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- In a lesser form, in The World God Only Knows the demons of new hell "restart"(later, they simply changed them) the memories of the girls who's holes got closed.
- Darker Than Black: Gemini of The Meteor features a faction of the military that serves as this for people whom get into contact with the super-powered Contractors. Witnesses that prove too difficult to catch are simply killed.
- All of the shinigami in Bleach carry around a neuralizer-style device to replace the memories of anyone who gets a glimpse of their activities. They can't control what memories replace the real ones.
- In Yamada-kun and the Seven Witches, each witch group has a so-called "seventh witch" who can erase an individual's memories related to the witches, and such she may be used for this purpose by the student council or choose to dedicate herself to the purpose.
- Digimon Savers has DATS, an organization responsible for keeping Digimon a secret from normal people. Memory-wiping via a neutralizer-type device is how they deal with any potential witnesses.
- In the Touhou Film Comic Osana Reimu, Yukari goes around to erase everyone's memories of Rumia post-sealing. In most cases it's so that Rumia will be allowed to live a new life, but Reimu is a special case because she's too young to cope with the harsh reality of what happened to her mother and her friend.
- Also happens to Rumia herself as a part of her seal, locking her memories away so she isn't crushed by grief.
- In the Lilo & Stitch/Star Trek crossover Starlight, this task is performed by Dulmer and Lucsly from Temporal Investigations, although in this case it's to rectify the timeline.
- One of the main characters of the Harry Potter fanfic The Ollivander Children, Linus, is an Obliviator working for the Ministry of Magic.
Films — Animated
- In The Incredibles, the government had a team like that, that would come in and wipe memories and implant new ones when an undercover Super would screw up and use his powers in the open.
Rick Dicker: "We have to pay to keep the company quiet, pay damages, erase memories..."
Films — Live-Action
- Men in Black is probably the best example. Individual MIB teams had the neuralizer, which could wipe memories for a set amount of time and leave them in a hypnotic state so that new memories could be implanted. While they could often do the jobs themselves, and indeed it was part of their function, for larger memory fixing they could call in special task forces that would come out, neuralize large numbers of people, plant evidence, etc.
- In Men in Black II they even use a gigantic neuralizer hidden in the Statue of Liberty, capable of wiping the memories of all New York City.
- Lacuna Inc, from Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind are a non-MIB version, removing memories of bad relationships. They would even set up in the client's home so they would wake up without any idea that something had happened.
- Discussed in The Adjustment Bureau. The adjusters mention an Intervention Team that takes care of the memory resetting.
- Paycheck has Ben Affleck's character routinely undergo memory erasure by his best friend in order to hide his reverse-engineering activities from the authorities (even though reverse engineering is not technically illegal), who have the same memory-scanning devices. Later, the job is performed by The Dragon.
- The Temporal Corps of Simon Hawkes' Time Wars do this to any locals who get involved with them, though they made an exception for Jules Verne. Not wanting to interfere with the mysterious processes of creativity and stop him writing the books he was supposed to, he kept his memories of time travellers and submarines and such.
- In the Harry Potter stories, if a wizard lost control and accidentally used his powers (or some other event that would endanger the safety of the wizarding world), the Ministry of Magic would dispatch a special group called Obliviators to see to it that people's memories of the event were altered.
- In the Artemis Fowl series, the fairies can wipe the memories of any humans who learn about them, as they do to Artemis and his friends at the end of the third book (they all get better). There are even two different techniques they use. One is a block wipe, which just takes out a huge chunk of memory, but the longer the interval of time taken out, the greater chance there is for permanent mental damage. The other is a fine-tuned wipe which removes specific events, people, etc., but takes a lot longer than a block wipe.
- In Shaman of the Undead the WON has "oblivion sowers" and "memory sowers", whose function is respectively erasing and implanting false memories to uphold The Masquerade. They work as regular psychologists, too.
- In Red Handed, the Alien Investigation and Removal agency does this to recruits who don't make the cut.
- In Memento Nora by Angie Smibert, there is a memory wiping company to erase memories of the frequent terrorist attacks. The book revolves around the main characters trying to remember those memories.
- Seraphina: The Censors are this for saarantrai which involves trimming the brain's grey matter.
- In Sixth Watch, the characters wonder how extremely important information about the origins and true nature of the Others could have been hidden or forgotten. It was the Great Others themselves, who have wiped their own and others' memories in order to keep that knowledge from interfering with their plans for a perfect world. One, a witch, has managed to retain the memories by imparting them onto an artifact. Her memories were restored as soon as she touched it.
Live Action TV
- Occasionally on Star Trek: The Next Generation when the crew would accidentally expose themselves (so to speak) to races that weren't ready for interstellar communication, the doctors would somehow do a little surgery to make those memories go away - basically an Alien Abduction. Dr. Pulaski was more prone to doing it than Dr. Crusher.
- The Cleaners in Charmed. In order to keep magic a secret from humanity they remove the memories of anyone who sees a supernatural event. They're capable of Retconning reality to the extent of undoing a person's birth, and yet only appeared in one episode relatively late in the show. So where were they all those other times the masquerade was threatened?
- The implication is that they're a new institution to deal with the many, many breaches caused by the Charmed ones.
- UFO. The SHADO organization captures people who see real UFOs and has its medical department use a drug to erase their recent memories, thus preventing the public from learning about UFO attacks.
- The Troop has a little alien whose song causes short-term memory loss so they can cover breaches of The Masquerade. However, ordinary ear plugs can protect one from the effect.
- In Heroes, The Haitian is this.
- One episode of Kolchak: The Night Stalker had Kolchak narrating the events into a tape recorder, because the government had done this to him, and it hadn't quite taken, or rather not all at once. His memory of the incident was fading rapidly, and he had to make the recording while he still remembered most of the details.
- The Memory Police in Ultraman Nexus, who erased the memories of people who saw the Space Beast and Ultraman Nexus.
- Torchwood frequently administers a drug called Retcon to people who stumble across aliens. Though they stopped bothering to cover up the big events after the Sycorax invasion.
- Hunter: The Vigil: As Task Force VALKYRIE are effectively The Men in Black, there's a good number of members dedicating to dosing witnesses of supernatural events with "Munin Serum," a chemical cocktail that clouds memories.
- Any kindred in Vampire: The Masquerade with Dominate 3 can be a one-vamp memory wiping crew. Not only can they make the victim forget, they can implant false memories. However, these memories don't always stay undone...
- A typically dark example from Warhammer 40,000. Since admitting the existence of an elite army of demon slayers would be admitting that there are such things as demons, the Imperium treats the Grey Knights as a state secret enforced by specially-trained psykers. Other space marines who fight alongside them go through a lengthy memory-scrubbing afterwards, while Imperial Guardsmen who distinguish themselves are subjected to a hasty process that is both painful and often fatal. Everyone else is just executed. An especially notable example was after the first war for Armageddon; after the invasion was driven off, the entire population of the planet was sterilized and worked to death in concentration camps.
- In Eclipse Phase Firewall, Project Ozma, and Titanian intelligence all have agents that erase memories with psychosurgery or drugs. Though given the ubiquity of Body Backup Drives in the setting it's just as frequent that they simply kill someone and revert them to a backup made before they saw whatever they saw.
- In Sam & Max season 2, Agent Superball will emphatically deny time travel, even though the machine is parked right in the room. Any continued discussion of it will provoke him to employ his hypnotic, memory wiping powers. This is used for a puzzle later.
- In the first "Knights of the Old Republic", the Player Character's memory is wiped out before the start of the game and replaced with another.
- In Ib, after Garry finds out Mary is really a painting, the dolls capture him and force him to play a game with them. If he loses, they make him forget what he learned about Mary.
- The SCP Foundation: "Class A Amnestic administered to all survivors."
- One "tale" horrifically subverts this, in that "Class A amnestics" are just what agents put down on reports to make themselves feel better. The actual memory loss is caused by a Torture Technician via Mind Rape and beating witnesses until they no longer remember what happened. Thankfully, the not-quite-canon nature of the SCP tales lets you decide whether this is true or not.
- Professor X often plays this role in early versions of the X-Men such as X-Men: Evolution, wiping memories when The Masquerade has been blown. During an episode of Evolution where the Brotherhood show off their powers in the middle of a school football game, he dangerously overexerts his powers by modifying the memory of every spectator. Naturally, the one person whose mind he doesn't completely wipe is Principal Kelly...
- Played with in Phineas and Ferb The Movie: Across the 2nd Dimension. The OWCA doesn't have any memory-erasing tools, so they just steal the villain's amnesia-inator.
- Gravity Falls has The Society of the Blind Eye, a cult dedicated to erasing traumatic memories the townsfolk have of the various bizarre creatures that live in the town.