Cirque du Soleil (French for "Circus of the Sun") is a Montreal-based company. Initially mostly made up of street performers and/or acrobats, and organized by Guy Laliberté and Gilles Ste-Croix, its first troupe toured in 1984 (as part of the 450th anniversary celebrations of the discovery of Canada by the French). It was successful enough that a second tour ran in 1986, and a third, ''Le Cirque Réinventé'' ("Circus Reinvented") the year after that.That particular troupe made a make-or-break visit to an arts festival in Los Angeles in 1987 and immediately became a sensation with its one-ring, animal-less format and a style more akin to European circuses than the Ringling Bros.-dominated format familiar to Americans. In essence, the Cirque aesthetic combines the theatrical, theme-driven concepts and characters of European shows with the focus on acrobatic skill of Asian circuses.More tours followed with increasingly ambitious themes, visual concepts, acts, and music (most of the shows have original scores) as more performers joined from other countries. 1992's Saltimbanco is generally regarded as the first "modern" Cirque show. The following year, casino mogul Steve Wynn had a theatre custom-built at his new Treasure Island hotel-casino in Las Vegas for Cirque, which became home to the troupe Mystere. The company's growth and development progressed to the point that, in The New Tens, the number of troupes performing somewhere in the world at any given time is in the double digits. Each one is unique, changing acts and performers over time but sticking to an individual thematic/artistic core.Cirque is usually credited for reviving interest in circus entertainment in The Nineties, and from the Turn of the Millennium onward have also experimented in crossing the form over with other genres (Jukebox Musical, magic/illusion, concert, etc.).Touring troupes visit major cities worldwide for visits of a few weeks to a few months each, usually under a custom-built big top, Le Grand Chapiteau (usually in Cirque's signature colors of blue and yellow). With the sheer number of shows now touring, the older shows have been adapted for arenas, expanding the company's reach to mid-sized cities and shorter engagements.Cirque has made a variety of film and TV productions. Most are filmed performances of the touring shows, but there have been original efforts derived from the shows and many behind-the-scenes documentaries. There's been a concert tour adapting the music of the shows and several books including the 20th anniversary marker 20 Years Under the Sun, which helped flesh out this entry.If you want to know about a specific show and its tropes, look to the Cirque du Soleil Index.
Common tropes in this company's work include:
All There in the Manual: The themes, plots, and significance of various characters of many of the shows are not openly spelled out in the shows, but in souvenir programs and at the official website.
Ambiguous Gender: Many of the costumes and makeup evoke this on purpose to make the performers/characters seem more androgynous.
The cast of IRIS, Cirque's show about the history of cinema, performed at the 84th Academy Awards in 2012. (This was easy to do, since the show's home base was the Dolby Theatre, where the Oscars are held; the show was commissioned to occupy the theater the rest of the year.)
Cash Cow Franchise: As an example, Saltimbanco was retired from the lineup after the initial tour ended in 1997, but revived the following year and performed until 2012. Guy Laliberté made enough money from this enterprise that he paid the Russians to let him go into space in 2009.
Costume Porn: The book brought out to mark the company's 25th anniversary was about the costumes of all the shows over the years, which should tell you how much this trope applies to them.
Cut Song: When old acts/transitions go, so do their songs, so many a soundtrack (usually recorded within a year or two of the opening) has a fair amount of material that's no longer in the show.
The Danza: Most clowns and sometimes serious characters, though the latter are less likely to retain the name after their original performer/namesake leaves.
Downer Ending: While the shows typically have happy endings, only occasionally presenting bittersweet ones, the TV series Solstrom has a few episodes that end with downers. "Wind of Freedom" is an example: the convict who's the viewpoint character is the only one who doesn't escape the prison and thus he never sees his sweetheart again.
The Everyman - If the show has a central character, there's a good chance (s)he will be this.
Better yet: In French, Quidam means more or less "everyman", and the protagonist eventually concludes he is really "every man", "any man".
Everything's Better with Sparkles: The Firefly Boy in KA is a particularly obvious example, but to quote a comment from the trope itself, "27.84% of every Cirque show is glitter."
Everything's Better with Spinning: Most shows have at least one act that invokes this trope; common ones include aerial hoop, (hula-style) hoops and/or manipulation, bolas, Chinese meteors, and German wheel.
Follow the Leader: Imitations of this company's style exist, such as the output of the U.S.-based Cirque Productions (unsuccessfully sued for using "Cirque" in its name). Can qualify as The Mockbuster when one considers that these shows usually travel to places that don't usually, if ever, get actual Cirque tours...
Impractically Fancy Outfit: Averted. No matter how elaborate a costume is, it is designed for maximum functionality and safety for its wearer's act. Cirque is a pioneer in Practically Fancy Outfits.
Jukebox Musical: LOVE, Viva Elvis, and the two Michael Jackson projects are all variants on this genre: the original recordings of the performer(s) in question are used and visually interpreted by the troupe through acrobatics and dance.
Opening Ballet: Many shows open this way to introduce the major and minor characters, as well as the setting.
Reality TV: The development of Varekai was the basis for the documentary series Fire Within.
Retool: As noted above, acts and performers change with time, but some shows have been severely revamped for other reasons: to make them Lighter and Softer, to give the audience more of what they expect going in (Criss Angel Believe dropped its acrobatics in favor of more magic tricks), etc.
The Rival: In the U.S., the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, especially once Cirque put its older shows on the arena tour circuit. Ringling Bros., which almost always performs in arenas, is the epitome of traditional circus and uses animals, something Cirque eschews with the exception of doves in Believe. Ringling presents three different tours that are each revamped with a new "edition" every one-to-two years, as opposed to Cirque shows being unique, stand-alone productions that can run indefinitely.
Scenery Porn: The resident shows are crazy about this; the tours are pretty too in smaller-scale ways.
Set Switch Song: Often used for transitions from one act to another, especially when equipment has to be set up and/or taken down.
The Show Must Go On: Despite horrible critical reception, shows such as Criss Angel Believe and Banana Shpeel continued to perform — the latter, after being burnt by the press in its Chicago tryout, went through its second retool to go on to New York as planned and after that was unsuccessful, attempted a North American tour. Only its poor reception in Toronto, its first stop, brought the show to an end. As for Believe, it had a substantial Retool that dropped most of the Cirque-based elements and is still running.
On the other hand, from day to day this trope is averted — despite the general consensus that the circus will go on stage no matter what the circumstances, Cirque stops its shows if there is an accident involving technology or their personnel.
Singing Simlish: The majority of original Cirque songs use this if they're not going for Bilingual Bonus, although Amaluna's soundtrack album has English versions of the songs "Come Together", "Hope", "Burn Me Up", and "Run".
Slapstick: Whenever the clowns appear, this is bound to be part of their schtick (of course, this is in the great traditions of both circus and clowning).
Small Reference Pools: Not everyone in the company is French-Canadian or French, but you'd never know it from the jokes and spoofs tossed around, which also overlap with Shallow Parody and Redundant Parody in that very, very few mockeries acknowledge that the shows have a sense of humor, instead presenting them as strictly parades of pretentiousness.
Something Completely Different: Most of the Vegas shows since Mystere put a significant twist on the usual formula in staging and/or thematic focus — "O" uses water as a performance medium and setting, Zumanity is adults-only, etc. Zarkana is an exception to this, though it folds in Rock Opera for its score, owing to the fact that it wasn't originally created for Vegas.
Trickster Archetype: Most of the shows have at least one variety of this as a character (possibly one of the clowns), to the point that a key character in KOOZA is named Trickster.
Under the Sea: "O" is a pun on the French word for water, eau, but to truly see (or sea) this trope in action, there's the "Deep" sequence in KA, the "Octopus's Garden" number in LOVE, "Bridge of Sorrow" in Delirium, and the "fishbowl" in Zumanity and Amaluna.
Variety Show: Zumanity and Banana Shpeel are presented in this style (as deliberate throwbacks to cabaret and vaudeville, respectively).
Walking Shirtless Scene: A good number of the male performers, though it's hardly surprising considering their physiques.
Widget Series: The concept applies to the company's output as a whole, and even more so to Solstrom.
World of Ham: As circuses tend to be hammy by design, most Cirque shows take place in one. (Quidam is the most obvious exception to the rule.)