In Arthur, King of Time and Space, which ports the Arthurian legends to various genres, this is usually how Guinevere and Lancelot start out. In the genre where they're based on McCoy and Spock, they form a belligerent nascent threesome with Arthur/Kirk.
France/England fanworks are often portrayed this way, due to their tendency of taking potshots at each other. As well as fanworks, this trope is played with in the series with France playing the Jerk with a Heart of Gold and England playing the Tsundere role. This is lampshaded in the dub of Hetalia: Paint It White when an alien machine is describing Britain
Narrator: ...France is a long time acquaintance he's often found bickering with for bickering's sake. However, in their heart of hearts they love each other (Beat) Sexually.
America/England to a lesser extent. Both characters have Jerk with a Heart of Gold qualities. This was even lampshaded in the dub with France's remark, "When you two are done releasing sexual tensions, we have a meeting to finish."
And Turkey/Greece, too. As a contrast to Greece/Japan, it has Turkey as a grumpy Boisterous Bruiser and Greece as a violent mix of both Tsundere types (he's usually technically a Tsundere who's pleasant to everyone except Turkey, but often comes across as instead due to him being with Turkey almost all the time).
EB: anyway, i kind of got the impression that you and terezi were a thing. CG: WHAT DO YOU MEAN A THING. EB: Like, i dunno. EB: Going on weird fight dates and beating the crap out of each other, and being in hate-love or love-hate. EB: Isn't that how it works?
Kismessitude is BST by another name. Troll society considers having such a relationship a critical part of mental and romantic health. The intensity of the hate also has a valued effect on offspring. Homestuck has too many examples to name because half the characters are trying to engineer this to one extent or another.
Ash and Rumisiel seem to be dating despite her constant annoyance at him, but it's a fake relationship and she's really just angry at him for other reasons.
The relationship between Ash and Emily. It's been established many times that they have feelings for each other, and Emily has struggled with the idea of being in a lesbian relationship with a former guy. They finally officially get together, but have to keep it secret for reasons other than not wanting to come out of the closet (so to speak).note First and foremost, if Ash and Emily go public, they'd have to explain Rumsiel's continued presence.
In Monsters Garden, both Todd and Kilo attack each other the first time they meet. Todd decides to shoot Kilo inside Kilo's own home, but Kilo gets distracted by Todd's pretty face. But then Kilo decides to break Todd's hand. Todd's reaction? To grin and blush.
Nasty variation occurs in Narbonic, where Helen is unable to admit her feelings for Dave because she values him too much as a test subject, and Dave is too shy and insecure.
In Sluggy Freelance, Riff and Gwynn dating was a bit like this, she being very Tsundere and he an insensitive jerk towards women he dates. It didn't last, though. The relationship wasn't focused on, and while it went on, it didn't seem to have any redeeming features, but afterwards it was shown clearly enough that there had been some actual positive emotions involved.
Tarvek and his cousin Violetta in Girl Genius. When she's first introduced, Violetta's rage at and contempt for Tarvek makes Moloch von Zinzer ask it they're married. Violetta makes a sick face ("Ewwww . . . ") but many in the fandom have already shipped the two. They deserve each other.
Black Mage and White Mage in 8-Bit Theater would have this. Only BM lacks the heart of gold. Probably a heart at all. Oh and White Mage finds him completely and utterly repulsive in every single way possible. And some that aren't.
Zexion and Namine spend much of Ansem Retort alternating between baiting and belittling each other in an unending battle of wits, and helping each other coordinate and execute incredibly unlikely plots. They claim to hate each other, but spend all their time around each other anyway. Namine was impressed when Zexion sold territory to Mexico for a sexy Spanish name, Zexion knew immediately who had swapped his cyanide pills with Mentos, he detoured from his booty call with Belle to brag to Namine, and Namine developed a psychic "Zexion-sense" alerting her that he was in trouble... not that she cared enough to do anything about it, mind you. It ultimately is resolved when Zexion announces that he will have sex with everything Namine loves, and Namine immediately replies that she loves herself, daring him to go through with it. He does.