Ravi Verma's depiction of the abduction of Sita in the Ramayana
When to the end the tale was brought,
Rose in the sage's mind the thought;
Now who throughout this earth will go,
And tell it forth that all may know?
is an ancient Epic Narrative Poem
written by one of Ancient India
's oldest poets, Valmiki.
The epic begins in the city of Ayodhya whose king, Dasaratha, is in despair since he has no children to pass his kingdom to. He performs a great fire sacrifice and his three wives, in consequence, bear four sons. When Rama, his oldest and favorite son, turns sixteen, the sage Vishwamitra requests his help in taking down the demons. In other news, King Janaka of a neighboring kingdom despairs that nobody can do the Engagement Challenge
he put to anybody wanting to marry his beautiful daughter Sita, as many suitors have tried and failed to even lift
the bow of Shiva (he had ordered it to be strung). Rama, naturally, breaks
the bow, and marriages are arranged left and right between the two kingdoms. Rama ends up marrying Sita, and the characters reside in peace for about a decade.
Dasaratha, having grown old, is about to hand over his position to Rama, his oldest son by his first wife, Koushalaya. However his youngest and favorite wife Kaikeyi convinces him to grant The Promise
he had promised her years ago. She then asks for the exile of Rama for fourteen years and the coronation of her son Bharata. Dasaratha reluctantly does so, but he dies of heartbreak not long after
. Lakshmana tags along with Rama and his wife Sita. Meanwhile, Bharata finds Rama in the forest and declares that the throne is rightfully the latter's. When Rama refuses to return, Bharata accepts, but threatens to kill himself if he doesn't return.
Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita eventually settle into life in exile. Surpanakha, a sister of the demon king Ravana, is entranced by the brothers' good looks and tries to seduce them. Ever faithful, Rama and Lakshmana deny her advances, and the latter cuts her nose. When Ravana hears of this, he's of course pissed and orders the shapeshifting demon Maricha to turn into a golden deer. Sita is entranced by the deer, and asks Rama to capture it for her. He reluctantly leaves her in Lakshmana's guard, but when Sita hears his cries of help, she convinces Lakshmana to go after him. Of course, it was all a distraction, as Ravana kidnaps Sita when he leaves, bringing her to the island city of Lanka, separated from the mainland by a giant ocean, and tries to force her to marry him.
The rest of the epic describes the Roaring Rampage of Rescue
Rama goes on, as they meet Hanuman, greatest of the monkey heroes, Trickster
archetype, and son of a wind god, who helps them search for Sita when Sugriva, his leader, is returned to the throne of Kishkinda. Hanuman meets Sita clandestinely in Lanka and asks her to return home with him but she denies his request, saying that Rama should rescue her, not Hanuman. She gives him a token to give Rama. He is captured by Ravana's forces, but Ravana's righteous brother Vibheeshana convinces Ravana not to kill him and instead only burn his tail. Hanuman then burns down the entire city.
What follows is Rama and company attacking Lanka by building a giant bridge. A lengthy battle then happens, in which Ravana is defeated. Sita is returned to Rama, but he doubts her chastity. She then goes through the Agni Parishka
, where she steps into a fire to prove that she did not sleep with Ravana. The fire does not burn her, she is declared innocent, and the party returns to Ayodhya where they rule peacefully.The Ramayana
is a testament to the belief that good will always triumph over evil. Its characters are also what Indians believed to be "ideal" - ie. Rama is the perfect man, Sita is the perfect wife, etc. It has been adapted countless amount of times and has been reproduced in India, Indonesia
, and most of South East Asia. It is subject to tons of alternative character interpretation
and Sadly Mythtaken
. It also bears some similarities with The Odyssey
and Journey to the West
For a darker, longer ancient Indian epic, see The Mahabharata
. It forms an integral part of Hindu Mythology
Tropes in Ramayana include:
- Abduction Is Love: Averted; Ravana kidnaps Sita, wanting her for himself, but she refuses every one of his advances and remains faithful to her husband.
- Achilles' Heel: Ravana's belly button.
- Action Girl: Kaikeyi is a princess when she rescued King Dasaratha as a charioteer when he was injured. Dasaratha was so impressed that he married her and promised her to give anything she asks for. This bites him in the ass later on.
- An Aesop: One has to be good to one's parents. Parents should not begrudge their children. One should be careful not to shoot humans while hunting. An exception to family loyalty: if your brother is pursuing a disastrous course of action that will destroy one's kingdom (Vibeeshna)
- Annoying Arrows: Like all Hindu Mythology, all battles LOVE this trope.
- Anything That Moves: Ravana's proclivity for hitting on anything that moves and kidnapping the wives of his enemies as well as trying to rape the daughters of sages like Vedavati, never mind kidnapping Sita.
- Artistic License
- Author Avatar: Valmiki appears as himself in the end of the Ramayana (or at least the extended version anyway).
- Badass Adorable: Rama's sons Lava and Kusha. They're sweet kids and superb singers, but in a fight, no one other than Rama can defeat them. As for the rest, it's just one Curb-Stomp Battle after another.
- Bears Are Bad News: Averted. Jambavan is very intelligent and capable as a bear, and he's thoroughly on the good side.
- Beauty Is Never Tarnished
- Berserk Button: When Ravana shoots down Lakshmana, Rama takes his fighting Up to Eleven and to say the least, that's the end of Ravana's good day.
- Beware the Nice Ones: There are only 3 (justified) occasions where Rama loses his temper, and when he does, the whole universe must urgently find a way to appease him, and fast!
- Being Good Sucks: Rama's life is full of it because of his insistence on being good.
- Big Badass Bird of Prey: Jatayu and Sampaati.
- Burn the Witch!: Hanuman wrecked the Ashoka Garden in Lanka, Ravana's kingdom when he went to Sita as a messenger. The enraged Ravana ordered his tail to be burned. This ends badly when Hanuman uses his burning tail to burn down the entire city of Lanka.
- Cain and Abel: Ramayana has tons of brothers seemingly at odds.
- In the story of brothers Vali and Sugreeva, Vali suspects Sugreeva of plotting to take over his throne, exiles him and takes his wife for himself. Later, Sugreeva meets with Rama and Laxman who decide to help him kill Vali.
- Also played straight in the tale of Big Bad Ravana and his younger brother Vibheeshana. Vibheeshana allies himself with Rama and against his brother. When Lanka is defeated and Ravana is killed, Vibheeshana is crowned emperor.
- Averted in the case of Rama and his younger brother Bharata in that Bharata did not want to rule the Kingdom and ruled it only as a surrogate during Rama's exile, contrary to Kaikeyi's expectation that Bharata would be glad to be sole ruler.
- Conspicuous Consumption: Dasarath's palace in Ayodhya is described in lavish detail as a place of near-heavenly luxury. On many festive occasions, it is custom to give extremely generously to any brahmins present.
- Cool Airship: Pushpaka Vimana, Ravana's city-sized flying chariot.
- Damsel in Distress: Sita. However, in The Adbhuta Ramayana, a later, Shakta adaptation, she undergoes Xenafication and is revealed as Kali-Mata herself!
- Death by Despair: Dasaratha dies of a broken heart, although it is also in part due to the curse he'd gotten from his hunting accident.
- Disk One Nuke: Rama gains the weapons of the gods early on in the story, before he faces any enemies.
- Downer Ending: Depending on the version followed. The original Six Kanda (kandas are like 'sections', each with a number of chapters) version ends happily but the later, expanded Seven Kanda Version is a big fat Shoot the Shaggy Dog downer-o-rama! Sita is cast out of Ayodhya while pregnant with twins to Valmiki's hermitage and asks Mother Earth to swallow her up when Rama asks for her to come back a second time. Rama's commits suicide by drowning in the Sarayu. Rama and Sita's twins are therefore brought up without their parents.
- Double Standard: Rama doubts Sita's chastity even though Sita was kidnapped against her will by the Demon King Ravana and did not do anything with him. She proves her chastity through the Agni Pariksha where she sat on a funeral pyre. The fire did not burn her, vouching for her chastity. In the extended adaptation whose chapters are of a more recent visage, Sita's chastity is mocked by a washerman in Ayodhya who verbally abused his wife. For that, Rama exiles her to the forest and away from the Kingdom of Ayodhya.
- The Dragon: Indrajit, the son of Ravana. He is stated to be stronger than his father.
- Easily Forgiven: Rama is willing to completely forgive Ravana if he surrenders (which he doesn't), but after Ravana is killed, Rama forgives him.
- Engagement Challenge: Rama won over Sita's hand when he strung the bow of Shiva when many others were not even able to lift it.
- Everything Is Better With Monkeys: Rama and Laxman defeat the whole fearsome demon army of Ravan with a ragtag army of monkeys.
- Evil Overlord: Ravana
- Exact Words: When a crowd of people want to follow Rama into the forest as he leaves Ayodhya, he tells all men and women to go home. When he comes back 14 years later, he finds that the hijras, being neither, stayed where he gave the speech. He was so impressed, he granted hijras the boon to confer blessings on people during auspicious inaugural occasions like childbirth and weddings. This boon is the origin of badhai, in which hijras sing, dance, and give blessings.
- Faking the Dead: Ravana shoves Rama's dead head at Sita's feet to convince her that he is dead. Of course, Rama is not dead and the head is fake but it does reduce Sita to tears.
- Fidelity Test: The Agni Pariksha.
- Forged by the Gods: Rama's Weapon of Mass Destruction is his own special arrow, which can be charged with enough power to destroy everything in the universe and no enemy can stop it. He never uses it except to threaten but just the sheer havoc it wreaks by putting it on the bow shows a sample of what it can do.
- For Massive Damage: Ravana's belly button.
- Friend to All Living Things: Sita. An exception would be the golden deer, who is actually a demon in disguise.
- Gilded Cage: Although a prisoner, Sita is kept in a beautiful palace for a year, with servants and everything.
- Good Hair, Evil Hair: Suparnaka's copper hair is used to describe her more puerile character. Sita by contrast is decribed as having long black hair.
- Happily Married: Subverted with the later additions to the story. Played straight in the original.
- Heel-Face Turn: Ravan's brother.
- Heir Club for Men: The beginning of the story.
- Heroic Sacrifice / You Shall Not Pass: The vulture Jatayu is killed trying to stop Ravana from taking Sita.
- Honour Before Reason: The unquestioning performance of duty, even if it leads to negative consequences, is one of the major themes of the text.
- Dasarath exiles his beloved son Rama because he is bound by an oath he gave to Kaikeyi.
- Rama willingly goes into exile, both out of filial obedience and to help his father fulfill the terms of his vow, despite everyone in Ayodhya except Kaikeyi (his father included) pleading with him to ignore the command.
- I Gave My Word: King Dasarath when asked to enact The Promise.
- Improbable Aiming Skills
- Rama is easily the greatest archer in all of Hindu Mythology. Even Arjuna of the Mahabharata doesn't quite match him there.
- As a kid training in archery, he once practices a shot where he knocks off a woman's nose ring with one arrow and a second arrow mid-flight deflects it to go into her nose again exactly through the holes. Without hurting her.
- He creates a complete shield of arrows to stop demons from polluting a fire sacrifice. He also sends one of the demons flying hundreds of miles out to sea with a single shot.
- He single-handedly defeats 14000 demons and two of Ravana's Dragons, whom even the Gods couldn't beat.
- Dasharatha gets his name because he's capable of fighting enemies surrounding him in ten directions, including up and down. He is capable of hitting the target dead on only by hearing the noise it makes, although he gets into some serious trouble when he accidentally kills an ascetic this way.
- Loophole Abuse: Big Bad Ravana wishes to never be defeated by any God, making only an exception for humans since he thinks they don't amount to much. Of course, the (technically) human Rama defeats him.
- Love at First Sight: Sita sees Rama from the verandah and immediately falls in love with him.
- Meaningful Name: Sita means "furrow". Janaka, her adopted father found her when he tilled a farmland in a box. Also Indrajit means "the one who defeated Indra", his original name is Meghanada.
- Messianic Archetype: Interestingly enough, Rama comes across as a Christ figure...despite predating Christ by several hundred years.
- Multishot: In battles, Rama is constantly shooting several arrows at once. Up to a thousand fit on his string.
- Mystical Pregnancy: Vishnu turns himself into celestial porridge for Dasaratha to feed his wives. All three of them eventually give birth to sons endowed with Vishnu's essence.
- Nice Job Fixing It, Villain: Ravana's idea to set fire to Hanuman's tail not only allows him to escape, but in the process he burns down the entire city of Lanka, and now the heroes have all the info they need to fight Ravana. Not to mention that his attempts to stop Hanuman resulted in the deaths of 2 of his sons, several commanders and a good chunk of his army.
- Noble Demon: Ravana's brother Vibhishana is one, both figuratively and literally. He makes a Heel-Face Turn and joins Rama.
- Nosebleed: Surpanakha proves that women can get it too.
- One-Winged Angel: After being decapitated by Rama, Ravana becomes a monster with ten heads and several arms, his 'true form'
- Our Giants Are Bigger: Kumbakarna
- Papa Wolf: Vayu was so angry when Indra injured Hanuman that he refused to leave a cave where he hospitalized his son. It shouldn't have been a problem except that Vayu is the personification of air and even breathing became impossible when he stopped moving.
- Power Limiter: Hanuman was cursed since childhood for his mischievous deeds. The curse makes him forget the extent of his power. The wise bear Jambavan later reminds Hanuman of the time he tried to eat the sun and automatically lifts this curse.
- The Promise: Dasaratha made a promise to his favorite wife Kaikeyi that he would give her anything she asked for. She asks for the exile of his favorite son Rama for 14 years. The sorrow at being forced to carry out this deed leads to Dasarath's Death by Despair.
- Rage Against the Heavens: Ravana and his demon crews wage war against AND defeat the gods. That's when Meghanada became Indrajit...
- Roaring Rampage of Rescue: What Rama embarks on when Sita is kidnapped.
- Shapeshifting Lover: Surpanakha. Subverted in that both Rama and Laxmana see through it and refuse her advances.
- So Beautiful, It's a Curse: Sita was beautiful and thus kidnapped by Ravana.
- Spell My Name with an S: There's a lot of different transliterations of the names, the most common being the "a"s at the end (Ravana/Ravan) and the "i"/"e" thing (Sita/Seeta). Much of this is down to the differences between Sanskrit and modern Hindi, as well as different approaches to transliterating Indian languages to the Latin alphabet.
- Steal the Surroundings: Possibly the Ur Example.
- Undying Loyalty:
- Hanuman is legendary amongst Hindus as the living incarnation of loyalty. Pretty much all his deeds (and there are MANY) are, beyond anything else, shows of devotion and love to Rama. In fact, Hanuman declared that, as long as Rama's name was known and people were devoted to him, he'd stay on Earth. So yes, Hanuman became immortal because of how devoted he is to Rama. Let that sink in.
- Sita and Lakshmana willingly follow Rama into exile in the forest. Much of the population of Ayodhya, including his mother Kaushalya) is also willing to follow him, but Rama commands them to stay in the city.
- Voluntary Shape Shifting: Suparnaka and Maricha. And Ravana.
- Warrior Prince: Rama
- Weak Sauce Weakness: Vali was blessed by Shiva that whoever fight him will loss half of their strength, while Vali himself gain equal strength to their losing power. However, this ability doesn't work on Hanuman, for he's embodiment of Shiva's power as well.
- Wicked Cultured: Ravana is supposed to be one of these.
- Wicked Stepmother: Rama, his brother Laxman and his wife were exiled from their Kingdom for 14 years because Kaikeyi, his stepmother wanted her son Bharat to be king. Zigzagged in that she was actually portrayed as being like Rama's own mother, being magnanimous and kind and absolutely overjoyed when she learned that Dasarath, the King wanted to crown Rama as the Crown Prince. The influence of her evil maid and the gods themselves hardening her heart lead her to make her request to Dasarath.
- Woman Scorned: Suparnaka. Also Sita in some versions.
- World's Strongest Man: Kumbarkarna
- Xenafication: Sita in a later, Shakta re-adaptation of this story, which also acts as a sequel, The Adbhuta Ramayana, Rama must now fight Ravana's even-more-powerful father (also named ''Ravana''). However, things are going pretty darn crappy for Rama until Sita comes along and morphs into the Goddess, Kali, lays waste to Ravana & his army and saves the day!
- You Can't Go Home Again: Rama is exiled for 14 years, and is determined to wait out the full length of his exile out of moral duty.