Hard to Be a God (Russian: "Трудно быть богом" Trudno byt' bogom) is the fourth novel by the Strugatsky Brothers to be set in the Noon Universe.The novel follows Anton, who goes by the name Don Rumata on his job as an undercover Earthling observer (not a "progressor", the institute of progressors was only created later) on a Dung Ages planet going through a Renaissance and a religious backlash, just starting to border on a full-blown Inquisition. Notable as an exploration of the Alien Non-Interference Clause concept.The novel was adapted into two films and was followed by a computer game that served as a sequel.
Tropes found in the novel:
Alien Non-Interference Clause: Not exactly, the novel is in between the non-interference era and the progressors era. Rumata is saving scientists from prosecution, but isn't allowed to influence political matters.
Crapsack World: And how. After a series of ill-advised wars that all ended in loses, common people in Arkanar are living in extreme poverty and the nobles struggle to hold on to their wealth. The king is incompetent and the kingdom's educational system is in shambles. The kingdom is surrounded by hostile powers on all sides. The only people who really thrive are the Grey Stormtroopers and the local criminal gang. You can pretty much count on everything that shows the slightest hint of goodness being twisted, corrupted, used in the service of darkness or outright destroyed.
The Empire: The entire Gulf region (which the Kingdom of Arkanar is part of) is officially ruled by one of those. The problem is that Empire has been on a slow decline for centuries, gradually losing control of all of its outlying "provinces." By the time the novel opens, most outlying provinces are acting as independent powers in all the ways that matter. So long as they never formally break their ties from the Empire, the emperors seem content to let them do that (though the novel strongly suggests that the Empire couldn't rein in its former subjects even if it wanted to).
Executive Meddling: Arata was absent from early draft, only added because censor demanded "to show the Revolutionary Movement".
Fantasy Counterpart Culture: A mixture of Late Medieval / Renaissance Italy, Spain, and France, complete with Romance-sounding names and titles.
Word of God states that Arkanar was designed with Japanese flavor: for example, the "Don" honorific stems not from Spanish "don", but from Japanese "dono". Two swords of noble Dons remind of samurai swords...
God Guise: Rumata attempts to avert this, but people who know him well enough realize that he cannot be human and Clarke's Third Lawcorollary applies. Still, while some (Dr. Budakh, Kira) see a god in him, others (Don Reba, Arata) think he is a devil.
A God I Am: Rumata. Far from the usual use of this trope, however, which usually overlaps with Drunk with Power, Rumata is instead nigh incapacitated by the responsibility and duty that comes with being a god and that is, quite obviously, too much for an individual who is most definitely a human.
Thou Shalt Not Kill: Most Earthlings strictly follow this rule (as an exception, we hear about an Earthling, who, posing as a guard officer, tried to stop witches' burning by ordering his soldiers to shoot the executioners. He failed).
Urban Legend Love Life: Rumata has to keep up the reputation of the real Rumata, who was, it appears, a bit of Casanova. Alas, Rumata cannot bring himself to sleep with local ladies—because of his morality and because they're so damn dirty. He manages to arrange matters so that noble women lie about their affairs with him because of their pride.
Vestigial Empire: On paper, Arkanar is still a province of the Estor metropoly, but nowadays it doesn't mean much. Notably, once Rumata claims that he is of much nobler birth that even Arkanarin king.