Bonanza: Several episodes, especially those focusing on Little Joe. The classic example is the 14th-season opener "Forever," starting from the point when Joe finds out that his wife, Alice, had been killed by a ruthless gambler named Sloan (and not died in a tragic house fire as he first had been led to believe). First, when he learns that the music box he had given Alice (as a gift) is in someone else's hands, he grabs its new owner A WOMAN and demands answers about how she got it. He refuses to cooperate with Deputy Clem Foster, and eventually with Candy's help is able to use his expert tracking skills to catch up with Sloan and his gang. After Joe and Candy take out two of the goons, Joe brutally beats down the killer's goon (a muscle man who was at least 200 pounds heavier and a foot and a half taller than the tiny Alice), before confronting Sloan. Joe gets some unexpected help from Sloan, who is drowned in a nearby river.
Step by Step: The Season 7 episode "Phoney Business," where Frank finds out that the suntan lotion commercial daughter Al was starring was actually taped for a phone sex hotline. Frank asks Rich to tell him what he knows about the commercial (after which he threatens Rich if he's known to ever watch the commercial again) ... after which he confronts the commercial's corrupt advertising salesman. When the salesman tries to bluff his way out of the situation, Frank goes berserk, grabbing the producer by his collar and holding him three-fourths of the way out the window to force him to talk. Frank then rips apart the office to find the original master tape, which he then threatens to show to the producer's boss unless he immediately asks the TV stations to kill the commercial then adds afterward that if he is ever known to be producing smutty commercials again involving teenaged girls, he'll be back and it won't be good. In the postscript, Al is forgiven (and learns a lesson about reading the fine print, doing a background check, etc.), but it is implied that big brother J.T. who got Al the job in the first place has an angry father to look forward to when he gets home.
Played for Laughs in the episode "The Marry Prankster" of Happy Endings-after Dave and the others prank Max into thinking he won the lottery, Max has this to say.
Max:Read...my...lips. I am going to get revenge on every last one of you. And no one will be able to escape the wrath of Max Broom! What, dammit! Max Blum! How I'd mess up my own name? It's your fault! And now I'm embarrassed and I want revenge on all of you, even harder!
He then spends the rest of the episode pranking the rest of the gang, while Dave and Alex try their own ways to avoid this. Eventually, he's pranked them all (even Penny's fiance Pete because Max 'plays by mob rules-you, your family, anyone in the same room') and crows with triumph.
In Being Human, Mitchell goes on one when he finds out Lucy tried to kill him and successfully killed of most of his clan.
Played with in Revenge- we are lead to believe in the pilot episode and promos that Emily Thorne will be responsible for the death of Daniel Grayson and that she is not above murder in her quest for vengeance. Cleverly averted when it is revealed that it was actually Tyler who was shot on the beach by Takeda and Daniel is unharmed. Emily's plan does not involve any blood being spilled (although things rarely go according to her plan).
The promos tease this quite allot, with the deaths of Charlotte and Lydia at Emily's hands being suggested.
Emily's plot appears to devolve into this at the end of Season 1 as she seeks to murder the man who killed her father, with greater and greater ferocity. However, Nolan, his aunt Carol and memories of her father manage to reign in her bloodlust and put her back on track.
The Wire does this twice, both times with Omar — the usual culprit behind the few over-the-top tropes in the series. The first time is played straight, with Omar shaking up the entire Barksdale organization as revenge for the murder of his boyfriend, with Avon Barksdale himself narrowly escaping by luck alone. The second time can be seen as a subversion, as the audience goes into the season expecting Omar to work his usual magic on the people who killed his friend, but he ends up failing miserably and dying in a spectacularly pointless and meaningless fashion.
Morgana basically spends the last season doing this to everyone who ever "wronged" her, even those who were only guilty of being on Uther's side. Like father, like daughter.
Chuck is an interesting subversion of the trope, in that it's the main villain and not the hero doing the roaring and rampaging: The show's final bad guy Quinn has something of a bone to pick with our team because he was the CIA agent who was supposed to receive the first Intersect, the one Bryce stole and gave to Chuck. Quinn, being the CIA's top operative at the time, went in without it anyway, got captured, tortured in a hole in the ground for 378 days, then discharged. He started working Freelance for FULCRUM, The Ring, and Volkoff Industries...all organizations Chuck put out of commission, and Quinn out of business. So yeah, he's pissed off.
Still, Jack can't hold a candle to Tony in season seven, avenging the murder of his wife and unborn son.
But in Tony's case, it was more of a traditional Revenge plot—he never went on a "rampage" since all his crimes were only meant to maintain his cover long enough to gain an audience with the villain.
Jack brings this back with a vengeance in Season 8 after Renee is killed. The villains actually lampshade this, recognizing that he is not trying to expose them, he just wants to kill them all. One of them actually states that they wouldn't be in this mess if they hadn't murdered Renee.
The Babylon 5 universe contains at least four rampages of revenge.
The Earth-Minbari War was more or less this trope turned Up to Eleven: the Minbari had a Gotta Kill Them All rampage (on the scale of a major and horrific interstellar war!) against Earthforce for killing the Minbari leader. ('No Mercy')
Delenn's Tranquil Fury annihilation of a Drakh's fleet and a colony ship, prompted after the Drakh destroyed several civilian ships and a White Star. ('End This')
Ivanova's 'God Sent Me' Unstoppable Rage against Earthforce for capturing Sheridan.
In "A Call to Arms" and Crusade, the Drakh's attack against and infection of Earth in retaliation (?) for the retreat of the Shadows.
In Rome Vorenus and Pullo go on one of these when Vorenus thinks his children have been killed. A very, very, very short rampage, because Pullo and Vorenus are There Is No Kill Like Over Kill personified.
Not to forget what Vorenus does to the slavers when he discovers that they are alive and were sold to them. This most glorious of Roaring Rampages was magnificently topped off with a man-tears approved moment when Vorenus embraces the illegitimate son of his dearly departed wife and her adulterer.
I Carly: Sam in "iMake Sam Girlier", and Gibby in "iPsycho".
In Battlestar Galactica, Laura Roslin very nearly has one of these after Tom Zarek tells her Admiral Adama has been killed (he hasn't) and she should surrender.
"No. Not now, not ever, do you hear me? I will use every cannon, every bomb, every bullet, every weapon I have down to my own eyeteeth to END YOU! I swear it!I'M COMING FOR ALL OF YOU!"
The best part of that entire sequence was Adama's "oh shit oh shit gotta call off my girlfriend now oh shit" face after he took back CIC.
Heroes: Matt Parkman seeks revenge against Danko for murdering his girlfriend, Daphne Millbrook. Parkman does so by telepathically forcing Danko to divulge his true identity and the fact that he kills for a living to his unsuspecting girlfriend, Alena. Parkman then points his gun at Alena, but cannot bring himself to shoot her.
Giles got a less successful, but no less awesome, cold-rampage After Angel murdered Jenny Calender. FLAMING BASEBALL BAT!
"Don't you people use stakes anymore?!"
Isabelle Tyler from The 4400 goes batshit insane and kills every member of the NOVA Group she can find because Daniel Armand gave Shawn schizophrenia.
In Forever Knight, a child vampire shows up and starts slaughtering those in LaCroix's inner circle. Urs and Vachon bite the dust, with Nick next on the list, before we find out that she's actually LaCroix's mortal daughter from when he was a Roman named Lucius; she was saved from death by being turned into a vampire, and she then turned LaCroix into a vampire so that he could survive the destruction of Pompeii. He nearly killed her and sealed her remains in a tomb, but she survived and is looking to pay him back for his betrayal. Check out the series page for the full story.
In the third season summer finale of Burn Notice, Strickler sells out Fiona to Irish terrorists to get Michael back into the FBI's good graces. After a lengthy Motive Rant about how Fiona is weighing him down, nothing about this is clean, and how he's got to stop living in the past, Michael grits out "Fiona is not my past" and shoots Strickler in the chest. He and Sam then go in guns blazing and save Fiona.
Special Agent Leroy Jethro Gibbs. In the second season finale of NCIS, Agent Catelin Todd is murdered by turncoat Mossad agent Ari Haswari. Even though he was intending to track down and kill Ari before this for his previous actions, Gibbs loses it and goes after him full-bore in the two-part third season opener.
If that counts then him killing the man who killed his first wife and child has to count as well.
Any fans of Star Trek: The Next Generation remember who the Husnock are? Or should I say, were? Killing a man's wife is bad, especially if said man has power rivaling one of the Q.
To put this in perspective, the Husnock that the energy being (who often took on a human form out of convenience) killed off numbered fifty billion at the time. The being killed them with a single thought, in a single moment of grief-stricken rage.
Worf flips out after K'ehleyr is murdered. It doesn't end well for Duras.
In CSI: Miami, the Mala Noche gang is stupid enough to snipe Marisol, Horatio's wife. Horatio tracks them to Brazil and murders her killer in cold blood. Don't mess with Horatio Caine - or anyone he loves.
The Mala Noches confirmed their "too stupid to live" bonafides when they decided to make Caine's execution "look good" by handing him a loaded pistol. (See "Matthew Quigley".)
Memmo, one of the Mala Noches who killed Horatio's wife later escaped from prison and went on a deadly rampage not against Horatio & Co. but the people who put his daughter in harm's way, from the nurses who turned her away from the hospital to the head of the foster-care placement system who left her with a neglectful woman. This guy's actions were so egregious that Horatio basically lets Memmo kill him.
Two of the villains in Boss. One uses very elaborate methods, while the other sticks to guns.
In the sixth season finale of Greys Anatomy, Gary Clarke, who blames Derek and Little Grey for the death of his wife, goes on a shooting rampage through the hospital. He has a list, too.
Used in a number of Criminal Minds episodes, and always portrayed in a realistically horrifying way. The most obvious examples are "True Night" (psychotic comic book artist runs around killing the street gang who murdered his pregnant fiancee in front of him, "Elephant's Memory" (perennially abused teenager snaps and sets out to kill everyone who's ever wronged him), "House On Fire" (man tries to avenge himself on an entire community for complicity in beating and driving him out of town by trapping them in burning buildings), and "Devil's Night" (man burns people alive after his life collapses after a fiery crash that left him in a coma and burned half his face off. Among his kills are the ex-con who hit him, the ex-landlord who kicked him out of his home and the ex-boss who fired him, and other people he felt slighted him just by having happy lives. His rampage would've culminated in the death of his ex-girlfriend and her family, if not for the discovery that his ex-girlfriend had had his child and the kid isn't afraid of his face).
Another notable example is the Ian Doyle arc: Doyle goes on a rampage against the team that imprisoned him, culminating in Emily's "death".
The Offender episode of Cold Case has the child victim's father on this path, which is understandable given that the real culprit killed his kid and framed him for it, leaving him incarcerated for 2 decades.
In The X-Files, Scully of all people has one of these in the episode "Beyond the Sea", when Mulder is seriously injured after following the information of a psychic on death row (a guy he earlier helped put in jail). Scully goes to said psychic and screams at him that if Mulder dies, she will personally throw the switch on him. See also Precision F-Strike.
She also has one later in the series, yelling at and nearly shooting the man who shot her sister. Scully doesn't often get mad, but when she does, it's best to stay out of her way.
She has one during the beginning of season 7 and the beginning of season 8, both involving Mulder being in danger.
In the Season 10 episode "Talion" of Stargate SG-1, Teal'c goes on one after a former foe bombs a free Jaffa summit, killing "many innocent Jaffa". First he uses the Jack Bauer Interrogation Technique to track down those responsible for the bombing, and then when he found out who the mastermind was he had to put down SG-1 (which he does in curb stomp fashion) and then defeated the architect of the bombing in melee combat after being wounded with staff weapons and having the holy hell beaten out of him.
Beecher of Oz tries to go on one following seeing Keller, the guy he fell in love with, working with Schillinger his enemy but in a tragic Hope Spot fails and ultimately gets his arms and legs broken by Schillinger and Keller. Beecher and Schillinger frequently seek revenge against each other throughout the series. Then there's Beecher's epic revenge against Schillinger in episode eight.
The Doctor goes out of his way to avoid these, and even acts that lead the deaths of entire races are cold and calculated (and save far more lives than they cost). The exception created the in-universe saying "Demons run when a good man goes to war".
In "A Good Man Goes To War", Rory Williams likewise single-handedly infiltrates a Cyberman control vessel, storms his way to the bridge, then demands that the Cybermen watching that area of space tell him where the Silence are holding his wife, in exchange for their lives. When they play ignorant, he has the Doctor blow up the entire Twelfth Cyber-Legion orbiting around them, to make it perfectly clear that neither he nor the Doctor are playing games.