All Germans Are Nazis: A German technician's last actions before he commits suicide are to salute and yell "Heil!" It turns out that Hugo Drax and his men are in fact German soldiers who have been hiding in England since World War II.
Artistic License - Nuclear Physics: Subverted with the radiation example (no. 4) of the trope ; the nuclear explosion is passed off as a conventional one to cover up Drax's plot. The radiation had blown north.
Ate His Gun: Egon Bartsch, the scientist who killed the original chief of security of Drax's base killed himself this way after the deed.
Drax has his underlings shave their heads and grow moustaches, meaning they can later disguise themselves by shaving off their moustaches and letting their hair grow out.
Also played straight, as the scientists working on Drax's rocket are all German, and former Nazis. Drax even mentions that with their heads shaved and with the mustaches in place, no one recognizes them.
Bottle Episode: This is the only novel to be set entirely inside the United Kingdom; in fact the action never leaves London and Kent.
Commie Nazis: Drax turns out to be in league with the Soviets, more out of convenience than ideology however. Why the Soviets would trust a former Nazi with a nuclear weapon is not explained.
For a chance to entirely discredit the idea of Western nuclear missiles based out of Europe, at that time, they'd trust a monkey with a nuclear weapon. Although it is instructive to note that Drax's head rocket scientist was (although German) provided to Drax by the Russians, and Dr. Walter was the person in charge of designing and setting the guidance system for the Moonraker. So, Drax deciding to aim it at the Russians instead was not a possibility they had to seriously worry about.
Cool Car: Drax drives a Mercedes 300 S, which Bond describes as "ruthless and majestic". 007 himself owns a 1930 Bentley Coupé, in which he chases Drax towards the end of the book.
Damsel in Distress: Gala Brand is a notable aversion; she proves to be as important to foiling Drax's plot as Bond (it's actually her that discovers that the rocket is to be fired at London) and while she does get captured, Bond also does shortly afterwards.
Deep Cover Agent: Drax, in reality a former Nazi soldier, has masqueraded as a proud, distinguishable Briton for the past several years after he was "rescued" in his British military disguise, stole the identity of a missing British soldier, and faked amnesia to justify not remembering his pre-World War II life.
Gratuitous German: A lot of dubious German is (naturally) used, as ex-Nazi villains play a prominent part. Most memorably, Krebs and Drax's other henchmen will frequently address their boss as "Herr Kapitän," or "Captain." The problem is that Drax was an infantry captain in the Heer, and later Waffen-SS in his glory days, while Kapitän specifically denotes a naval captain in German. Better researched Nazis would have addressed Drax either as Herr Hauptmann (an army captain) or Hauptsturmführer (an SS captain).
Hoist by His Own Petard: Drax is killed when the Russian submarine he and his cohorts are escaping in is blown out of the water by the Moonraker, which Bond and Gala have redirected back onto its original North Sea target.
I Shall Taunt You: Bond does this to Hugo Drax in a desperate attempt to make him leave behind a blowtorch (intended for torture) that can be used to burn through Bond's ropes. It works.
Literal Asskicking: When Bond finds Krebs rummaging through his stuff, he gives a swift kick to the arse.
Motive Rant: Drax gives Bond an epic one when he has him tied up and defenceless. Bond responds by taunting Drax into a Villainous Breakdown, which gives him the opportunity he needs to free himself and Gala.
New Era Speech: Drax gives one near the end before leaving the confused audience.
"Your majesty, men and women of England", the voice was a velvet snarl. "I am about to change the course of England's history." A pause. "In a few minutes' time the lives of all of you will be altered, in some cases, ahem, drastically, by the, er, impact of the Moonraker. I am very proud and pleased that fate has singled me out, from amongst all my fellow countrymen, to fire this great arrow of vengeance into the skies and thus to proclaim for all time, and for all the world to witness, the might of my fatherland. I hope this occasion will be forever a warning that the fate of my country's enemies will be written in dust, in ashes, in tears and", a pause, "in blood. And now thank you all for listening and I sincerely hope that those of you who are able will repeat my words to your children, if you have any, tonight".
Ransacked Room: Both Bond and Gala are victims of Kreb's ransacking during their stay at the Moonraker base, with Gala noting that her mail has been tampered with.
Signs of Disrepair: Bond sees a neon sign from a viewpoint that partially obscures it: SUMMER SHELL IS HERE.
Those Wacky Nazis: Drax is in fact a Nazi, who was part of the Werwolf unit. This also goes for his men.
Torture Technician: Krebs and possibly Dr. Walter, as described by Drax. Fortunately, we never get to see them exercising their talents.
Unwinnable Training Simulation: The first chapter has Bond in a quick-drawing training. He puts the other "guy" (a cardboard target) in hospital, but is "killed". The whole thing is designed to be unwinnable.
Villain with Good Publicity: Drax is revered by the British public as a great patriot, who is using his enormous wealth to gift Britain her own nuclear defence system. In fact, he is a Nazi in the guise of a British citizen who plans to use the missile to destroy London.
Wacky Wayside Tribe: The Blades sequence has no impact on the main rocket missile plot, although it does serve as an extended intro for Sir Hugo Drax, as well as giving M some much-needed characterisation.
You're Insane!: Drax has Bond tied up at the base of his rocket to be incinerated during its launch. Bond takes the opportunity to recount Drax's life as he's gathered the info, in all its ugly, humiliating detail, to conclude how it's made him such a mental case. Bond's intent is to enrage Drax enough to overlook what Bond needs to escape.