"Mortal terror reigned
Sickness now, then horrible death
Only Lucy knew the truth
And at her window -Nosferatu
(rarely used full title: Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror
) is the first known "vampire" movie, released in 1922. Director Friedrich W. Murnau
cast Max Schreck
as Count Orlok, with the veteran German character actor wearing huge pointed ears, long fangs, and completely bald
... one of the most frightening characters in film history. This movie is also notable for spawning the idea that vampires can be killed by sunlight.
The myth that Nosferatu
was Schreck's only role is untrue; he appeared in over 20 films and a number of stage roles, all in Germany. The idea was perpetuated by the 2000 film Shadow of the Vampire,
which portrayed Schreck as an actual vampire.Nosferatu
was originally intended to be a direct adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula
, but Stoker's widow, who owned the copyright, refused permission. So the Murnau and his team changed the characters' names
simplified the plot, and tried to pass Nosferatu
off as an original story.
It didn't work. The film company that produced Nosferatu
was forced to declare bankruptcy to avoid paying Bram Stoker's estate for copyright infringement. All copies of this film were supposed to be destroyed
because of the infringement, but a Keep Circulating the Tapes
mentality among fans of the film kept it from being lost.
(Pre-digital movie piracy?
It's Older than You Think
.) We, too, can see the greatness of Murnau's vision.
This movie is in the public domain and may be viewed in its entirety at Google Video
, YouTube, Hulu,
and the Internet Archive.
Also notable under this title: Werner Herzog
's 1979 Nosferatu the Vampyre
, a re-adaptation of Dracula
heavily influenced by the Murnau film's iconic visuals and streamlined plot. Klaus Kinski
played the title role (now back to the name "Dracula"), and it's generally considered to be almost as good as the original. Some would even call it better. Kinski would return for the 1988 sort-of-sequel Nosferatu in Venice
This film contains the tropes:
- Adaptation Distillation: Despite the fact that all the names have been changed and the plot's been simplified, this is probably the best Dracula adaptation out there.
- Animal Motifs: Orlok has a very subtle yet obvious in hindsight connection with rats and, through them, the plague. His fangs are rat-like incisors rather than the elongated canines ususally used for vampires, his pointed nose and thin face gives him a rodent quality to his facial features, even his taloned hands call to minds the grasping paws of a giant rat.
- Art Shift: A striking one. As Hutter's coach approaches Orlok's castle, one shot of the coach on the road is shown in photographic negative, likely to symbolize Hutter's entrance into another world.
- As Long as It Sounds Foreign: The etymology of the word "nosferatu" is unclear. This movie isn't the first to use it (Stoker's novel referenced it first), but the usual origin (the Romanian word for "vampire") is false.
- The two most probable etymologies are a corruption of the Romanian "Necuratu," meaning "unclean spirit," or Greek "Nosophoros," meaning "bringer of plague."
- Bald of Evil
- Bedsheet Ladder: Used by Hutter to escape Orlok's castle.
- Breaking and Bloodsucking: Ellen's plan to destroy Orlok is to wait for him to attack her in her bed and allow him to slowly feed to distract him from the lethal sunrise.
- Creepy Long Fingers: Orlok, as part of his defining appearance.
- Cue the Sun
- German Expressionism
- Ghost Ship: The one Orlok takes to Germany becomes one of these when it pulls into port. Because of Orlok.
- Ghostly Glide
- Happily Married: Hutter and Ellen. Mind you, they are newlyweds.
- Heroic Sacrifice: Ellen deliberately lets Orlok feed on her to distract him until sunrise.
- Keep Circulating the Tapes: The reason this movie still exists. According to The Other Wiki, the film's creating studio was sued by the estate of Bram Stoker, and the courts ordered all copies of the film to be burned. Somehow, one copy slipped through the cracks, and this copy was then duplicated and spread throughout the world.
- The 'crack' was the United States, which didn't recognize most foreign copyright claims until decades later, by which time the original book was public domain and the claim against the film moot.
- Kill 'em All: Orlok kills everyone on the ship.
- Looks Like Orlok: Trope Namer. Quite a contrast to the suave, attractive vampires that make up so much of the rest of vampire fiction.
- Love Transcends Spacetime: At the very moment when Orlock is readying himself to feed, fatally, on Hutter, Ellen has a sudden panic attack — which somehow makes the vampire back down and leave Hutter alive.
- Misplaced Wildlife: The "werewolf" that we see roaming around outside the inn Hutter stops at for the night is actually a hyena.
- Names to Run Away From Really Fast: Hutter tells his wife that he is heading to "the country of thieves and ghosts" - and he seems awfully excited about it too!
- Never Work with Children or Animals: One scene has Orlock loading up a horse-drawn cart with coffins and then he gets inside one at the top of the coffin stack. Watch as the lid of the coffin moves up to Orlock's coffin (via stop-motion photography) - the horses change position a couple of times. It doesn't qualify as a Special Effects Failure given the film was made in the early days of cinema.
- Only the Pure of Heart: Only an innocent young woman's willing sacrifice of her blood to distract the vampire from the coming dawn can destroy him.
- Our Vampires Are Different: As noted above, this film originated the idea that vampires burn in sunlight. Also, Schreck's vampire is rather uniquely portrayed as a rat-like monster and the personification of pestilence, as well as having a considerable semblance to some kind of ghost — the numerous scenes where Orlok seems to materialise or dematerialise at will (such as when carrying his coffin into his new lair), as well as the famous sequence where Orlok seems to sneak into Hutter's home as a disembodied shadow.
- Picked Flowers Are Dead: Ellen, at the opening scene.
- Pivotal Wake-up: The Trope Maker, and one of the creepiest moments in the movie.
- The Plague: When Orlock arrives in Wisborg, he brings disease with him.
- The Renfield: Knock.
- Red Right Hand: See Looks Like Orlok.
- Royal Decree: Plague victims are decreed to be kept out of the hospital to stop the spread of the disease.
- Royals Who Actually Do Something: Count Orlok is shown loading his coffins onto a horse-drawn wagon by himself (whereas Count Dracula had hired gypsies doing this in the book and the 1992 film). He's even shown carrying his coffin to his new home later on.
- Soundtrack Dissonance: Some versions of the film feature a near-constant usage of a strange, cheerful little tune that sounds more like it would belong in an old Mickey Mouse cartoon than a classic horror movie. It becomes increasingly hard to get into the mood of the film when this song is in nearly every other scene, even in perfectly innocuous ones, such as the simple act of walking up stairs.
- Star-Crossed Lovers
- Swarm of Rats
- Supporting Protagonist: Hutter. His wife Ellen's presence protects him from Orlok while he's in Transylvania, and it is only through her sacrifice that Orlok is killed.
- Terrifying Pet Store Rat: The Swarm of Rats includes several of the hooded (dark head, white body) variety, which is a domesticated strain of rat.
- Vampire Bites Suck: Orlok's needle-like incisors leave two small pinprick-holes in the victim's throat
- Weakened By The Light: Sunlight makes Orlok catch fire and disappear. (As noted above, this film is the Trope Maker.)
- Who Wants to Live Forever?: A major theme of the Herzog/Kinski remake. It's not so much that he's outliving his loved ones, it's that no one could ever love a monster like him. And living forever, eternally unloved, is almost unbearable. It's possibly the most tragic interpretation of the Dracula story ever.