Useful Notes: Sengoku Period

aka: Sengoku Jidai
Don't know who's fighting who? That's okay, neither did they.

The Sengoku Period (Sengoku Jidai in Japanese), or the "Warring States Period" (no, not that one) was a period of time stretching from the mid-15th century to the late 16th century. It is remembered as a time of bloody civil wars and political intrigue which paved the way for the rise of the modern nation of Japan. The last several decades in particular (known as the Azuchi-Momoyama Period) are regarded by many as some of the most crucial in Japanese history.

It's important to note that the Sengoku Period is usually not classified as a period of Japanese history in the same way that the Meiji or Nara Periods are, and is regarded foremost as a cultural period, a time of transition from Japan's medieval to early modern age. Because it straddles several periods, the Sengoku Jidai itself is generally placed within the context of the "official" historical periods it takes place in (Muromachi, Azuchi-Momoyama, and Edo). Dates for the exact start and end of the period are also debated: although it is traditionally marked by the Ōnin War in 1467, some mark the period's beginning in 1490 when the actual power of the Ashikaga was transferred from the shogun to Hosokawa Katsumoto (the shogunal deputy), and others mark it in 1491, when the Hōjō clan began to rise to power in the Kanto region. The end of the period is even more debated, with dates ranging from 1568 (Oda Nobunaga's capture of Kyoto and deposition of the Ashikaga) to 1615 (the Siege of Osaka).

The era stands out as an all-time low point for Japanese unity. Feudal lords were in a constant contest of power with one another, and many of the major historical events of this period were either caused by or resulted in chronic backstabbing. The political authority of the Emperor was also regarded by pretty much everyone as a joke, and he was really little more than a symbolic figurehead. However, even the aforementioned Ashikaga shogunate had very little power worth possessing, as most of it had been splintered among the daimyō. As a result, most daimyō were more concerned with controlling neighboring clans' territories and didn't even bother trying to conquer the capital. By 1500, daimyō were acting completely independently of the government. Major clans of this period include (but are not limited to): the Hōjō (based in Kanto), the Mōri (western Chūgoku), the Chōsokabe (Shikoku), the Shimazu (southern Kyūshū), the Date (Tōhoku) - yes, that one - the Oda (Nagoya and central Japan), the Takeda (eastern Chūbu), and the Uesugi (modern-day Niigata).

Despite the constant warring, the Sengoku Period also saw a flowering of Japanese culture. The tea ceremony rose to prominence during this time, as did Noh theatre. Books, poetry, and music were widely diffused across the country by Zen Buddhist monks. Shinto, which had been nearly absorbed by Shingon Buddhism over the past few centuries, saw a revived interest that would make it rise to prominence as Japan's dominant religion in the centuries to come (eventually culminating in the rise of State Shinto). Economics also saw a boom during this time, with the daimyō seeking to bolster their armies and enrich their domains. The agricultural and mining industries both boomed, leading to a subsequent rise in commerce and trade. Port cities like Hyōgo (now Kobe), Hakata, Nagasaki, and Sakai became economic hubs. Even Kyoto, despite the ever-changing political powers-that-were leaving the city a wreck, was quickly rebuilt and became an economic and cultural center.

This was also the only time in pre-modern Japan that the country had any sustained interaction with the Western world. The arrival of Portuguese ships in 1543 began a span of time known as the Nanban trade period, which lasted nearly a century. Soon after the Portuguese ships arrived came the Spanish and the Dutch, though most trade happened through the Portuguesenote . The effects of this trade were substantial: Japan was introduced to European fabrics, glassware, clocks, tobacco, and most important for its time, firearms. Provinces which traded with the West gained a significant advantage in military combat with the introduction of the arquebus and the cannon, especially since most Japanese fortifications of the time were made of wood and stone. The effect of this trade was also significant enough that there are still loan words in Japanese of Portuguese and Dutch origin, such as "gomu" from "gom" (Dutch for "rubber" or rubber materials), "karuta" from "carta" (Portuguese for playing cards) and "pan" from "pćo/pan" (Portuguese/Spanish for "bread", respectively).

As detailed elsewhere, this was also the time during which Christianity first reached Japan. The first contact was made through the Catholic missionary St. Francis Xaviernote , who arrived with the Portuguese traders in 1549. The daimyō of southern Japan (on the island of Kyūshū) saw an opportunity in Christianity to establish better trade relations with the Portuguese, and so most early missionary work - contrary to the usual form of the time - launched from the top and worked its way down to the commoners, rather than vice-versa (though the largest number of converts still came from the peasants). Nagasaki in particular was greatly affected by Christianity, as before the arrival of the Portuguese and the missionaries it was an insignificant fishing town. Thanks to increased trade between east and west, it gradually transformed into a major economic port and a Christian hub city in its part of the world. Ironically, the persecution and martyrdom of Christians several decades later was carried out primarily in Nagasaki - although when Christianity went underground in Japan, most of these "hidden Christians" ("kakure kirishitan") lived in Nagasaki.

The Sengoku Period is also the period which saw the rise of the shinobi - the ninja. In reality, the ninja was never a crucial figure of Japanese history and only had any significance for a few decades of the Sengoku Period. Part of the problem is that there aren't many historical records of the ninja - really, we're not even exactly sure what their training was like. Most were from the lower class of society so they were usually not skilled in tactics like a samurai would be - although some ninja were ronin (masterless samurai), so again, who knows? We do know that the center of their training was always operating so as to be unseen. They were first and foremost mercenaries employed by the different warlords for reconnaissance and espionage. Once the Tokugawa rose to power in the 16th century, combat was highly codified with a great emphasis on honor and fair play, and so the ninja (who fought in secrecy using whatever worked to their advantage) fell out of favor. Many fables were written about the ninja during the Meiji Restoration, which romanticized "classic Japanese" culture, and that's where the myths that a ninja could walk on water, turn invisible, control nature, and use "ninja weapons" and martial arts came from. Thus the ninja became popular again, but it was at this point mainly a cultural icon (a phenomenon comparable to the history of the cowboy in American culture).

The Sengoku Period is often dramatized in Japanese media due to its incredible historical significance. In addition to a large number of historical accounts and documentaries, the Sengoku Period is also the subject of numerous Jidai Geki, with its intricacy and intrigue providing a bounty of material for Japanese writers, poets, filmmakers, and animation studios. The lives, legacies, and personalities of Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu in particular have been scrutinized, romanticized, deconstructed, and theorized over by countless scholars. A popular set of three haiku poems accurately summarizes each leader's personality as follows:

Nakanu nara, koroshite shimae, hototogisu. (If the cuckoo does not sing, kill it - Nobunaga.)

Nakanu nara, nakasete miyou, hototogisu. (If the cuckoo does not sing, coax it - Hideyoshi.)

Nakanu nara, naku made matou, hototogisu. (If the cuckoo does not sing, wait for it - Ieyasu.)

Another popular saying of the three goes: "Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."

For more information about works which deal specifically with these three figures, check out their respective articles.

Of course, there are many other interesting historical figures besides these three which are worth reading up on, such as Date Masamune, Hattori Hanzō, and Saigō-no-Tsubone (Lady Saigō).

Below follows a more detailed breakdown of the Sengoku Period from start to finish.

    open/close all folders 

     Prelude - The Muromachi Period 

In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji seized control of Kyoto from the emperor of Japan and declared himself the shogun (a position comparable to a generalissimo, effectively a military ruler). This establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate marks the beginning of the Muromachi period of Japanese history, so named because the new Ashikaga government was established in the Muromachi district of Kyoto.

The early Muromachi Period's strongest political figure was by far Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1408), the third shogun in line. Yoshimitsu established trade relations with China, ended the warring between the rival Northern and Southern Imperial Courts, was a great patron of the arts, and gave the feudal landlords - the daimyō - greater control over their lands. Unfortunately, Yoshimitsu's successors gradually became weaker and weaker, further decentralizing the government's power and placing more power in the hands of the daimyō.

All of this gave pretext to the Sengoku Period, which is traditionally marked as beginning with the Ōnin War (1467-1477). The Ōnin War began as a relatively local conflict over the succession of the Ashikaga shogunate which escalated into a decade-long war between rivaling warlords vying to control the shogunate. In the end, Kyoto was left practically burned to the ground and the Ashikaga shogunate held power in name only. For many years after, rivaling daimyō would fight for control of the puppet government - although by this point, controlling the court meant very little anyway, as virtually all actual power had been fractured among the many daimyō across Japan.

After several decades of a relative status quo of infighting, the Sengoku Period came to a head with the rise of three key figures who are some of the most important in Japanese history: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Since the bulk of this era's action can in some way be traced back to one of the three, most accounts of the Sengoku Period devote a lot of their time to studying these three figures. We'll focus here specifically on how each of these three men played a role in the period at large. For more personal information on each of the three as individuals, check their respective articles.

     The Rise of Oda Nobunaga 

The first of Japan's three uniters, Oda Nobunaga, was born in 1534 in the Owari province (modern-day Aichi prefecture), possibly near the city of Nagoya. He was known in his youth for being strange and uncouth, though after the unexpected death of his father in 1551, he quickly proved his military chutzpah by killing his uncle and his brother, who challenged his right of succession. Nobunaga quickly reunited the Oda clan, and by 1559 - at the age of 25 - he had united the whole Owari province under his rule. Nobunaga quickly consolidated and expanded his power over the following decade. In the Battle of Okehazama, Nobunaga defeated the combined forces of the Imagawa and Matsudaira clans, which numbered about 40,000, with a force of only 3,000 by launching a surprise attack and using the poor weather conditions to his advantage. Breaking ties with the weakened Imagawa clan, the Matsudaira clan forged an alliance with the Oda, ending decades of hostility. Who was responsible for this alliance? Matsudaira Motoyasu, better known by his name later in life, Tokugawa Ieyasu. Several years afterward, Nobunaga further increased his power in the Siege of Inabayama Castle, where he took over the neighboring Mino province (modern-day Gifu), greatly extending the Oda clan's reach. At the conclusion of the battle, Nobunaga revealed his ambition for the first time: to conquer all of Japan.

With central Japan firmly under his control, Nobunaga took advantage of his strategically favorable position and set his sights on the capital city of Kyoto. In 1568, he marched on the capital and crushed all opposition. Nobunaga, of course, had no intention of serving the Muromachi shogunate and devoted his work instead to consolidating his territory in central Japan. He spent the next 5 years beating back the opposing daimyō who challenged his rule and had formed into an anti-Oda alliance. The deadliest of these opponents was the legendary general Takeda Shingen, who was said to have the most powerful army in Japan. Marching his army toward Nobunaga's home province of Owari, he easily stomped over Oda's allies and was practically at the front step of Owari when in 1573 he suddenly died of mysterious circumstances (theories range from assassination to stomach cancer). Takeda's forces lost their nerve and quickly retreated to the Kai province, thus saving Nobunaga from near-certain destruction.

     The Beginning of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period 

The years following Takeda's death officially mark the beginning of the Azuchi-Momoyama Period, although realistically it began with Nobunaga's conquering of Kyoto in 1568. Shortly after Takeda Shingen's death, he also deposed Ashikaga Yoshiaki, ending the Ashikaga shogunate for good. Nobunaga steadily gained territory on both the western and eastern fronts, gradually expanding his rule and solidifying his reputation as a ruthless and undaunted adversary. This also carried over into the realm of politics: Nobunaga was overall pretty indifferent toward religion, but he recognized the threat that some of the wealthy and/or affluent Buddhist temples could pose to his rule. He suppressed certain sects of Buddhism, especially the Jōdo Shinshū (True Pure Land) Buddhists, who participated in peasant uprisings against the samurai landlords during his rule. In order to overall reduce the power and influence of the Buddhist priests, Nobunaga actually lent support to the Catholic missionary efforts in Japan (at this time, Christianity was still tolerated in Japan). His leniency towards Christianity would unfortunately not be a sympathy shared by his successors - but that's a story for another day. Other innovations and advancements from Nobunaga include the better implementation of pikes and castle fortifications in warfare, as well as the introduction of firearms (brought over by the Portuguese traders) and firearm brigades. He restructured the warrior class system and appointed his retainers and subjects based on ability rather than rank and heritage, as was the common practice of the day. He also laid the foundations for some of the policies his successors would establish by building castle towns as economic centers, encouraging a transition from an economy based on agriculture to one based on manufacture.

Of course, Nobunaga still spent the better part of his time conquering Japan. By 1582, he had conquered the entire Kinai region (roughly equivalent to the modern-day Kansai region), the entire Hokurikudō region (along the Sea of Japan), the San'indō and San'yōdō regions (modern Chūgoku region), and roughly half of the Tōkaidō and Tōsandō regions. His territory spanned as far west and south as northern Kyūshū, as far east as the borders of the Kanto plain, and as far north as Shibata (along the western coast). From his home base of Azuchi castle, close to Kyoto, Oda began aggressively sending out his generals on campaigns to conquer the rest of Japan. Things seemed to be going pretty well, but it wouldn't last. One of Nobunaga's generals, Hashiba Hideyoshi requested reinforcements from Nobunaga for the siege of Takamatsu castle in the Chūgoku region. Nobunaga obliged and sent out most of the force he had with him, only leaving a few troops and his personal guard. Nobunaga had every reason to believe he was safe; after all, the biggest threats were at the borders of his territory, and he was at the heart of it. Another of Nobunaga's generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, seized this opportunity and marched on Azuchi castle, betraying his lord. Rather than surrender, Nobunaga committed seppuku (ritual suicide) as Akechi's men stormed the gates. Before dying, Nobunaga instructed his page, Mori Ranmaru, to burn the castle, so that his enemies could not take his head. His body was never found. After capturing Azuchi, Mitsuhide attacked Nobunaga's eldest son and heir, Nobutada, who also committed seppuku. This essentially guaranteed that Nobunaga wouldn't have a blood successor. The reasons for Akechi's betrayal and the circumstances of Oda Nobunaga's death are the subject of much speculation, debate, and conspiracy theory. Some say that Akechi had a grudge against Nobunaga; others say he wanted Japan for himself; some even say he was working together with some of Nobunaga's other generals. Whatever the circumstances, the fruit of Akechi's betrayal was even shorter-lived than Nobunaga. The most powerful man in Japan just died and left all his territory behind, and news like that spreads fast. What followed was a mad scramble by each of Nobunaga's retainers to assemble a power base and seize Nobunaga's legacy for themselves.

     The Succession of Toyotomi Hideyoshi 

The winner of this scramble for power was the previously mentioned general Hashiba Hideyoshi. In only the two weeks after Nobunaga's death, he made truce with the clan he was currently fighting in the Chūgoku region, marched his army toward Azuchi to intercept Mitsuhide's, and defeated them in the Battle of Yamazaki. Now in a position of power, Hideyoshi secured his leadership by supporting Nobunaga's infant grandson as his successor and proposing a co-leadership to the Oda clan. This quickly turned into to open combat against the Oda clan, but Hideyoshi held his own: by 1584, he had ended all dissent and had secured all of the Oda domain as his own.

Like Nobunaga before him, Hashiba Hideyoshi had never attained the title of shogun. In fact, he wasn't even of noble background: he was a common foot soldier who gradually rose through the ranks. So in 1585, he adopted himself into the Fujiwara clan. The Imperial court also showered him with official titles, and in 1586, the court officially gave Hashiba Hideyoshi the name he is better remembered by: Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Thus began the second phase of Japan's unification. Oda Nobunaga had already accomplished a lot of the, shall we say, aggressive negotiations, which left Hideyoshi with reinforcing the foundation and tying up the loose ends. From his base of power in Osaka castle, Hideyoshi continued his conquest on the borders of his territory, capturing the northern provinces and Shikoku in 1583 and Kyūshū in 1587. In 1590, Hideyoshi defeated his last opponents, the Hōjō clan of the Kanto region (modern-day Tokyo), in the Siege of Odawara, becoming the first general to unite all of Japan under his rule.

Hideyoshi also enacted some heavy-handed policies to secure his rule. In 1587, he banned all Christian missionaries from Japan out of fear of possible dissent from the converted daimyō in Kyūshū. Since the daimyō who did convert mostly did so out of desire for stronger trade relations with the West, there was little complaint among the higher-ups about this. Among the lower classes, however, there was considerable dissent, and to make an example, Hideyoshi executed 26 Christians (a mix of Franciscan and Jesuit missionaries) in 1597 in Nagasaki. The next several decades would only become more and more difficult for the Japanese "Kirishitans", as they were called. Other precautions carried out by Hideyoshi included the destruction of many castles constructed during the Sengoku Period, the forbidding of samurai as active farmers (forcing them to move to castle towns), restrictions on inter-provincial travel, and the "Sword Hunt" of 1588, where he confiscated the weapons of all farms and religious institutions, only allowing members of the samurai class to bear arms. Hideyoshi's mindset was that more clearly divided social classes would be easier to control (taking their weapons away probably didn't hurt either). Not all of his policies were like this, however - some actually were positive, such as the banning of "unfree labor" (slavery). Hideyoshi also significantly balanced the power of the daimyō. He did this through the introduction of land and production surveys and a national census. Hideyoshi used these surveys to re-partition the land among the daimyō according to output of rice; provinces with greater yields of rice were given to his more trusted and higher-ranking daimyō.

     Interlude - War with Korea 

Having united Japan and reorganized his infrastructure, Hideyoshi began turning his gaze across the sea and rather megalomaniacally decided he would conquer the Ming dynasty in China. However, he was refused safe passage through Korea, and so from 1592 to 1598 Japan engaged in a sporadic series of invasions of Korea (known there as the Imjin War). Hideyoshi had a strong start - in 1592, he sent 200,000 men to capture Seoul, which they did in a matter of weeks. However, they were quickly routed by allied Korean and Chinese forces the following year. After a brief period of truce, a second invasion was then attempted in 1597. In both instances, Japan made decent territorial gains on land, and the Korean forces overall had great difficulty defeating the Japanese head-on. However, the Koreans were skilled in guerrilla warfare, and they used it to great effect: folks ranging from common citizens to aristocrats to warrior monks were arranged into guerrilla militias known as "righteous armies" which engaged in raids and surprise attacks on the Japanese. The Koreans were also effective at cutting off Japan's supply lines; special mention goes to Korean naval general Yi Sun-sin, who beat back the Japanese navy on multiple occasions despite being outnumbered, sometimes vastly so (the most famous of these instances being the Battle of Myeongyang). As the war dragged on, Chinese reinforcements continued flowing into Korea, and the Japanese were gradually beaten back. The Japanese made a final stand at the Battle of Sacheon in 1598. Japanese forces clashed with Ming Chinese and Joseon Korean forces until all parties had been beaten to exhaustion. Japan managed to hold its position and won a major victory, and they sent news of victory home to Hideyoshi.

...Or at least they would, if Toyotomi Hideyoshi hadn't died (just days before the battle, too). The Japanese generals kept Hideyoshi's death a secret and made the decision to withdraw all troops from Korea in 1598. So much for conquering Korea; Japan was three centuries too early for that.

     The Boiling Point 

Korea was abandoned, but with the death of Hideyoshi, Japan now had a much bigger problem on its plate: who would succeed Hideyoshi? Hideyoshi had attempted to rectify this problem himself after the birth of his son Hideyori by banishing his nephew (and heir) Hidetsugu to Mt. Kōya and ordering him to commit seppuku in 1595. He then mercilessly killed 31 of Hidetsugu's family members in Kyoto, including women and children. Afterward, he assembled a Council of Five Elders to govern Japan as regents for his son, hoping that the balance of power between his five most powerful daimyō would prevent any conflict until his son came of age. It didn't work.

The presence of Hideyoshi and his brother Hidenaga had managed to keep fighting to a minimum so far, but the death of Maeda Toshiie (the oldest and most respected of the five regent generals), and only a year after the death of Hideyoshi himself, led to infighting among the remaining four. Of these generals, Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful and influential. He had fought both Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi in battle before they rose to power - and when they did, he became one of their most powerful generals and trusted allies. So the other generals' lack of trust in Ieyasu was perhaps understandable (his capture of Hideyori's home of Osaka castle after Hideyoshi's death probably didn't do much for him either). Unfortunately, this mistrust continued to escalate, with general Ishida Mitsunari (who was not one of Hideyoshi's five regent generals) accusing Tokugawa of being unfaithful to Hideyoshi's wishes. Mitsunari planned an attempt on Tokugawa's life, but when Ieyasu's generals learned of this and informed Tokugawa, Tokugawa himself protected Ishida from accusation. Tokugawa put the blame on the Toyotomi loyalists, including the deceased Maeda's son, Toshinaga. In defiance, one of the three regents, Uesugi Kagekatsu, began amassing his military. Ieyasu demanded an explanation before the Emperor, and Uesugi's chief adviser countered with accusations and mockery of Tokugawa's own defiance of Hideyoshi's rules. Furious, Ieyasu amassed his supporters and began marching north on the Uesugi clan. Ishida, seeing an opportunity, amassed Toyotomi's own allies and prepared an offensive on Tokugawa and his supporters. Upon returning to his home base in Edo, Tokugawa learned of the situation and decided to deploy his troops.

     The Battle of Sekigahara 

Thus began the most important battle in Japanese history: the Battle of Sekigahara. The two sides were split into the Toyotomi loyalists (headed under Ishida and known as the "Western Army") and Tokugawa's supporters (headed under Ieyasu himself and known as the "Eastern Army"). The two armies numbered close to 200,000 men in total, with the Western Army numbering 120,000 and the Eastern Army numbering 75,000.

Ishida marched his troops from Osaka toward Gifu Castle, intending to use it as a staging area for when he would inevitably attack Kyoto. Since Tokugawa was marching from Edo in the east, there were only two main roads available to him, both of which also converged on Gifu Castle. Unfortunately for Ishida, he was delayed in reaching Gifu, as he was busy trying to capture Fushimi Castle, which was a halfway point between Osaka and Kyoto. By the time Ishida captured Fushimi and reached Gifu, Tokugawa's forces had arrived and taken the castle, forcing Ishida's troops to retreat. The Western Army marched southwest through inclement weather and stopped in Sekigahara, tired from the day's journey and with gunpowder wet from the rain.

Tokugawa had been trailing Ishida up to this point. On October 20th, he learned of the Western Army's position in Sekigahara and marched his forces in. Though Tokugawa had the advantage of marching under better weather, it was very foggy, and at dawn on the next day (October 21st) his advance guard ended up smacking into Ishida's army. Both sides panicked and withdrew, bracing their armies for battle. By 8 AM, the fog had cleared. Both sides issued last-second orders and the battle began.

Fukushima Masanori, the leader of Tokugawa's advance guard, charged from the left flank along the Fuji river into the Western Army's right-center. The ground was wet and muddy from the previous day's rain, so the fighting quickly devolved into chaos. To support the attack, Tokugawa then ordered attacks from his right and center on the enemy's left. In response, Ishida ordered his general of the unscathed center flank to support the right, but his general refused, as daimyō only obeyed the orders of respected commanders, which Ishida was not.

The Eastern Army's advance guard was gaining ground and pushing into the enemy's position, but this left them exposed from the side, and just across the Fuji river were more Western forces under the command of Otani Yoshitsugu. Otani was supported from the rear by Kobayakawa Hideaki, who was positioned on Mount Matsuo.

In the months leading up to the battle, Tokugawa approached multiple daimyō from the Western Army and promised them land and pardon after the battle if they should switch sides. Kobayakawa was one of the daimyō Tokugawa approached, and he agreed to defect. Unfortunately, he did not keep to his word during the battle and instead remained neutral, not attacking either side. As the fighting dragged on, Ieyasu grew impatient and ordered musket fire on Kobayakawa as an ultimatum. Kobayakawa made his choice and defected to the Eastern Army. He ordered his 16,000 men to charge Otani's army, which you'd think would do a lot of good... except that Otani had a lot of men with a lot of dry gunpowder. His men simply turned their guns around and shot most of Kobayakawa's force dead.

Fortunately, the attack was not completely in vain. Otani was already engaged with several other Eastern armies, and Kobayakawa's army ended up being enough to overwhelm Otani's defenses. Seeing this, several more Western generals quickly defected mid-battle, thus turning the tide in the Eastern Army's favor. Fukushima and Kobayakawa began to press deep into the Western Army's exposed right flank toward the center. Ishida sounded the retreat and retracted what was left of his army to Mount Nangu, where he was betrayed again by one of his generals. The Western Army fell apart, and the Battle of Sekigahara was won.

The Battle of Sekigahara was the culmination of the political turmoil of the Sengoku Period - both on a literal and metaphorical level. It's easy to draw parallels between the decades of warlords backstabbing and changing sides on one another and the events of Sekigahara, where so many forces changed sides - even in the middle of battle - that some had no idea who they were fighting for or against. Amusingly, both sides also had forces which didn't participate in the battle because they arrived too late. If each side had been backed by their full host, who knows how the battle would have turned out?

Tokugawa rounded up the fleeing generals and publicly executed Ishida Mitsunari (among others). The Toyotomi loyalists greatly lost their support and prestige and scattered. Immediately after the battle, Tokugawa redistributed all of the country's land, giving more important and wealthier territories to the daimyō he deemed more loyal to him. Some daimyō, including some from the Western Army, had their territory untouched; others had virtually all their land taken away.

     Aftermath - The Edo Period 

In 1603, at the age of 60, Tokugawa Ieyasu was appointed shogun by the Emperor, becoming the first shogun since the deposition of the Ashikaga in 1573. He had outlived all of the other great men of his time, and could finally rule a united Japan, unchallenged. The beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate marks the beginning of the Edo Period of Japanese history, named after the city of Edo, which Tokugawa made the new capital - you know it today as Tokyo. Most historians mark the end of the Sengoku Period here, but just for completion's sake...

Tokugawa Ieyasu abdicated in 1605, retiring soon after ascending to the shogunate, according to custom. He passed the rule down to his son (which also had the effect of securing a peaceful succession). Tokugawa just had one more matter to settle. He rounded up his troops one last time and marched on Osaka Castle in 1614. Osaka Castle was the home of Toyotomi Hideyori, Hideyoshi's rightful heir. Tokugawa laid siege to the castle until it burned to the ground in 1615, taking the last of the Toyotomi bloodline with it and thereby ending the last possible opposition to his rule. Tokugawa himself died the next year (either of cancer or syphilis), leaving behind the beginnings of Japan's third, final, longest-ruling, and most powerful shogunate.

Some important historical names include:

Works set in this time period include:

Alternative Title(s):

Sengoku Jidai