John Cale is a Welsh singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist probably best known as a founding member of the Velvet Underground
. He's accomplished a lot more than that in his career, though, which has included numerous production credits and an extensive solo discography as well as several collaborations with other artists, including former Velvets bandmate Lou Reed
. Amongst the styles he has recorded in include modern classical, Baroque Pop
, Folk Rock
, proto-punk, Progressive Rock
, and drone. His best-known solo works are probably Paris 1919
and his cover of Leonard Cohen
's "Hallelujah", which is generally considered to have been a model for most of the other covers that followed, including Jeff Buckley
's famous version.
Cale was born in 1942 in Garnant, Carmarthenshire, Wales. After a traumatic childhood (Wikipedia has the sordid details), he studied music at Goldsmiths College, University of London, and then moved to America, where he studied under Aaron Copland
. He also collaborated with John Cage
on the first ever full-length performance of Erik Satie
's "Vexations", and later worked with La Monte Young's Dream Syndicate.
Cale co-founded the Velvet Underground in 1965 with Reed, Sterling Morrison, and Angus MacLise (who would leave the band after it received its first paying gig, to be replaced by Maureen Tucker). Although his writing credits with the group were minimal, Cale quickly established himself as a major element of the band's sound, playing viola, bass guitar, piano, and organ, and contributing deadpan vocals that proved integral parts of several of the band's songs, especially "The Gift". Personality conflicts with Reed resulted in his departure from the group after the recording of the band's second album, White Light/White Heat
, although a handful of recordings with Cale afterwards have since been released (including "Stephanie Says", "Hey Mr. Rain", "Temptation Inside Your Heart", and "Ocean").
After his departure from the group, Cale quickly established himself as a formidable solo artist and producer in his own right. He produced former Velvet Underground bandmate Nico
's seminal albums The Marble Index
, and The End...
and also contributed arrangements to the former two (Nico arranged the latter entirely on her own, according to Cale). He also produced The Stooges
' influential self-titled album and Patti Smith
's equally influential Horses
, and appears on Nick Drake
's cult classic Bryter Layter
and Brian Eno
's seminal Another Green World
At the same time, Cale launched his solo career. His first released album, Vintage Violence
, is generally regarded as folk-pop; around the same time he also worked on a collaboration with Terry Riley, the mainly instrumental Church of Anthrax
, that is often categorised as Progressive Rock
or avant-garde. A number of other solo albums included Paris 1919
, regarded as one of the great Baroque Pop
albums, and a trilogy of albums for Island that is probably best represented by his disturbing cover of Elvis Presley
's "Heartbreak Hotel", perhaps comparable to The Residents
' cover of the Rolling Stones
' "Satisfaction" in terms of how radically it reworks the original.
A highlight of his 1980s output is generally considered to be Music for a New Society
, which is a thoroughly bleak album along the lines of Reed's Berlin
, Joy Division
and the trilogy of Nico
's albums Cale produced. In 1990 his collaboration with Brian Eno
was released, Wrong Way Up
. It proved to be one of the most commercially successful albums of either artist as a performer. The same year, he also released his collaboration with Lou Reed, Songs for Drella
, a tribute to Andy Warhol
, a major mentor of the Velvet Underground. 1991 saw the release of his famous cover of "Hallelujah", which notably served as the basis for nearly every cover version done afterwards (including Jeff Buckley
and Rufus Wainwright
's (arguably, in Wainwright's case) even more famous versions).
From 1992 to 1994, the complete Reed-Cale-Tucker-Morrison lineup of the Velvet Underground reunited for the first and only time (excepting a one-off performance of "Heroin" in 1990). Further reunions were prevented by Morrison's untimely death in 1995, although the surviving members did play at their Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction in 1996. Reed's death in 2013 means that it is highly unlikely there will be any further Velvet Underground performances.
Cale's career continues to this day; he received a substantial boost when his cover of "Hallelujah" was featured in Shrek
(although it is Wainwright's version that appears on the film soundtrack). He continues to produce some pretty awesome music
- 1970: Vintage Violence
- 1971: Church of Anthrax (with Terry Riley)
- 1972: The Academy in Peril
- 1973: Paris 1919
- 1974: Fear
- 1975: Slow Dazzle
- 1975: Helen of Troy
- 1981: Honi Soit
- 1982: Music for a New Society
- 1984: Caribbean Sunset
- 1985: Artificial Intelligence
- 1989: Words for the Dying
- 1990: Songs for Drella (with Lou Reed)
- 1990: Wrong Way Up (with Brian Eno)
- 1994: Last Day on Earth (with Bob Neuwirth)
- 1996: Walking on Locusts
- 2003: HoboSapiens
- 2005: blackAcetate
- 2012: Shifty Adventures in Nookie Wood
Tropes present in his works include:
- Dark Reprise: "I Keep a Close Watch", from Helen of Troy, gets one of these on Music for a New Society.
- Literary Allusion Title: Paris 1919 is full of these, with "Child's Christmas in Wales" (named after a Dylan Thomas work), "Graham Greene", "Macbeth", and the outtake "Burned Out Affair", which seems to be a mixture of two of Greene's works (The End of the Affair and A Burnt-Out Case). The album title itself is a Historical Allusion Title, being a reference to the conference that produced the Treaty of Versailles.
- Name's the Same: Not to be confused with the American guitarist JJ Cale, most famous for writing "Cocaine".
- Red Oni, Blue Oni: To a certain extent with Lou Reed — VU turned away from the assault of White Light/White Heat to a more accessible direction under Reed's lead, and when Punk Rock broke Reed was recording singer-songwritery albums and dismissing the movement while Cale jumped on the bandwagon and recorded harsh material like Sabotage Live. Then again Cale also recorded the Baroque Pop Paris 1919 and Reed recorded the infamously abrasive Metal Machine Music so it's not like this trope completely defined their post-VU careers.
- Updated Re-release: The 2006 reissue of Paris 1919 adds 12 bonus tracks, more than doubling the length of the album. The outtake "Burned Out Affair" is added, as is at least one additional version of every song on the original album ("Macbeth" and the title track get two).