Von Neumann probes, self-replicating machines, terraformers, Xenon, even the Enemy of God. But at its core, it was really only one thing; artificial general intelligence, mechanical minds capable of making themselves even more intelligent, and then again, and again, recursively forever.Life makes life, as we all know. In other cases, life makes artificial life. This trope, however, continues that cycle as those artificial lifeforms make their own artificial lifeforms. There's a variation where the artificial lifeform (usually a machine) is self-replicating, a... Self Replicating Machine, if you will. It's usually the domain of Nanobots everywhere, which is what makes them so dangerous. And just when you thought Turned Against Their Masters was an exclusive Human/Robot trope, this may also lead too Robots Enslaving Robots. May show Mechanical Evolution or Clone Degeneration. See also, Creating Life. Has nothing to do with a Recursive Reality or Recursive Fanfiction.
— Opening narration, X3: Terran Conflict
ExamplesAnime and Manga
- Doctor Jail Scaglietti of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha StrikerS, creator of the various Artificial Mages and Combat Cyborgs in the series, is eventually revealed to be an Artificial Human himself who was created by the very founders of the Time-Space Administration Bureau
- In Magic: The Gathering, the plane of Mirrodin and its inhabitants were created by the Planeswalker Karn, who in turn was created by the Planeswalker Urza.
- Multiplicity: Overworked guy creates clone to do his work for him. Overworked clone creates clone...
- The android girl (called synthetics) in Alien: Resurrection is from a line of synthetics designed by synthetics rather than humans.
- Screamers: See Second Variety below.
- Terminator: Skynet builds and designs new Terminators and other war machines.
- The plot of Feet of Clay revolves around golems creating a "king" golem. It doesn't go so well.
- The eponymous (and autonomous) spaceships of Fred Saberhagen's Berserker series.
- The Hypotheticals from Robert Charles Wilson's novels Spin and Axis are of the Von Neumann type seen below
- The short story Second Variety by Philip K. Dick has a handful of US Marines find out what has been happening since they gave the deadly robots built to fight off the new URSS the capability to reproduce simply because they were so dangerous nobody wanted to work on them anymore. It's not pleasant.
- The story was adapted into the movie Screamers
- The plot of Von Neumann's War, a military SF novel by John Ringo and Travis S. Taylor, Earth is attacked by Von Neumann devices, which are self replicating robots.
- A later story arc in The History of the Galaxy series involves an invasion of known space by self-replicating machines created long ago by a race only starting to explore the galaxy as automated explorers and colony creators. Unfortunately, when the machines returned centuries later, the found newer machines. Since their programming included adaptability to external threats, they proceeded to destroy the newer machines and their creators. They made many copies of themselves and continue their primary task of exploration. However, if they meet an unknown race, they automatically treat it as an enemy.
- Ur-Example: Long before the Von Neumann Machine concept appeared in fiction, William Paley's Natural Theology (1802) posited a hypothetical 'watch' that could make copies of itself, as part of a lengthy theological argument claiming proof of God.
- Madeline Ashby's Machine Dynasty series has von Neumann androids who eat plastics, metals, and e-waste to grow and give birth to robot babies. Some of them marry humans and raise children together.
- The Greenfly of the Revelation Space Series is a human-designed terraforming technology that went rogue after it was unleashed as a weapon between two lighthuggers in combat. Greenfly breaks up entire planetary systems, then rebuilds it into thousands upon thousands of orbital habitats ringing the star, whilst building more of itself, slowly turning the stars green. The Shadows - beings of another universe - created their own Greenfly in their distant past, which completely destroyed their Local Group of galaxies by the time humanity contacts them in Absolution Gap. In the Distant Finale in Galactic North, humanity is fleeing the Milky Way wholesale as Greenfly runs rampant.
- In Stephen Baxter's Manifold trilogy, this is a recurring theme. Manifold: Time and Manifold: Space opens with Reid Malenfant giving a speech advocating that humanity colonize the galaxy using self-replicating terraforming scout starships; for the cost of just one ship, they can shoot it to Alpha Centuari where it will break up asteroids to build more scout ships to investigate and terraform promising solar systems. In Manifold Space, the discovery of an asteroid in Jupiter orbit glowing in the infrared spectrum leads to the discovery that robotic terraformers are here, though it is later subverted in that the 'Gaijin' robots are merely a very exotic iron-based form of mechanical life
- There's a Star Trek: The Next Generation example, when the android Data creates its own android offspring, Lal.
- Cylons in Battlestar Galactica. It didn't turn out well for them, either.
- The imaginatively-named Replicators of Stargate SG-1 are what you get when you don't tell one of these machines when to stop. They're a menace to multiple galaxies, and are one of the few threats that can get Earth and the Goa'uld to set aside their differences and work together.
- In Star Control II, the Slylandro Probe is a faultily-programmed self-replicating robot spaceship which will first greet your ship in a friendly manner... then try to break it up for parts to make more probes.
- In the backstory of the X-Universe series Earth built several fleets of self-replicating, artificially intelligent terraforming drones (sometimes described as "Von Neumann machines" in the literature and the opening cinematic of X3: Terran Conflict). Things went pear-shaped due to a faulty (or deliberately sabotaged; reports vary) software update, most of Earth's colonies were destroyed, and Earth nearly so. The surviving bugged drones evolved into the games' Xenon, which seek to "terraform" all biological life out of existence. The Xenon continue to evolve and improve themselves, bringing in new ship designs and technology that often surpass the races of the Commonwealth, and a small handful of Terraformer CPU ships have become self-aware.
- A Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal strip shows a couple of scientists coming to the conclusion that we are in a simulated reality. The last panel has a pair of alien scientists celebrating that our universe broke the record for how long it took a simulated reality to moon them.
- Freefall's Mozart Boids (robot birds) were made by a group of sapient robots. And we now know that Dr. Bowman, the creator of the sentient robot's brain design, is an uplifted chimp
- Stanislaw Lem's "constructors" (Mortal Engines (not that one), The Cyberiad).
- The Dingbots from Girl Genius can create other Dingbots, but each successive generation is stupider and weaker. There are only about three originals ("Queenie Dingbot", "Prime A", and "Prime B") from which the best can be made directly.
- Similarly, in Gunnerkrigg Court the golems and then robots continued manufacturing more of themselves after their creator's death. Because many of his initial designs were beyond their understanding, subsequent generations were greatly simplified.
- Acibek in Dominic Deegan: Oracle For Hire created his replacement before his Heroic Sacrifice.
- In Spacetrawler, this is how the Mihrrgoots mastered nanotechnology.
King: For technology we simply build robots which build smaller robots which build smaller robots... and on until they can build machinery as tiny as we need.
- The Multiplicity example is replicated in a Simpsons Halloween Episode, parodying the former.
- A good one from Transformers Generation One. Wheeljack creates the Dinobots from scratch. Years later Grimlock, leader of the Dinobots created the Technobots from scratch. Arguably all of the Transformers count since they were given life by Vector Sigma, a computer, and built by the Quintessons. Not sure if they're fully machine though.
- The entire idea behind The Singularity is that a chain of self-replication among machines of super-human computational ability will render the world completely unrecognizable.
- The entire premise behind the Von Neumann machines.
- It's not quite self-replication, but the RepRap is a 3D printer, which can construct (among other things) almost all the parts needed to build another RepRap.