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The Alcoholic: Fenwick. This would probably explain why he does things like punch out windows and sit in the crib of a Nativity display.
Ambiguously Jewish: Though Eddie gets married in a synagogue, Boogie uses words like "schmuck", and the arguments Eddie and Modell get into could arguably be categorized as Jews Love to Argue, there's no indication of this otherwise.
Getting married in a synagogue, by a rabbi, and the groomsmen are all wearing yarmulkes? That's not ambiguous. That's evidence that Eddie and Elyse, at the very least, are clearly and unambiguously Jewish.
And This Is for...: Billy doesn't actually say these words, but when he punches out Willard - a guy who was part of a baseball team that jumped him during a game when Billy was in 10th grade (and whom Billy swore revenge against) - outside a movie theater, it's implied when he says, "Now we're even."
Berserk Button: It's bad enough that Beth can't understand the importance of Shrevie's record-collection organization system, but she also doesn't know who Charlie Parker is.
Big Eater: Earl, who orders the entire left side of the menu, which is 22 sandwiches plus the fried chicken dinner. The guys all applaud him when he leaves the diner on his own power, plus is able to drive off.
Modell: He's not human, he's not a person. He's like a building with feet.
Comically Missing the Point: While waiting in jail (again, It Makes Sense in Context), Billy asks Eddie's advice on what to do with Barbara. Eddie, of course, suggest they get married and have the kid. When Billy points out not only does she not want to get married, but she has her own career, Eddie hems and haws a bit until saying, "I tried bringing up a reasonable solution, and you had to bring her into it."
Faking the Dead: Played for laughs; Fenwick pretends to have gotten in a car accident and thrown from the car so that Boogie, Modell, Shrevie and Beth will think he's dead. Not until Boogie is standing over Fenwick does he let them in on the joke. Also, the "blood" is from a ketchup bottle he'd been carrying around for weeks.
The Gambling Addict: Boogie. He gets into all kinds of trouble for this, until Bagel pays off his bet.
The Ghost: Elyse. We hear her during the quiz, but we never see her face, only her back.
Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Eddie. He spends most of the movie acting like he's doing Elyse a favor by marrying her (not to mention the football quiz he's making her take), he's demanding with his mother, and he's constantly harping on silly things. However, he's very loyal to his friends, he reveals he's incredibly nervous about what marriage will be like (which is why he makes Elyse take the quiz in the first place, so he knows they'll have something to talk about), not to mention the fact he's really a virgin, and while she fails the test by two points because Shrevie answered a question before she could, and Eddie initially wouldn't give her credit, much later, he decides to give her credit so they can get married.
Nice Job Breaking It, Hero: During the football quiz, Shrevie inadvertently blurts out the answer to a question before Elyse can answer it. However, though it means she ends up failing the quiz, Eddie eventually decides since she knew the answer, he'd give her the credit so they could get married.
Refuge in Audacity: Boogie bets the other guys he can get Carol Heathrow to touch his penis. So, when they're at the movies that night, at one point he opens his fly and puts the popcorn box over his penis. Eventually, as she's reaching for the popcorn, she touches it, freaks, and runs out of the theater. When he catches up to her in the girl's bathroom, he explains he only opened his fly because she got him excited, so he wanted to try and calm down. However, a certain point in the movie made him get excited again, and the penis just went through the bottom of the box. She seems to buy it.
Fenwick has his own moment; after he gets turned down for a loan by his estranged brother Howard, he gets drunk and goes by an outdoor Nativity scene, where he notices the life-sized Baby Jesus is missing. So what does he do? He strips down to his shorts and sits in the baby crib himself. And when Shrevie, Eddie and Billy try to get him out of there, he refuses to leave until the police come by.
Seinfeldian Conversation: Part of the reason for the Executive Meddling; studio executives didn't understand such scenes as Eddie and Modell arguing over a roast beef sandwich, telling Levinson to cut that out and get on with the story, to which Levinson replied, "That is the story."
Serious Business: This movie is filled to the brim with it. In addition to Shrevie's argument with Beth (see above), we have the following:
Eddie's football quiz for his bride-to-be Elyse. Not only that, but the wedding decor is blue and white (the Colts' colors), and the music playing during the wedding ceremony is the Colts' marching song.
Fenwick: It's funny. You know, when I was a little kid I always wanted a brother. I told that to mom once and she said, "You have a brother". I said, "Oh, so that's who the asshole in the other bed is".
Source Music: Almost all of the music in the movie is source music, coming from a car radio or the diner, except the music in the last scene and when Boogie is riding a horse.
Spiritual Successor: Levinson's later films Tin Men (1987), Avalon (1990), and Liberty Heights (1999) are all set in Baltimore during the same general period, and are regarded by some as forming a loose quadrilogy.