Heads of State

The term "Head of State" is a little bit confusing to countries like the United States where the President is both Head of State and Head of Government. The Head of State is the ceremonial representative of the country, the Head of Government runs the country. That's why in Great Britain, the King or Queen is the Head of State while the Prime Minister is the head of Government. In Commonwealth Countries and British Territories, the Governor General is de facto Head of State as the Personal Representative of the Monarch, and the Prime Minister is that country's head of Government. But we won't make that distinction here.

A list of politicians who are or have been head of state (kings, reigning queens, emperors, reigning empresses, presidents, popes), a consort of a head of state (queens, empresses, prince-consorts) or heads of government (prime ministers, chancellors, dictators).

Argentina

Bolivia

Canada

Chile

China

Cuba
  • Fulgencio Batista: President from 1940-1944 and 1952-1959.
  • Fidel Castro: Leader from 1959-2008 (as Prime Minister from 1959-1976, then as President from 1976-2008).

Egypt

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iran/Persia

Iraq

Ireland

Israel

Japan

Libya

Mongolia

North Korea

Norway
  • Einar Gerhardsen: Prime minister from 1945 to 1965 (with a brief two-week vacation in 1963).
  • Haakon VII: First king of Norway in the "restored kingdom", ruling from 1905 until his death in 1957.

Philippines

Portugal

Rome (Republic and Empire)/Italy

Romania

Russia

Saudi Arabia

Serbia

Spain

Sweden

Uganda
  • Idi Amin: President/Dictator of Uganda 1971-79.

United Kingdom

United States of America

The Papacy (rulers of the Church-State, later Vatican City)

Yugoslavia

Other
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/HeadsOfState