Being Good Sucks: Luttrel directly attributes the everything-went-to-hell events of the novel to the team's decision to let some goatherders live.
Blatant Lies: That's right, the seven-foot tall, mortally wounded Texan with the satanic-looking tattoo who fell into your village directly after that horrific gunfight, wearing a uniform with a Liefeldian number of pockets, carrying a Mk12 sniper rifle and enough computer technology to launch the space shuttle is from...wait for it...Doctors Without Borders. It's implied that the villagers knew Luttrel was full of shit but let it slide since they'd already decided to save him anyway.
Blue and Orange Morality: Luttrel has no idea why the villagers are so hell-bent on defending him against the Taliban, and simply comes to accept that their motivations as different from his own, without really understanding. His explanations in the text are actually post-facto intelligence from cultural experts.
Despite The Plan: What seemed like a well-devised and researched operation quickly collapses on itself as more and more unfortunate, unpredictable factors get thrown into the mix.
Developing Doomed Characters: The story starts off with introducing the audience to four Navy SEALs, their lives, backgrounds, and the close friendship they share. Keep in mind that the book is called Lone Survivor.
Heroic BSOD: Luttrel has one. Justified since he's just seen his three teammates die in a hail of gunfire, he's been shot, battered, and blown up, and now he's stuffed in a hole while his enemies scour the countryside for him and he's slowly dying of thirst. Since the ordeal he's suffered from PTSD and insomnia.
Heroic Sacrifice: LT Michael Murphy was awarded the Medal of Honor for the action described in the book. Posthumously.
I Gave My Word: Closely related to Sacred Hospitality. Once the village offered Luttrel asylum, they were honor-bound to defend him to the last man. As Luttrel points out, the members of the Taliban that sought to kill him were likely Pashtun themselves, possibly originally from that very village, and relatives of his protectors.
Implacable Man: The Taliban forces are this to Luttrel's team. It quickly becomes clear that direct victory is impossible and escape is the only option.
Know When to Fold 'Em: Lt. Murphy, after sparing the shepherds, quickly chooses to cancel the mission on account of this unexpected factor, but by then it was already too late.
The four sailors also spend a great deal of effort and pain fleeing from the overwhelming Taliban forces.
The Taliban forces, realizing they are outnumbered by the Pashtun villagers, leave and do not return to fight.
Made of Iron: As a rule, the Navy SEALS are required to be this. Special mention goes to Axelson, who continues to gun down insurgents even after being shot in the head.
Mighty Whitey: Averted. The rural and supposedly unsophisticated village is already supplied with a full-fledged doctor and plenty capable of defending itself. Luttrel's considerable martial and medical skills are entirely redundant.
More Dakka: The Taliban bring it, in the form of long lost Kalashnikovs and cold-war era artillery.