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- Darker Than Black has an example of this with the Contractor Bertha - when a normal person, she was a chain smoker and her baby choked to death on some of her cigarettes she left lying around. In the series, Contractors are people with powers who have a Renumeration (something they need to do after using their powers). Hers is eating and regurgitating something, but as a constant reminder of her carelessness, she chooses to eat and regurgitate cigarettes.
- Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's has criminals given an electronic tag that takes the form of a face marking.
- In Samurai Champloo, Mugen has blue bands tattooed around his wrists and ankles, indicating that he had served time in a prison colony on Ryukyu. In Edo-era Japan, when the show is set, prisoners were often given such tattoos. Possibly averted in that the tattoos themselves aren't shown as stigmatizing in any way, or indeed worthy of any mention. The warrant for escaping an execution by faking his own death, numerous former opponents bent on revenge, and his own habit of entering lethal combat with anyone, anywhere, however, is another story entirely.
- In Fruits Basket, Saki Hanajima starts wearing black all the time to remind herself of her "sins", mainly the time when she almost killed a boy who was bullying her. It has the unfortunate side effect of making her look even more like a "witch", which was what got her bullied in the first place.
- In Astro City, The Confessor is a sort of Batman expy with clerical motifs who is a vampire and in life was a priest. He did something evil once and so as penance wears a crucifix even though as a vampire it causes him pain.
- Marvel Comics' post-Civil War member of the Thunderbolts, named Penance, wears a suit made of spikes that charges his pain-based superpowers. Originally, he was the Fun Personified hero Speedball who changed his identity after he thought he had caused an explosion that killed hundreds of people. Even after it was revealed that it wasn't his fault, he kept the suit, and seemed to fall into parody Darker and Edgier territory.
- Occasionally done in The Beano and The Dandy in the 1950s-1980s with characters slippering (In these two comics it was common for an ending of a strip to involve the character being beaten on their behind with a slipper for their misdeeds) themselves instead of their parents or other authority figure doing it.
- In the movie The Mission, Captain Mendoza kills his brother in a sword duel, and realizes what he has done to so many Guarani natives. He spends the next 10 minutes climbing up a waterfall with 50 kg of heavy armor tied to his back. Father Gabriel watches him, decides he has atoned for his sins, and makes him a Jesuit missionary.
- The Scarlet Letter was borne by the book's female lead, Hester Prynne, for her adulterous dalliance with Arthur Dimmesdale, who self-flagellates for his own sins.
- Older Than Print: Several stories about Sir Gawain, one of the Knights of the Round Table, involve a version of this in which he wears some clothing or marks his shield as a mark of shame, and as a nice gesture, the other knights adopt the same marker. One version has him doing this after accidentally killing a woman and in the romance Sir Gawain and the Green Knight he does this to atone for cowardly behavior.
- Another old example is in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, where he wears the dead albatross around his neck and is compelled to tell his story in order to atone.
- For a non-voluntary example, the Remade of Perdido Street Station and other books in that universe.
- One L. M. Montgomery short story talks about a lighthearted young woman who believes that she has accidentally killed her responsible older sister by a drug overdose; the young woman spends fourteen years abstaining from all the things she loves (like music, parties, and the man she's in love with) and dedicates herself to as much hardship and work as she can, to do penance.
- The book Atonement is this trope - Briony writes the book after she grows up to attempt to atone for her sins.
- Silas in The Da Vinci Code repeatedly whips himself, wears a leg bracelet that's made of barbed wire that digs into his leg, and a whole bunch of other painful things to apparently atone for killing the people he kills over the course of the book. Subverted, as he's a bad guy.
- Aes Sedai in The Wheel of Time series will assign themselves a Penance for transgressions of White Tower law or custom. This can range from performing menial tasks better suited to lower ranked Novices to corporal punishment a la spanking. Egwene manages to treat her capture by Elaida and subsequent attempts to break her spirit, thereby breaking the rebellion as a form of Penance.
- Vorkosigan Saga: At one time Miles Vorkosigan sentenced an infanticide to have her property rights stripped away and be considered legally dead as an alternative to hanging. The book seems to have some pity for her as she was caught offguard by changing times, but nonetheless she clearly deserved it and it was necessary to give a sharp reminder that disabled people were not to be killed out of hand anymore.
- In the Chivalric Romance Gowther and Robert the Devil, the main character lives as The Jester and puts up with endless abuse as penance for his sins.
Live Action TV
- Torchwood. Twice in one episode. In the series 2 finale
- 1). Jack Harkness lets his brother Gray bury him alive for nearly two thousand years because he feels guilt over letting him fall into enemy hands as a child. He even mentions this trope by name in dialogue.
- 2). Jack's ex-partner John, who Gray made bury Jack, joins forces with Torchwood afterwards and subjugated himself to Gray's wrath again.
- The Alfred Lord Tennyson poem "St. Simeon Stylites" goes into the mind of a Christian saint, Simeon Stylites, who sat on a high pillar for thirty-seven years to atone for his sins. Subverted, however, in that the poem more than implies that Simeon's gesture is founded out of pride just as much as out of guilt.
"Have mercy, mercy, wash away my sin."
- In Warhammer 40,000, the Imperium's Ecclesiarchy has two notable instances that show up in models for the game:
- The first are the Sisters Repentia, Sisters of Battle who have committed egregious sins and are outcasts from their Orders. They are ceremonially stripped of their armor and weapons, dressed in rags (if that much), have their hair shorn, and wade into battle wielding only huge chainswords to seek redemption, which usually only comes by dying in combat.
- The second, and the more severe, is to be condemned to become the pilot of a Penitent Engine, a fate reserved for fallen priests and Battle Sisters who have committed crimes too grievous to merit becoming Sisters Repentia. They are essentially crucified on the front of a walking gun platform, hard-wired to the machine through invasive cybernetics that bombard their minds with sensations of guilt and sorrow, and are sent into battle to die for their crimes with no other chance for forgiveness.
- Beside the Ecclesiarchy, many institutions turn offenders into a servitor as a common punishment for crimes deemed particularly egregious, but not heinous enough to warrant a death sentence or worse-than-death sentence. Getting servitored usually entails extensive and invasive cybernetics placed at least in the brain, sometimes with a lobotomy thrown into the deal for good measure. All servitors are little more than Empty Shells devoid of peronsality or sentiment, and used mostly as a robotic labor drone. Note that most servitors are vat grown rather than an legion of petty criminals (we think).
- Then there are arco-flagellants, who undergo a process similar to servitoring, but much of their body is augmented with combat cybernetics. They have their hands replaced by shock whips and power scourges, get internal pumps full of combat drugs, and have a helmet fused onto their head which keeps them at peace and near comatose while at rest. Once their activation phrase is triggered and they go into combat mode, and... One particular case of this was an Imperial official who went rather...batty after a time and committed several atrocities. When he was apprehended, it was commented that death wouldn't suffice as a punishment; and he was sentenced to become an arco-flagellant and spend the rest of his days as a killing machine fighting the Emperor's enemies.
- The Arbiter from Halo does this. After being held responsible for the destruction of the titular setting in the first game, he's branded with a mark of shame in the involuntary variety.
- Glory from Shadowrun Returns: Dragonfall replaced both her arms with cybernetics, ripping most of her soul out in the process, as penance for having killed her mother while under the influence of her mentor spirit.
- In the My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic episode "Do Princesses Dream Of Magic Sheep?", Princess Luna is revealed to have created the Tantabus to continuously turn all of her dreams into nightmares as a self-induced punishment for her stint as Nightmare Moon. This backfires horribly when it decides Luna's dreams alone are not enough...
- Truth in Television: many Real Life societies have inflicted punishments such as branding, tattooing, severing of limbs, etc., all for the purpose of stigmatizing criminals. Some still do.
- Inverted by a former white supremacist who went through the very painful process of having his racist face tattoos removed.
- Catholicism still recommends some sort of mild punishment as another way to observe Lent (let's say for example, depriving oneself from his or her favourite dessert or TV show or wearing very modest clothing).
- The traditional folk-punishment for suspected wifebeaters in the South was "the rough music" meaning to gather around his house and clang pots and pans or other noisy implements until he became so exasperated as to leave town.