Literature: The Pilgrim's Regress
Here there be dragons.The Pilgrim's Regress
is an allegorical
novel by C. S. Lewis
, dramatizing the process of his conversion
from Atheism to Christianity and defending his love for Romanticism
in literature and music. It was his first published work of fiction, and his first writing after his conversion.
The story traces the wanderings of an Everyman
character named John, who leaves his boyhood home in Puritania
in search of a beautiful island that has haunted him in visions since childhood. Accompanied by his traveling companion Vertue, John journeys through bizarre lands and encounters many characters and monsters that represent various philosophical and ideological movements that were in vogue in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Eventually, though, John begins to realize uncomfortably that his quest for the Island might be taking him back toward his abandoned belief in the existence of the Landlord
The title, of course, is a play on the title
of John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress
Tropes present in this book:
- Action Girl: Reason, who appears as a Knight in Shining Armor. At one point she kills a giant; at a climactic moment John realizes he has no chance of beating her in a fair fight.
- Allegory: In spades! Despite some critics saying that The Chronicles of Narnia is "allegorical," by the way, this book is the only proper allegory Lewis wrote. (Narnia is applicability.)
- Author Tract: If only there was some way of telling whether C. S. Lewis appreciated Romanticism...
- Big Creepy-Crawlies: Scorpions the size of lobsters are prominently mentioned among the torments of the black pit.
- Boring Return Journey: Played with. After John's conversion, he realizes that the only way to reach his island was east of his old home, and he's been traveling roughly west for his entire journey. (Hence the word "regress" in the title.) The narrative doesn't skip over John's return journey, but it's much shorter (both in time and in number of pages) than the trip out. Heading west, John had wandered and meandered quite a bit, but heading east, he sticks to the straight and narrow path to his destination. And on the trip back, he finds the landscape has completely changed—or rather, because of his conversion, he sees the world as it truly is for the first time.
- Dragon Hoard: "...the Northern dragon is so greedy that his anxiety for his gold hardly lets him sleep."
- The Everyman: John, the pilgrim of the title. However, Lewis later realized that his own journey to faith (represented in John's journey) was a lot more personal and idiosyncratic than he had assumed.
- Evil Stole My Faith: As a child, John abandons his belief in the Landlord on the grounds that he can't be loving yet punish people with a pit of snakes and scorpions.
- The Fundamentalist: The inhabitants of Puritania, including John's parents and family. John quickly grows to reject their beliefs as Holier Than Thou.
- God: Allegorized as "the Landlord."
- Get It Over With: John meets Death in a mountain pass on a stormy night. John realizes that it has been the fear of death that has motivated him his entire life. Death hammers home that he only has two choices:
"What am I to do?" said John.
"Which you choose," said the Voice. "Jump, or be thrown. Shut your eyes, or have them bandaged by force. Give in or struggle."
"I would sooner do the first, if I could."
"Then I am your servant and no more your master. The cure of death is dying. He who lays down his liberty in that act receives it back."
- Honor Before Reason: Vertue considers himself bound to follow his personal code of rules, but he is stumped when asked why he has the particular rules he does. They're just rules, so he just follows them.
- Instant Awesome, Just Add Dragons: Well, why shouldn't Romanticisim and Enlightenment be allegorized as dragon for our heroes to slay?
- It's Not Porn, It's Art: The singer in question is Mr. Phally, who is squeezed in between Victoriana and Glugly. John is considered to have made a major social faux pas when he questions why the music arouses perverse lustful thoughts.
- Lust: Sexual temptation is personified in the "Brown Girls."
- Literary Allusion Title: To John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, of course. Lewis makes it a Perspective Flip as the title character has to find his way back to a belief in reason and God, unlike Bunyan's story which begins with the conversion.
- Our Dragons Are Different: The Northern dragon is made of ice and the Southern dragon is made of fire. Both of them have to be killed in different ways.
- Our Giants Are Bigger: The "Spirit of the Age," a form of Freudian pop psychology that discredits anything to do with reasoning or beauty or faith as unrealistic wish fulfillment, is portrayed as a giant the size and shape of of a mountain.
- Outgrown Such Silly Superstitions: Mr. Enlightenment and his son naturally take this view.
- Popcultural Osmosis Failure: In the preface to the third edition, C. S. Lewis acknowledged that, within just a decade or two after the book was published, the prevailing philosophical schools of thought had shifted so much that many of his references became almost completely obscure to later readers. He added a running series of page headers to explain some of them.
- Put Them All Out of My Misery: The northern dragon is heard praying for God to destroy all the other creatures in the world so that he won't have to guard his nest.
- The Quest: John's pilgrimage is in search of the Beautiful Island, which nobody else seems to believe exists.
- Reference Overdosed: Boy howdy! Whole books have been written trying to list all of the allusions and references and allegorizations that appear. Here's one website that attempts it.
- Romanticism Versus Enlightenment: Lewis comes down firmly on the side of Romanticism, but insists that reasoning is also an essential part of the process. A healthy balance between the two is key.
- That Reminds Me of a Song: Throughout the book, characters take opportunities to recite poetry.
- True Art Is Angsty: Parodied oddly. Victoriana's poetry is not particularly angsty, except perhaps in a "the good times are over" nostalgic way. Victoriana, however, is angsty; she assumes everyone is persecuting her (which therefore makes her a great artist, because all great artists are persecuted) and slaps, then whines at, anyone who isn't effusively complimentary about her work.
- True Art Is Incomprehensible: Also parodied with the singing of Glugly, who cannot speak owing to an accident at birth, so just babbles and makes rude noises. She gets rave reviews from all the critics.
- Viewers Are Geniuses: Lewis was writing for an academic audience that was closely familiar with the philosophical, intellectual, and artistic movements of the 1930s. You may want one of the editions with footnotes.
- World of Symbolism: Did we mention it's an allegory? In the map of the world, "South" and "North" represent the two extremes of Romanticism Versus Enlightenment respectively. The further in each direction you go, the more you get to extremist philosophies. The path of Reason runs right down the middle.
- The War on Straw: In an introduction to a later edition of the book, Lewis admits that his younger self wasn't entirely fair to all the ideologies he was criticizing at the time.
- You Keep Using That Word:
- Again in the introduction to the third edition, Lewis surveys several differing meanings of the word "Romantic" and determines that none of them meant exactly what he was getting at in the book. (He was trying to describe a longing for beauty or Sehnsucht, which he personally often found in "romantic" art.) He concludes that the word is far too ambiguous and should be avoided.
- He also observes that having a character named "Mother Kirk" made it seem (wrongly) that he was arguing for a specific ecclesiastical position, when in fact he only chose it because he thought "Christianity" was an unconvincing character name.