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- Mostly edited out of the final cut of RoboCop 2, but the villain Cain was a cult leader who thought the drug he used and was distributing, "Nuke", was the key to higher consciousness.
- Serenity. The Alliance wants its populations to be docile and peaceful, so it develops the drug Pax (G-23 Paxilon Hydrochlorate) and tests it on the planet Miranda, causing most of the population to lie down and die and the rest to turn into the Reavers.
- In Equilibrium, the drug Prozium makes people emotionless. The government touts it as the solution for man's tendency to war and strife. Self-administering the drug, or dosing, is required on a strict schedule. Civilians are trained from a young age to police their peers for signs of emotions, and to report any outbursts of emotion to the authorities. Prozium itself isn't addictive, though going off of it can be difficult as it results in a flood of emotions that are hard to control or hide.
- Melange from Dune, more commonly known simply as "Spice". Without it safe interstellar travel won't be possible, so the society will collapse.
- In Under the Dome by Stephen King, there's a character known as the "Chef" who cooks meth for the Big Bad. He regular uses his own product and spends the majority of his time in a meth-induced hyper-religious haze, wherein he believes he's doing God's work.
- In The Dresden Files, the drug Third-Eye has a vaguely new age style following it also does seem to give muggles some degree of magical power.
- In Embassytown, the local Starfish Aliens become addicted to an imperfect form of their Starfish Language produced by human settlers.
Live Action TV
- The Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Symbiosis" features a medicine that supposedly cures the race of a planet from some sort of illness. Except that the medicine is really a drug curing them of nothing more than severe withdrawal symptoms! The people believed that it was their last saviour of mankind, but it wasn't. OK, so yes it did cure them at one point, but now the people of the planet had become drug addicts.
- Wild Palms: The drug Mimezine, used to make holographic images appear more real, had religious overtones, considering that the Scientology-like antagonist cult (Synthiotics/The New Realism) in the miniseries controlled the pharmaceutical labs where it was manufactured as well as the media outlets which benefited from its use by consumers. Senator Kreutzer, the Big Bad, certainly thought that opening the doors of perception using Mimezine was one of the first steps to enlightenment in the New Realist/Synthiotics paradigm.
- In an episode, the crew visit an alternate Earth decimated by plague. Eventually they realise that antibiotics were never discovered in this timeline, so Arturo creates some penicillin, which becomes the Chemical Messiah for this world.
- In another episode of Sliders, nanite-tainted water absorbs people into a Hive Mind.
- In a post-apocalyptic RPG Neuroshima, there is a Maybe Magic, Maybe Mundane phenomenon called "black tornado", a moving cloud of unknown substance, leaving hardened droplets in its wake. Those who get caught too close and inhale the cloud or purposefully eat a droplet go catatonic for about 20 hours while their mind seemingly experiences Mental Time Travel to a body of a random person, allowing them to experience the last day before the bombs fell. Obviously, there are people who follow news of black tornado, gather the droplets and sell them as drugs. But there are also people who fully believe in the visions and take the droplets day after day, hoping that one day the random person will be the president of the U.S. and they will get a chance to stop the war from happening.
- Command & Conquer does this with Tiberium. The Brotherhood of Nod forms a pseudo-religious cult around Tiberium, believing the substance to be the future of humanity's evolution. The degree varies between games; in the first it was merely useful because they developed harvesting technology first, in the second it was played straight, in the third it was played straight at first but later revealed they were faking it, and in the finale it was Nod technology and an alliance they initiated that rid the world of Tiberium forever.
- Deus Ex: Human Revolution has Neuropozyne; any augmentation that will be moved by the mind requires a neuroprosthetic junction, essentially a chip in the brain that acts as the interface between body and machine (cybernetic arms, legs, eyes, etc). However, this process causes what is described in-game as "nerve scars"; these scars eventually interfere with the integrity of the chip and it causes the body to reject the augmentation. The only way to prevent that is to take weekly doses of Neuropozyne, a drug that's avilable as prescription only and whose distribution is heavily monitored which has lead to it selling for exorbitant prices on the secondhand market. Thanks to genetic experiments performed on him when he was an infant, Adam doesn't need Neuropozyne.
- Heroin, and even its name reflected this, being derived from "heroisch," meaning "heroic." When it was first synthesized and produced, it was seen as a great painkiller and cough medicine (which it is, although to the degree that a nuclear bomb is a great demolition device), a cure for alcoholism and morphine addiction without people realizing that it was itself addictive, and a new wonder drug alongside aspirin for this - even being sold over the counter and being stored and used by people in various contexts....
- Methamphetamine. When it was first synthesized (and plain amphetamine before it) both were seen as "wonder drugs" for their ability to keep soldiers and military pilots awake for hours on end. Both Adolf Hitler and the Imperial Japanese Army were on near-constant doses, and there are some theories that so much of the near-psychotic evil engaged in by both the Nazis and Imperial Japanese was all done on a massive meth bender. It didn't help that post-war, all those stocks of methamphetamine poured into the Japanese market - making meth to the day of this writing still one of Japan's most popular illegal drugs, with everyone from yakuza to salarymen to artists and musicians becoming heavy users or addicts - and in those post-war days, meth made its way around the world, becoming a problem in far more places than it originally was.
- Cannabis, for as much as it may seem to be presented as such by its more devoted fans and users now, is actually an inversion: due to prohibition, propaganda, and more, the safety and utility of both hemp (the nonpsychoactive plant in the family) and to cannabis itself dropped off of the public radar in much of the Western world and in the places influenced by its demands for drug control. Only over time and beginning around The '60s and The '70s did use increase, and the studies and science actually followed the use, only slowly catching up to prove its relative safety and relatively low toxicity in comparison to other psychoactives, create strains and methods of consumption that focused on different effects for both recreation and health, and even discover a potential cancer-fighting application for cannabis and rediscover potential environmental benefit for hemp, which ironically may be a Plant Messiah so to speak - an easily growable, easily prolific, drought-tolerant plant that can possibly be used to make everything from food products and fuels to buildings and clothing, and that if it even could take over half the uses of petroleum and forest trees globally, would solve major "unsolvable" environmental dilemmas.