Sailors and alcohol go together like white on rice, going back to Homer. In fiction, if a sailor isn't already drunk, expect to be well on the way to it or pining for the lack of it. Often a defining quality of a Father Neptune, expect also a Seadog Beard and some Talking Like Pirate Yarrrr!
This is a case of Truth in Television due to the disinfecting abilities of alcohol; mixing it with water was the only way to keep water potable during long voyages, especially on early boats when cooking had to be limited due to fire risk (or on open decked boats impossible to do). Also, a drunk crew was a crew less capable of The Mutiny due to the horrific conditions (this being the "rum" part of those great Naval traditions of "rum, sodomy and the lash"), and the strength of alcohol could be varied as punishment or reward as the captain saw fit. It continues to be true because when you take a bunch of generally adult persons and put them in a cramped space for an extended period of time with limited and ever diminishing supplies... well it rather built tension.
Especially prevalent in works set in the era of Wooden Ships and Iron Men or in the future since Space Is an Ocean. As a sidenote the British Navy only stopped the official grog rations in 1970. There were some very uncomplimentary epithets leveled at the Admiral responsible.
Whatever the origins, The Drunken Sailor is an unavoidable character, specific Sub-Trope of The Alcoholic.
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The Black Lagoon crew. They quite rarely are drunk, though, it's just that they usually don't see how a couple of beers could really hinder them. On the other hand, when they're hanging in the Yellow Flag, all bets are off.
Captain Harlock and his glass of wine. The rest of the crew are also heavy drinkers, with Miime and Dr. Zero consuming the most.
Rum is always a standard motivational tool among Pirates, although, historically, their lawman opponents used it just as much for reasons listed above.
It's uncertain whether in-story lawman Commodore Norrington is aware of this though- he's arguably the drunkest of the lot at one point, but more like The Alcoholic- or at least heavily drowning his sorrows than this usually cheerful trope.
Master and Commander (the movie): one of the sailors refuses to salute a superior and it's later revealed he was drunk at the time. Aubrey doesn't care that the sailor was drunk, just that he didn't respect the chain of command.
The Odyssey: Odysseus is finally within sight on his home, but the sailors spot a small bag he carries with him. Thinking it contains wine (treasure in other versions), they open it, unleashing the winds it contained and driving the ship far off course.
Harry Mudd and Cyrano Jones from Star Trek: The Original Series were both fond of a tipple or two. Out of the main characters, Scotty was often seen indulging.
Romulan Ale being the drink of choice for all Star Trek incarnations with all crews indulging at some point.
Worth mentioning that Romulan Ale is actually illegal in the Federation, but it's all over the place regardless (it seems to hold roughly the same satus as Cuban cigars do in the U.S. today). There are a number of other drinks as well, including the Klingon's Blood Wine, which they're almost always seen drinking, and Synthahol (a synthetic alcohol replacement) since Starfleet officers aren't really supposed to get drunk. That's without even getting into the dozens of alcoholic beverages which are name dropped, some of which seem to be their eponymous species' only export (Saurian Brandy, for instance.) Suffice it to say the trope is alive and well in Trek's future.
Klingons Up to Eleven . Klingons absolutely love getting drunk.
On SeaPatrol the tolerance range of the sailors goes from being unsteady on their feet but being able to beat up mooks...to crashing a golf buggy into the lake. Although there were other reasons that added up to it.
In "The Even Chance", Hornblower has his first midshipman command when he's supposed to take a captured French ship to England. The French sailors are drunk, and Styles somewhat envies them and wishes they were just as happy. Hornblower is not pleased and forces him to put the bottle down.
Played With in the second episode of the series, called "The Examination for Lieutenant", also known as "The Fire Ships". One seaman is jerking around like a plague victim, and all the rest of the crew are terrified of him because they are aboard a quarantined ship. Hornblower coolly walks up to him, grabs him by the shoulders and smells his breath. Sure enough, he's drunk.
In "Mutiny", crazy Captain Sawyer several times grants double rum and a day off for the whole crew, which does not enhance the crew's morals and their loyalty but it makes them incompetent and unable to cope with their duties. Doctor Clive, the only person who might pronounce him unfit for command, is drunk as any of them.
In "Retribution", Acting Captain Buckland who, sadly, was not born to lead, deals with his unenviable situation by shots of alcohol and then continues to drown his sorrows.
Coronation Street's Peter Barlow is the show's only recovered (at least this week) alcoholic and is a retired Chief Petty Officer. It has been noted that people justified Peter's drinking at times because of this trope.
A very large amount of Sea Shanties concern drunkenness (including "What shall we do with the Drunken Sailor", the Trope Namer), whether on board or during shore leave.
The page quote is part of "Drunken Sailor" a famous traditional sea shanty also known as "What Should We Do with the Drunken Sailor?" and "Sailor's Holiday". Along with the entertainment value, the beat of the song also can help sailors coordinate tasks, such as raising the sails.
That's in fact most probably a so-called "anchor/capstan song", sung during raising an anchor (or generally walking around a capstan), which is suggested by its chorus of:
One level of Assassin's Creed I involves sneaking upon a man in a busy port full of drunken sailors that keep pushing you. Getting to the target requires taking some narrow routes by the water and you have Super Drowning Skills
There is one drunken sailor in Runescape in Port Sarim. His examine option refers to the drunken sailor song.
Puzzle Pirates plays with this: The length of a voyage is limited by your available charts, your and your crew's patience, and the amount of rum you have aboard. Running short of rum is a bad thing and impairs your crew.
Ironically, there are at least three different versions of the tune used as background music in Spongebob Squarepants (4 if you count Sailing over the Doggerbank, which sounds vaguely familiar). There are, however, no drunken sailors.
Captain Morgan Rum is built on this trope, as are Admiral Nelson, Sailor Jerry, and a few other spirits of varying ranks.
The real Captain Morgan, Admiral Sir Henry Morgan, actually died of dropsy mostly caused by his huge alcoholism.
The real Admiral Nelson's body was preserved in a barrel of cognac after his shooting death at the battle of Trafalgar, so that his body could be brought home to England for burial. According to legend, his men would sneak drinks from that barrel, (apparently not actually true- said barrel was allegedly under round-the-clock guard by marines, just as Nelson's person would have been in life) leading to the nickname of "Nelson's Blood" for any alcoholic beverage and "tapping the Admiral" for surreptitious drinking on duty.
San Miguel Beer uses this image in its "Three Ships" adverts.
If a modern US Navy ship is out at sea long enough without a port call (45 days), the captain may authorize a beer day.
Played With in World War II. The Americans were envious of the British who got rum. But on the other hand British always came over to American ships because Americans always had ice cream.
As noted above, the Royal Navy kept up the tradition well into the modern era, finally (and reluctantly) doing away with it in 1970... Instead permitting an increase in the beer allowance given to ratings and letting Petty Officers and above buy spirits in the mess along with officers. All alcoholic beverages are still kept firmly under lock and key when sailing under wartime rules of engagement.
Although usually a comic trope, it can also lead to tragedy. It was long rumored that John Hazelwood, skipper of the Exxon Valdez was drunk at the time of the accident, which caused the grounding and terrible oil spill. This theory was confirmed in Exxon Shipping Co. v. Baker,note A US Supreme Court case deciding exactly how much the plaintiffs could take in punitive damages from Exxon in which Justice Souter (who wrote the majority) saw fit to note that Hazelwood had had five double vodkas the previous night, "enough that a non-alcoholic would have passed out," and was sleeping it off when the ship ran aground.