So you've decided to write a story. But you realize that no matter what genre you're writing, your epic plot of awesomeness won't amount to anything if the readers don't like or understand the characters. As characters are arguably the most important part of a story, here are a few tips to get you started on that.
Inspiration and OriginalityArt tends to reflect Real Life; characters are no exception. Basing characters on people you know (whether you like them or not), or would like to meet in Real Life will help you make your characters feel like people, and will help you avoid the more cliché characters (that are often based on other authors' works), and remain original. However basing your characters on people you know has drawbacks: sometimes people don't like seeing themselves in fiction. Also in the case of an ongoing series, a change in relationship with the author might lead to abrupt changes in the story; there are some particularly nasty examples. Even if you base your character on an archetype or other known character type, by all means, put your own spin on it. Not just a superficial difference, mind you. Instead, twist it around. Give them a different personality, background, loves, hates, goals, dreams, wishes and outlook on life. Exaggerate a certain personality trait, or give them a different trait not usually found in that character type, yet congruently fits in with your character's unique personality (for instance, give a dark brooding antihero a gallows sense of humor). Overall, while not every character needs to be completely original, as all but a few stories are inspired by previous ones, you want to make your characters yours.
ConceptBefore you have a Backstory, before you start fine-tuning your character's Flaws and Traits, you should have a strong idea about what your character generally is, a core concept that you will build everything else around. Think about why it will be interesting to read the character, or the basic traits that you think will make him stand out or appeal to the target demographic. If you can sum it up in a few sentences or draw it with a few broad strokes, it's all the better. The devil shouldn't only be in the details; the best characters should be instantly recognizable.
On TropesTropes alone don't make characters, but every character in every medium can be placed in one archetype or another. If you want to start with the tropes you want your character to be defined by (by no means do you have to), check out Characterization Tropes to see what mixes and matches with what. Then, when you have a few tropes that outline their personality, match it to their backstory.
BackstoryThis is what your character did before "getting here." After all, when you are writing a story, your characters exist before it, as does the rest of the world you are creating. Planning a sensible backstory for your characters helps strengthen their personality traits and establish their way of life. If your character's story and life is solid enough, they won't feel to the reader as "just a face" that was put there to fill a slot in the plot. In turn, having your character's backstory clearly influence their decisions (even if it is not clear to the audience what the backstory is) helps your readers relate to the character. Sometimes people plan their characters from the backstory onwards. Say you have a main character Bob, who (like most other characters) has someone he cares about— let's say, a younger sister— suffer a Death by Origin Story. He felt that he could/should have done something to prevent his sister's death. Because of this, he constantly feels the need to protect people, even at his own expense. See what we've got already? He's selfless, loyal, and maybe a bit dim. Sometimes, this is done the reverse, building a backstory for characters that are already at the acting stage: Now say you establish early on that Bob has a girlfriend named Alice. You have a general idea of what you want her to be like: shy and quiet, loves to cuddle. That's cool. Why is she like that? Well, she was always shy, and never really broke out of that. She grew up in an orphanage, where she was picked on, so she stays withdrawn most of the time. She and Bob (and Bob's sister) grew up in the same orphanage. After Bob's sister died, he saw her being picked on, and stood up for her. And then... here they are. When you build a backstory for your characters, you need to take care of two particular issues: first, backstory among characters should be consistent with the world you are creating, regardless of the fact that the characters may or may not have met each other before. Second, your characters' backstory should fit their lifetime, otherwise the backstory may seem to keep going and going or it's incredible how many things has your character done in a few years. Both of these tend to break your readers' Willing Suspension of Disbelief.
PersonalityPersonality is defined as the sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual, and the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual. Personality governs how the character responds to experiences, situations and other people. The personality is the single most important aspect of your character, you may disregard or have a bad quality on the other traits like appearance and backstory. If your character doesn't have an interesting personality, he or she won't be interesting at all even if the other traits are great. See Develop Character Personality for more.
Physical appearance/ clothesClothes and appearance can tell quite a bit about a character. A vagrant or a street scum is going to look different from a smooth executive; high school students' clothes will give a different impression than those of a soldier and are impossible to mistake for those of the president of The United States. Clothes can convey status, concern for hygiene, how characters want to appear to others and even reflect their personality. These appearances can be used to reveal a character or mislead your audience. However, whilst appearance and apparel may add to a character, they shouldn't define the character (unless they really are that vain), and it definitely shouldn't take a whole paragraph to describe. A dress is different to jeans; a short red dress is different to a long black dress. You don't need a paragraph describing the creamy pearls encrusting the hemline in a lustrous paisley pattern, the elegant soot black lace encircling cuff and neckline, the smooth and shiny raven's wing black satin with a marl-effect finish, the daring and revealing slit to the thigh, the elegant midnight black bow adorning the butt. That sort of thing just tends to frustrate readers, unless they're actually looking for Costume Porn. We have a trope here called "Informed Attractiveness" for when The Author tries to make The Reader believe a character is attractive, and fails. Sometimes it's because the character acts in a non-attractive or offputting manner. However, at other times it's because The Author got too specific and tried to cram his/her personal ideals of beauty down The Reader's throat. "This character needs to be attractive, but I don't know what The Reader thinks is attractive. I'd better give as much detail as possible in the hopes of convincing them!" Yeah, you can see the Insane Troll Logic from here. It also takes away from one of the best parts of reading—the involvement of the imagination. So simply be as brief as you can in describing the character's appearance. Give only the salient details and let The Reader's imagination do the rest. It will automatically supply whatever traits The Reader does like, neatly avoiding the original problem. You don't know what The Reader thinks is attractive. So don't try. Let The Reader tell you.
Flaws, Traits and BondingMost personalities involve traits—sloppy vs neat; shy vs outgoing; even-keeled vs. easy to upset; open-minded vs traditionalist; The Spock vs. The McCoy, etc. Some of those traits are typically described as "virtues" (heroism; selflessness; morality; loyalty) while others are described as "flaws" (selfishness; cowardice; lack of success with girls; insecurities). Typically, a character ought to have some of both. Characters that have the same flaws as the audience are considerably easier to identify with than their less flawed counterparts. For instance, a character that feels envy, anger or negative traits will simply feel more realistic, as if they were people you could meet in real life. However, if a character is solely flawed, this can leave a feeling of sourness in The Reader's mouth. "Why am I bothering with this story? I came here for Escapism, not to see my own problems reflected back at me. I want a character who is admirable." That's where the virtues come in. Having said that, this is why the third word in our heading is bonding. The Reader responds differently to virtues and flaws. Simply put, a Virtue is something that makes The Reader say, "I wish I were this guy," whereas a Flaw is something that makes The Reader say, "I am this guy." (We have also just breezed right by the pitfall on the other end of the sliding scale: a character that is all "virtues" is inaccessible because while he's admirable, The Reader does not and furthermore cannot empathize with him. He is like the moon: awesome, but irrelevant to The Reader's life.) So before we need to go any further, we need to re-define our terms. In fact, we're going to drop "Virtue" and "Flaw" entirely. Instead, a character has "Admiration Traits and "Access Traits". One is a trait The Reader wishes s/he had; the other is one The Reader already has and is grounds for empathy with the character. In your story, you will typically want at least one character who is Admirable ("I wish I were this guy") and at least one character who is Accessible ("I am this guy"). They are not required to be separate; Harry Potter, for instance, has both Access and Admiration traits, which is why he works as not only the hero of his eponymous franchise, but its primary narrator. In fact, as previously mentioned, it is best for every character to have both traits. If you've studied any fiction that's come out of Hollywood any time recently, however, you'll know that they've missed this memo—Michael Bay in particular has been unable to figure out Access traits for over a decade—so let's start with the basics of having at least one character who is audience-accessible. Going back to Harry Potter for a moment will also let us notice something very interesting about Access Traits vs Admiration Traits: they are subjective. What are Harry's traits? He's courageous and quick-thinking under pressure; as early as the first book, Albus Dumbledore praises his "sheer outstanding nerve". He's intensely loyal to his True Companions; since both his mother and father are dead, he is understandably protective of the people he has chosen to be his surrogate family. He's kind of a jock—his scholastic efforts are desultory, and his main appeal amongst his classmates is the fact that he's a leading athlete. He is quite selfless, insisting on putting himself in the line of fire lest someone else get hurt. And he is the possessor of some form of Plot Armor: when Voldemort, the Big Bad of the series, used a magic spell on him that kills anyone it's used on, period, end of story... it didn't kill him. He became The Boy Who Lived. Now, tell me: which of these make Harry Accessible, and which of them make him Admirable? And think about that answer, because for every single person on the planet, the answer will be different. Probably everyone will say that being The Chosen One is something they admire in Harry, as opposed to sharing it with him, but for the rest, all bets are off. And this is why it's important you put a variety of traits on your characters: because one Reader's virtue is another's flaw. Every Reader will bond with every character in a different way, for different reasons, so providing as many reasons as possible—both Admiration points and Access points—makes those characters more likely to win an audience. character that has no secrets to the audience is not a bad thing, as most authors prefer to flesh out all the traits of their characters from the start. However, if handled correctly, giving a character Hidden Depths may make him more interesting and complete. Give your audience the chance to get to know your characters as the story marches on. Revealing the traits of a character of which the audience is not aware may change the perception the audience has of him or her. Ineffectual Loner types might, slowly learn that friends aren't necessarily a bad thing to have; they shouldn't stay ineffectual loners, true, but neither should they suddenly join the group and start making The Power of Friendship speeches. A little foreshadowing goes a long way. The other thing to remember is that past experiences and personality will affect development as well; an introvert with a backstory in which they just haven't been brave enough to make friends will approach things differently to an extrovert who knows the technical ways to make friends, but has No Social Skills. Someone who has suffered torment or abuse in the past will approach things a lot more tentatively than someone who didn't. We'd also like to hearken back to the previous topic of "Hidden Depths." "Character Development" as a process is typically understood to involve the character themselves moving forward along their evolutionary path... but this is an overly narrow definition. Static Characters can be stars too; in fact, there is an entire genre of fiction, the Tragedy, that absolutely relies on the character being Static, on being unwilling or unable to acknowledge their Fatal Flaw until it has already tied the noose round their necks. Note also the brilliant evolution of characters in LOST, which depended so strongly on Flash Back. The characters may be Static today, but they weren't yesterday, and we explore not where they are going tomorrow but where they were yesterday. "Character Development" is not actually about the character, it's about The Reader's understanding of the character. If that understanding changes, there has been character development. So evolving the character's current personality is no more valid, nor less valid, than exploring their Dark and Troubled Past and giving rationale for why they are the person they are right now. Finally, character development is not supposed be a road to perfection. Characters should be human, and humans are not perfect. Removal of every single flaw is not recommended.
Variety Among CharactersThe first step to building characters is interaction. If a group of people is traveling together, they need some similarity, for the most part. At the same time, you need some variety in how they act and think. You don't want your Five-Man Band to be five generic nerds who grew up in similar circumstances and act the same way. That's boring. You can still have five nerds if you want, but have them be nerdy about different things, and then match those things to their worldview. Some things to consider: