bang Theory, cannot even begin to talk to a woman unless he is drunk, in which case what he says can be highly inappropriate.
- The Fonz likewise succumbs to this affliction if he ever has to admit to being wrong or say he's sorry.
- Red Dwarf had the quote providing song as a fantasy sequence in one episode.
- The song itself was first aired several years previously in BBC radio comedy Son of Cliche, set to music by Peter Brewis using words written by Brewis and Grant/Naylor.
- Dungeons & Dragons:
- Book of Vile Darkness includes a spell called "Forbidden Speech" which pretty much lets the caster specify one topic that the subject/victim will be unable to talk, write, or even telepathically communicate about.
- In adventure I12 Egg of the Phoenix, High Cleric MacKurian is put under a Geas spell that prevents him from writing or saying the name of the Big Bad.
- Dungeon Magazine articles include a curse that inflicts this effect on a character. The target is stunned (vomiting worms) until the end of the turn they try to communicate the information.
- Exalted has a a similar spell, but in this case, the victim of the spell is subjected to wracking pain and uncontrollable vomiting whenever they try to talk about the forbidden subject. In addition to being much more sadistic, this version is probably less useful, since anyone who's heard of the spell will know that something's up.
- The ritual Plague of Hiccups in Unknown Armies afflicts the victim with a fit of hiccups whenever he speaks a particular phrase. The snag here is that the hiccups don't trigger until after the victim speaks the phrase so it can't completely prevent discussion of the subject, just make it rather inconvenient.
- Exalted also has the Ebon Dragon charm known as "Our Little Secret", in which you can render someone unable to tell anyone about what they saw you doing by making them feel guilt and shame. This can quite specifically only be used when the act in question would horrify the average person in the local culture.
- The plot of Kingdom Hearts II begins when a mysterious thief steals photos from everyone in town. It would be almost mundane, if not for everyone's sudden inability to say the word photo afterward.
- The Ancient Conspiracy of the Metal Gear games inject their agents with nanomachines that cause them to say the nonsensical "La-li-lu-le-lo" when attempting to discuss them. See The Last Days of FOXHOUND example below.
- One of the effects of Doopliss stealing Mario's body in Chapter 4 of Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door is Mario being unable to use his name. When he attempts to tell it to Vivian when she asks for it, she is unable to understand what he is saying (even moreso than we usually do).
- It seemed like it was less of being able to understand him and more of being able to HEAR him - her response seems to indicate that, for example, Mario tried to say something but nothing came out, or it did come out but so quiet that she couldn't hear anything.
- In The Wolf Among Us, Faith answers Bigby's questions about her work and employer with the phrase, "These lips are sealed." When Bigby meets Nerissa, the little mermaid at the nightclub where Faith worked, their conversation suggests that the phrase may be a magical means of keeping the girls quiet. Which is true; the magic is in the ribbon that all the girls at that nightclub wear around their necks. They can't tell anyone about the ribbon or what it does, and if the ribbon is removed, they die.
- Played with in I Have 1 Day: the protagonist is unable to tell a wizard about his curse other than that he's not allowed to say what it is, but the wizard says that there's only one curse that forbids its victims from talking about it, which actually makes it trivial for a wizard knowledgeable in curses to figure out which one it is.
- In The Last Days of FOXHOUND, Revolver Ocelot secretly brainwashes his teammates into being incapable of saying "The Patriots", the secret organization he works for. Instead, it comes out at "LA-LI-LU-LE-LO". The Metal Gear Solid Database would later confirm this to be a correct theory about the source material.
Psycho Mantis: That conniving backstabbing son of a bitch SANTA CLAUS!"
- In Sluggy Freelance, Gwynn curses Torg to make donkey noises when he tries to tell people about the fact that she's using magic again. Unfortunately, her wording was a bit too broad. Not only does he start hee-hawing when he tries to say any important information (like "Zoe, help! Oasis has kidnapped me and taken me to a Poconos Resort to force me to marry her!"), he starts actually turning into a donkey!
- Caused by behavioral conditioning as an elaborate joke in this xkcd comic.
- In one Nodwick storyline, Nodwick is cursed by two cultists so that his head will explode if he reveals a secret. Then he's inflicted with a second curse by two other cultists that will turn his brain into spinach-artichoke dip if he spills another secret. Eventually, Piffany uses magic to make him talk which activates both curses at the same time, which causes the creature leading the cult to say, "This is why I have to keep firing the help." (Fortunately for Nodwick, Piffany fixes him by the next installment like she always does.)
- In the Erfworld story "Inner Peace Through Superior Firepower", Charlie make the "Deal of a Lifetime" with a number of other characters. One of the terms is a magically imposed inability to share any of secrets they have learned about him.
- More generally, Parson Gotti, who has been transported to Erfworld from a more normal reality, discovers that the world imposes censorship on him, substituting tamer words for any 'obscene' words he tries to use. It's a mark of how deeply emotional he is when he is able to utter a single uncensored curse word — as well as an implication that he may be partially immune to at least some of the rules that govern Erfworld's reality.
- If the servants in Leif & Thorn try to say anything that would incite conspiracy against the Embassy, they get zapped with pain.
- Miriam of Making the Cut is forced to not tell any of her friends that's she's been turned into a vampire, and the vampires are forcing her to be their spy.
- One episode of The Amazing World of Gumball has incompetent guidance counselor Mr. Small accidentally doing this to Gumball and Darwin: when his attempts to break them from lying fail, he resorts to traumatizing them into silence with a puppet. Then he stumbles into the drawer of his own filing cabinet and gets locked inside. Gumball and Darwin try to help, but they're incapable of verbalizing what's going on to anyone...
- In The Beatles episode "We Can Work It Out," George has trouble saying "Soothsayer to the stars" when said professional, Mr. Lucky Wizard, presents his calling card to him.
- The Fairly OddParents! has an instance of this when Chester desperately tries to tell Timmy's Mom and Timmy's Dad that Vicky is evil. Every time he tries to do this however, a shock bracelet that she apparently attached to his leg electrocutes him brutally. He keeps trying until all of his hair is burned off and his body is covered with black soot. Each time the parents keep asking him to spit it out but eventually he gives up completely, at which point the device that tortured him gives him a piece of Cheese.
- It's implied on Steven Universe that something is keeping Pearl from talking about the Gem War. When she tries to reveal some information to Steven in the episode "Gemcation", her hand clamps over her mouth and judging from how she struggles to remove it, it's a completely involuntary reaction.
- Non-disclosure agreements.
- Also known as "gag orders."
- In English law, injunctions, super-injunctions, and hyper-injunctions. Injunctions prevent the media from reporting on some particular thing, such as the identity of a person bringing a lawsuit. Super-injunctions prevent the media from reporting on even the existence of the injunction. And hyper-injunctions prevent a person from so much as discussing the matter in question with journalists, lawyers, or Members of Parliament. Their use is highly controversial, and some MPs have used parliamentary privilege to violate these injunctions and thus allow the media to report on them.
- Selective mutism (a form of social anxiety) can manifest this way, rendering someone unable to talk when they are uncomfortable with the subject to be discussed or the person they are speaking to.