"Who the hell is James K. Polk?"
—Whig party slogan during the 1844 election campaign.
"Who the hell are the Whigs?"Um... They Might Be Giants sang about him? And the school in Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide was named after him, wasn't it? Or was it Married... with Children?note James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 — June 15, 1849) was the eleventh president of the United States, serving from 1845 to 1849, directly succeeded John Tyler and preceded Zachary Taylor, and was the third from the Democratic Party, and the only one (so far) rocking a mullet. He was previously in the House of Representatives for fourteen years, and served as Speaker of the House for the last three and a half of them, becoming the only President to have held that position. Was then elected Governor of Tennessee. After that was over, he decided to run for the presidency, and, despite being considered a dark horse, beat the well-known Henry Clay to victory and became, at 49, the youngest man elected at the time. He won on the promise of completing four goals: the reestablishment of an Independent Treasury System, the reduction of tariffs on imports, acquisition of the disputed Oregon Territory, and acquisition of land on the Pacific coast from Mexico. As president, he oversaw the largest territorial expansion in American history, adding almost one third of the current continental United States. The process of annexing Texas was completed during his first few months of his time in office (though it was almost entirely done during John Tyler's presidency). Regarding the Oregon Territory, he settled on dividing the territory in half along the 49th Parallel with British Canada rather than risk war with the British Empire. We got what are now the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho out of the deal. Acquiring land from Mexico proved more problematic. Following troubled diplomatic negotiations and bloody incidents on the border, Polk asked Congress to declare war, and, following a long but rather inevitable road to victory, signed The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico's formal surrender. The Mexican-American War (when Polk, as TMBG put it, "seized the whole southwest from Mexico") was fairly controversial at the time. Abolitionists considered it a war being waged for the purposes of expanding slavery into new territories (at the time, not many people knew that Arizona and New Mexico weren't exactly suitable for plantation labor). It didn't help that he also tried to buy Cuba from Spain, as it was also south of the Missouri Compromise Line. Henry David Thoreau, who refused to pay taxes to support the war, coined the term civil disobedience at this time. Polk also oversaw the opening of the U.S. Naval Academy and the Smithsonian Institution, the creation of the Department of the Interior, the groundbreaking for the Washington Monument, and the issuance of the first postage stamps in the United States. Texas, Iowa, and Wisconsin were also added to the Union under his watch. Polk had an enviable record for setting and (gasp!) accomplishing his agenda. Suffered from a chronic inability to delegate authority, and obsessively micromanaged absolutely everything. This is (probably) a large part of why he only served one term and died a few months thereafter. He is widely considered to be an underrated president by many historians and is sometimes called "Our greatest one-term president." Many consider him to be one of the finest American presidents for the simple reason that he achieved everything he wanted to do in his single term. Along with some complicated health problems towards the end of his term, this is why he decided to not run for reelection. It wouldn't have done him any good anyway, as he died only 103 days after Zachary Taylor, his successor, was inaugurated President. At age 53, he had the shortest natural lifespan of any President as well as the shortest post-presidency.
—Most high school students.
Tropes as portrayed in fiction:
- Historical-Domain Character: Will sometimes cameo in stories set during the California Gold Rush of 1849 (from which the San Francisco 49ers get their name), since he was President at the time.
- Shout-Out: They Might Be Giants' "James K. Polk"