The plot of the adaptation is similar to the movie plot, but the characters from Earth are different: Uncle Vova is a musician, not a foreman, and his tagalong is his nephew Tolik, a wannabe DJ. Oh, and they are from the XXI century. Also, Abradox is not a sufficiently advanced alien but an annoying robot sidekick.
Batman Gambit: Gidevan and the aliens play a game of chess, and Gidevan loses, because the aliens can read his thoughts. He starts deliberately thinking bad moves for them and wins.
Bilingual Bonus: "Pepelats" (those flying ... things) means "butterfly" in Georgian (the director's and script-writers' native tongue), only with a "ts" tacked on the end for flavor.
Etzikh (jail coffins) is derived from "tzikhe" - "jail" in Georgian.
Ketse (matches) are named after traditional Georgian clay frying pans.
This caused a significant problem for Danelia, because the censors for some reasons believed that it was a sneak attack at "ЦК" (Cental Committee of the CPSU, commonly pronounced as "TSE-kah" in Russian).
Amusingly, it goes both ways. Just as the mindset of Pluckans is completely alien to the Earthlings, so the Pluckans cannot comprehend how a coherent society can survive without a system of colourful pants to indicate how many times people should squat before each other.
"If society doesn't have colour differentiation of pants, it has no purpose!" - B
Fantastic Caste System: Apart from Patsak/Chatlanian division (below) there is a caste system that regulates how many times one should squat before an owner of pants of various special colours and if you have pants of a colour lower than magenta you can be randomly beaten up by local police at night.
Fantastic Racism: A small device called a "visator" determines if you are "Patsak" or "Chatlanian", and thus determines whether you will be oppressed or privileged. The difference between "Patsak" and "Chatlanian" is not racial, it's not genetic, it's not biological and it isn't ethnic. The only way to tell is to just use the device. Moreover, the planets in the galaxy are divided into chatlanean and patzkaen as well. Thus the same person will be a master on "his" planet and a slave on the "wrong" one. Both Chatlanians and Patzaks seem to be fine with that.
Good Is Not Soft: Alphians. They are eager to help the protagonists return home and are polite and composed even when faced with their rudeness. But they make no bones about the trespassers from KDD, which given what the residents of KDD do to each other (and, in the script, what they tried to do to Alpha thrice), i.e. exterminate whole planets just because fuck them, is quite understandable. Even then Alphians are humane (well, from their point of view at least) enough to not just shoot the invaders on approach but turn them into cacti.
Idiot Ball: Vladimir Nikolaevich gives away all his matches (a huge fortune, as he's already aware) to a smuggler for a bottle of water and some plastic snacks, when, for all he knew, in a short while he'd be able to return home. Also, Gidevan, in the example stated below, attempts to steal a very heavy coffin with an Human Alien inside, when the local police is about to fall upon them, and when he already has a fully functional ray gun.
Kleptomaniac Hero: The Fiddler collects any "unknown alien metals" and technology he can get by barter or plain theft. One time, unknowingly, he steals Gravitsappa. For Science! Turned Up to Eleven when he tries to kidnap an alien prisoner with the coffin he's in.
Mary Sue Topia: Alpha starts like a sterile place with very polite people and nice gardens.
Na´ve Newcomer: Uncle Vova at first, although he eventually learns better.
Omnicidal Maniac: At least two of the planets of the Kin-Dza-Dza galaxy, and there's no reason to believe the others are any better. Not because of a desire to kill, but rather because of a lack of the concept "Why not to do [something]" in their mindsets.
Gidevan: "Why did they [Pluckans] do it [destroyed the home planet of Bi and Uef]?"
Uef: "So that we don't do it to them first."
Gidevan: "And why would you do that?"
Uef: "So that they don't hang over our heads."
Only Electric Sheep Are Cheap: Pluck's inhabitants destroyed the ecology on their own world and converted every single drop of natural water on the planet to lutz (fuel). Matchsticks (made of natural wood and sulfur) are incredibly valuable on Pluck.
Police State: Law enforcement units called etsilopp are corrupt and can come to you at night to beat you up. Unless you are a proud owner of magenta pants (or higher).
Ray Gun: There are ray guns called trancklucators. While you can't see the beam, they're just as deadly. Apparently, they come so different in size and look, that a random pipe could be passed off as one. There are even some capable of trancklucating a planet.
Translation Convention: The inhabitants of the Kin-Dza-Dza galaxy are telepathic and usually have very little need to talk (which explains why there are only dozens of words in their vocabulary). Vova and Fiddler are not telepathic, but aliens scan their minds and learn Russian (or Georgian) and talk with them.
Used Future: while the film takes place in "present" times, the technology used by the aliens is highly advanced and everything is appropriately rusty:
Uncle Vova: "Hey astronauts, which one is tsappa here?" B: "The rusty one, darling." Uncle Vova: "Everything is rusty here." B: "And tsappa is the rustiest."
Worthless Yellow Rocks: Matches are the most valuable currency on Pluck. When Uncle Vova forgets that and uses them to smoke, Wef and B get incredibly distressed. Pants of different colours are also in high demand, because they determine your social status.
Also subverted with actual money. After Gedevan mentions how many matches he can buy on his 50 rubles, Wef tells him to leave the money as he goes to the catapult.