Literature: The Forsyte Saga
The Forsyte Saga
is a series by English novelist John Galsworthy, detailing three (arguably four) generations of an upper-middle-class Victorian family from the 1880s through to the mid-1920s.
The nouveau riche
Forsytes are chiefly concerned with property, wealth and the family, though it is their obsession with property that is the underlying theme of the saga. Property comes in many forms, and the character of Soames Forsyte loses almost every form of property that his kind values — first his beautiful wife Irene abandons him (with good reason), then he is forced to sell the house he commissioned as a way of isolating her; finally, his chance of having a son is extinguished forever when his second wife, Annette, gives birth to a daughter after a difficult labour and can no longer bear children — thus even his name is taken out of his hands, as no one will bear it once he dies.
Therefore Soames, and many other Forsytes, are forced to learn to let go — not only of property, but also of grudging feelings and the past.
The saga is an example of the decrease of moral lessons being pressed onto the reader, as all characters have shades of grey and can be assigned motivations for even the most selfish of their actions. Soames, for example, commits the most despicable act in the book, and yet the reader can still sympathise with his character.
The original trilogy, dealing mainly with Soames' generation, consists of The Man of Property
, In Chancery
and To Let
. A second trilogy, dealing with Soames' daughter Fleur and her contemporaries, includes The White Monkey
, The Silver Spoon
and Swan Song
. Galsworthy later completed the saga with a trio of novels about the Cherrells (Charwells), who are related to the Forsytes by marriage - Maid In Waiting
, Flowering Wilderness
and Over the River
The books spawned two British television serials. The first version starred Eric Porter, Nyree Dawn Porter, and Kenneth More. It was broadcast in 1967 to great acclaim, and drew in 18 million viewers every Sunday when it was repeated a year later. The second adaptation starred Damian Lewis as Soames and first aired in 2002. There is also a 1949 film, That Forsyte Woman
, starring Errol Flynn and Janet Leigh. And in case anyone's interested, there was also a 1990 BBC Radio
The Forsyte Saga contains examples of:
- Aerith and Bob: The Forsytes are fond of giving weird names to their children. The founder of the family was named Jolyon, and in every next generation the eldest son of a Jolyon is also named Jolyon. Other members of the family have names like Soames or Swithin, while others have more common names like James or Ann.
- Alliterative Name:
- Soames's daughter Fleur Forsyte.
- Fleur's suitor and husband Michael Mont.
- Author Avatar: The author of the saga, Galsworthy, fell in love with his cousin's wife, had an affair, and then married her on her divorce ten years later. Irene is largely based on this woman - Ada Pearson. In turn, this means that Young Jolyon is essentially a representation of Galsworthy.
- Babies Make Everything Better: Pops up at two crucial points in the plot. In The White Monkey, when Fleur and Michael's marriage is floundering, things get better after Fleur finds out she's pregnant, and gives birth to the grandson that Soames always wanted. In Swan Song, Jon - torn between Fleur and his wife Anne - finally chooses the latter when she tells him she's pregnant.
- Betty and Veronica: In Swan Song, Jon must choose between his glamorous, exciting First Love, Fleur Forsyte, and his gentle Southern belle of a wife, Anne. His solution? Have a brief fling with Fleur, and then return to Anne when he learns she's pregnant. What the Hell, Hero?, indeed.
- Broken Bird: Irene, for most of the saga. June and Fleur both come close.
- Byronic Hero: Wilfred Desert, a friend of Michael's who first falls in love with Fleur, then leaves for Arabia, and returns to break Dinny Cherrell's heart in the final trilogy. He's handsome, writes controversial poetry, and flies in the face of moral and religious conventions.
- Cheerful Child: Fleur and Michael's son Christopher (Kit), from what we see of him.
- Country Mouse: Jon's wife, Anne Wilmot.
- Crazy Jealous Guy: Soames over Irene.
- Daddy's Girl: Fleur.
- Dances and Balls: A couple, as you would expect for a costume drama. There's a particularly important one in the first part of the saga, when Bosinney and Irene pretty much display their attraction for all to see - much to the heartbreak of June and jealous fury of Soames.
- Deadpan Snarker: George Forsyte, who according to his family is 'very droll' (even on his deathbed, when asked by his butler if he would like the Vicar to come in and see him, he replies: "No. Give him my regards and tell him I'll see him at the funeral."), and to some extent Phillip Bosinney, who often pokes fun at the stuffy Forsytes (though whether they all realise they're being made fun of is another matter).
- Death by Falling Over: Montague Dartie, who fell down the stairs of a disreputable house in Paris.
- Domestic Abuser: Soames — and it changes the course of events forever.
- Although this is also offers a case of Values Dissonance caused by the passage of time. Soames' actions would have been seen as legitimate at the time, although some of the characters disapprove.
- Dogged Nice Guy: Michael Mont.
- Driven to Suicide: Philip Bosinney, arguably. After he learns of what Soames has done to Irene, he wanders the streets of the city in a distraught state, and is finally run over by a carriage. The official verdict is death by accident, but it's left ambiguous.
- Embarrassing First Name: Publius Valerius Dartie, son of Winifred Forsyte and Montague Dartie. He is constantly teased and called "Pubby" at school, and goes by "Val" in adult life.
- Feuding Families: The backbone of the saga is the feud between two branches of the Forsyte clan.
- Good Adultery, Bad Adultery:
- Young Jolyon had an affair with her daughter's governess and ran away with her, and they later married. Mostly leaning to Good Adultery, since Jolyon is the hero and his first wife was a shrew. Sadly, he wasn't that happy with his second wife Heléne because her temper wasn't very steady and she was said to be jealous even of her own daughter Holly.
- Irene has an affair with Philip Bosinney. She tried to escape a loveless marriage and she's described as beautiful and utterly good woman, but the story also shows her devastated husband and Bosinney's fiancée June, who was Irene's friend.
- Gold Digger: Montague Dartie marries Winifred for her money, and both Irene and Annette marry Soames for his.
- Gossipy Hens: The old Aunts - Hester, Juley and Ann. Their house is known within the family as 'Forsyte 'Change', and it is commonly acknowledged as the best place to hear family gossip.
- Happily Married:
- Young Jolyon and Irene
- Val and Holly Dartie
- Heir Club for Men: Most of "In Chancery" is concerned with Soames' desire for a son.
- Heroic BSOD: Bosinney; see Driven to Suicide above.
- Ice Queen: Subverted, in that Irene only appeared to be cold and unfeeling while unhappily married to Soames.
- Informed Attractiveness: Due to the fact that Galsworthy praises Irene's beauty to improbable levels, even comparing her to Venus on more than one occasion, any actress taking on the role of Irene runs the risk of encountering this trope. The criticism was levelled at Gina McKee when she was cast in the 2002 adaptation.
- I Want Grandkids: Both James and his son Soames. James, unfortunately, dies before he can see his grandchild Fleur, but Soames lives long enough to see his grandson.
- I Want My Beloved to Be Happy: Michael Mont, who is content to play second fiddle in Fleur's affections as long as he can be there for her. He knows very well that she's married him on the rebound, but treats her with kindness throughout, even after he learns that she's been unfaithful to him with Jon.
- Kissing Cousins: And more than once! Val and Holly, Jon and Fleur, and perhaps even Irene and Young Jolyon, who were cousins by marriage.
- Kudzu Plot: Well, the actual plot may be quite simple when you strip away all the non-essential details. But it still can be very hard to keep track of among all the long descriptions of the Forsytes' daily lives and their thoughts. The fact that there are Loads and Loads of Characters doesn't help either.
- Loads and Loads of Characters: The original saga alone covers four generations of the Forsyte family.
- Love Hurts: The entire Forsyte Saga is filled with this trope:
- George Forsyte comes upon his lover embracing another man, and remains a cynical bachelor till the day he dies.
- Young Jolyon marries his first wife on the rebound from an unhappy affair, then leaves her for his daughter's governess.
- Soames is madly in love with Irene, but even after they marry, she is not in love with him, and finally finds it impossible to stay. His second wife, Annette, also marries him for his money and position.
- June Forsyte's fiance, Philip Bosinney, leaves her for Soames' wife Irene, and eventually dies, either accidentally or as a suicide.
- Winifred Forsyte marries Montague Dartie for love - and Montague is a compulsive gambler who sponges off her for money, is often drunk and abusive, and finally leaves her for an "exotic dancer".
- Jon and Fleur are in love, but are separated because of the feud between their parents.
- Michael Mont loves Fleur, and marries her, but knows that Fleur's heart still belongs to Jon.
- Bicket, a packer in Michael's publishing company, steals to save his wife who is ill with pneumonia, and ends up getting caught and losing his job.
- Jon's wife, Anne Wilmot, suffers in silence as she watches him rekindle his relationship with Fleur.
- Dinny Cherrell and Wilfred Desert have to separate, because some of Wilfred's actions, such as converting to Islam, make him a social outcast.
- Love Martyr: Winifred still loves husband Monty even after he runs up countless debts, cheats on her and steals her pearls to give to a Spanish dancer. He runs off with the dancer to Buenos Aires, comes back in disgrace, and Winifred allows him to remain with her if he promises to behave. Judging by his suspicious death in a 'disreputable house' in Paris, and Fleur's memory of him having once pinched her 'in a curving place' while she was still quite young, he clearly made little effort to change his ways. Still, Winifred speaks fondly of him even after his death.
- Love Redeems:
- Soames dies thwarting Fleur's suicide attempt. Although Young Jolyon, Irene and June say he is incapable of selfless love, he proves them wrong in the end.
- A less dramatic but more heartwarming example is Val Dartie, son of Montague Dartie. He seems to be following in his father's footsteps - gambling and getting in with a "fast" crowd - but when he falls in love with his cousin Holly, she acts as a steadying influence, and they remain Happily Married, while Val takes up horse-breeding as a career.
- Make Up or Break Up: The whole of In Chancery is about this: should Soames move on with life, marry the younger Annette and have an heir, or try to win back the woman he's never ceased to love?
- Marital Rape License: Soames and Irene.
- Momma's Boy: Jon is accused of being one of these by Fleur because he chooses his mother over his love for her. In fact, Jon is rather naive and somewhat deferential to both of his parents, especially in contrast to the wayward and headstrong Fleur - another example of the times changing.
- Moral Dissonance: There's a lot of moral dissonance here, mostly caused by the influence of author avatar. For example, Irene marries Soames for his money, even though she knows he is desperately in love with her. She later cheats on him with her best friend's fiance. In the book, she expresses no remorse, and the 'good' characters hold no ill-will towards her. Even in the adaptations, she still gets very sympathetic treatment. Also, Young Jolyon is very big on duty and responsibility when guilt-tripping his son, Jon - but wasn't so keen when he ditched his wife and young daughter and shacked up with the governess.
- My God, What Have I Done?: Jon in Swan Song, after cheating on his wife with Fleur.
- No Accounting for Taste: Winifred decides to 'keep' her husband Monty, despite him being a drunken bounder.
- No Sparks: The main problem in Irene's marriage to Soames.
- Parental Marriage Veto: Somewhat subverted, in that Young Jolyon and Irene never outright tell Jon that he can't marry Fleur; they just relentlessly apply emotional blackmail.
- Ooh, Me Accent's Slipping: In the 1967 version, Anne and Francis Wilmot have the least convincing 'southern' accents ever heard.
- Ominous Fog: The day after Soames and Irene's marriage has definitively broken down, there is an thick fog. This same thick fog leads to Bosinney's (Irene's lover) death, as he runs out in front of a carriage, blinded by the fog.
- Overprotective Dad: Soames, to the extent of taking a Society woman to court when he feels she's insulted Fleur, which forms the main plot of The Silver Spoon.
- Playing Against Type: Uptight, unloveable Soames, for whom Irene could not find even a tiny bit of sexual attraction, was played by Errol Flynn in the 1949 film adaptation. The dashing Flynn was known mostly for his roles in romantic swashbucklers and lobbied for the role of Soames in order to demonstrate his acting range.
- Plucky Girl: Plenty of them. June Forsyte and Holly Dartie from the original trilogy; Victorine Bicket and arguably Fleur from the second; Elizabeth "Dinny" Cherrell in the third.
- The Pollyanna: June Forsyte, who loses her father at a young age because he runs off with her governess; then, a few years later, her mother dies; later, at only seventeen her fiancé has an affair with her best friend and is then killed horribly; and finally, her beloved grandfather dies while she is abroad. Through all this she manages to retain a desire to help people who need her, particularly starving artists.
- Rape Discretion Shot: In the 1967 version, just as Soames is about to claim his "marital rights" from his reluctant wife Irene, the scene shifts to a barrel-organ playing beneath their window.
- Redemption Equals Death: Soames. For all his disgraceful conduct in the first trilogy, the fact that he literally gives his life to save his daughter Fleur more than makes up for it in the end.
- The Roaring Twenties: Although not in the sense usually depicted in television and literature. Fleur enjoys a lively social life, but women of the upper middle classes such as herself were not 'flappers', who were derided at the time for being both immoral and unintelligent. Therefore, there is little in the way of tasselled frocks and Charlestons on show. Furthermore, the divide between the older and younger generations is shown most clearly during this time; Soames finds the age bewildering, his daughter's modern sensibilities unfathomable and troublesome. Even Michael, who is only in his thirties, describes the Charleston as 'a lot of knee-wiggling'.
- Second Love: Young Jolyon and Irene. Jon and Anne Wilmot.
- Selective Obliviousness: Soames constantly disregards Irene's loathing of him.
- Soames is acutely aware of the fact that Irene does not love him; he just can't understand why. He even asks her flat-out what's 'wrong' with him, in both the book and the adaptations.
- Sex Is Evil: Young Jolyon tells Irene in the 1967 adaptation that his first wife Frances thought that the act of love was 'degrading', explaining his subsequent affair with the unstable Hélene.
- Sexless Marriage: The rumour that Irene and Soames no longer share a bed lets the rest of the family know that the marriage is on the rocks.
- According to the 1967 adaptation this is also the main reason Young Jolyon left his first wife Frances for his mistress Heléne.
- Shell-Shocked Veteran: Wilfred Desert, who is a completely changed man after his experiences in World War I.
- Star-Crossed Lovers: Irene and Bosinney, and somewhat less tragically, Jon and Fleur.
- Starving Artist:
- Phillip Bosinney (a radical architect).
- Young Jolyon becomes a painter after he's been cut off.
- June likes helping them. Other characters (and the narrator) refer to them as her 'lame ducks'.
- Take Back Your Gift: Soames only realises how much Irene really hated him when he sees that she has left him, taken none of the jewellery he ever gave her, and left him a note saying "I have taken nothing either you or your people have given me"
- Theme Naming: Young Jolyon's two children by his second wife are named Jolly (short for Jolyon) and Holly.
- Ugly Guy, Hot Wife: Soames and Irene, Soames and Annette, and Michael and Fleur (although neither man is described as ugly, it is noted more than once that the women are far more attractive than they are).
- Your Cheating Heart: Irene and Bosinney, and later Fleur and Jon. Subverted with Irene and Young Jolyon; they haven't actually committed adultery, but tell Soames they have, so that he and Irene can get divorced.