Music / John Cage

"I have nothing to say
and I am saying it
and that is poetry
as I need it.
John Cage, "Lecture on Nothing" (1949)

John Cage (1912-1992) was an American Avant-garde Music composer from Los Angeles, who pioneered the use of non-standard approaches to musical instruments, electronic music, chance music, and, most famously, no sounds at all, with his 1952 piece 4'33", which called for the performer to play no music, as the only sounds would be those generated by the audience in response. It is commonly known as Silence. He also composed with the I Ching as a reference and inspiration, leading him to introduce chance techniques. Put in Layman's Terms, instead of a composition having a standard beginning, middle and ending, what got played at a given time was determined by what came up on a coin/die/other means of deciding. Music of Changes, his first I Ching-based piece, is basically an algorithm for creating a composition based on consulting the I Ching, with the actual "sheet music" being a set of charts to instruct on different aspects of the music based on the results.

Not to be confused with the TV character with the same name or the video game character.

As usual, you can find the basics at The Other Wiki.

The 1992 documentary The Revenge Of The Dead Indians, talks about the importance and influence of John Cage's contributions to music and has interviews with various celebrities (Noam Chomsky, Matt Groening, Iannis Xenakis, Frank Zappa, Pierre Boulez, Rutger Hauer, Dennis Hopper, Yehudi Menuhin, Benoît Mandelbrot, Yoko Ono, John Zorn).

"And these are tropes, as I need them.":

  • Anything Can Be Music: He actually said this. Played absolutely straight. He would talk about standing on a street corner listening to the different sounds.
  • Avant-garde Music: He is highly regarded for his innovative interpretations of what music can be.
  • Electronic Music: One of the genres he worked in over his career.
  • Everything Is an Instrument: Along with 4'33", this also applies to his five-part series Imaginary Landscape.:
    • Imaginary Landscape No. 1: turntables and frequency recordings with a cymbal and muted piano.
    • Imaginary Landscape No. 2: tin cans, conch shell, metal wastebasket, buzzers, and amplified coil of wire
    • Imaginary Landscape No. 3: most of what was in the first two
    • Imaginary Landscape No. 4: 12 radios operated by 24 performers
    • Imaginary Landscape No. 5: magnetic tape recording of any 42 vinyl records.
    • The Arditti Quartet's CD, Complete String Quartets Vol. 1, features on the back of the jewel box the note "Tracks 2 and 4 contain applause." Not applause along with the music, just applause.
    • He also pioneered "prepared piano," which involved placing objects on the strings of a piano for the different sounds that would result.
  • Harmony: Had a lot of problems with this when he was studying under Schoenberg.
  • Heads or Tails: The method of his I Ching-based pieces, which used randomized elements (including coin flips, dice, or other methods of drawing lots) to determine what sounds would be played.
  • Insult Backfire: Cage studied for a time under Arnold Schoenberg, but they did not get along very well. In an interview some time later, Schoenberg dismissed Cage, not by name, as an "inventor" rather than a "composer." Cage took it and ran with it.
  • Leave the Camera Running: Organ/ASLSP (As SLow aS Possible), which, while originally designed to run from 20 to 70 minutes, is being performed at St. Burchardi Church in Halberstadt, Germany since 2001 with the intention of lasting 639 YEARS, taking it to the year 2640!
  • Mind Screw: Oh yes. One of the libretti for one of the Europeras reads:
    "Dressed as an Irish princess, he gives birth; they plot to overthrow the French. He arranges to be kidnapped by her; rejuvenated, they desert: to him she had borne two children. He prays for help. Since they have decided she shall marry no-one outside, he has himself crowned emperor. She, told he is dead, begs him to look at her. First, before the young couple come to a climax, he agrees. Accidentally she drowns them."
  • Opera: "Europeras"
  • Running Time in the Title: 4'33"
  • Silence Is Golden: Cage came up with the idea that plain background noise can be music and that we listen to it all the time, unknowingly, without regarding it as noise. In that regard even silence can be interesting to listen to.
  • Shout-Out: "Two Minutes Of Silence" on John Lennon and Yoko Ono's Unfinished Music No. 2: Life With The Lions is a homage to Cage.
  • Starving Artist: He went through a pretty bad patch in the 1940s.
  • Title by Number: 4'33"
  • The Voiceless: Any musician while playing 4'33".