A classic series of high fantasy books by Ursula K. Le Guin, which began as a pair of short stories in 1964, "The Word of Unbinding" and "The Rule of Names". These stories were shortly followed by a trilogy of young adult novels:
A Wizard of Earthsea (1968)
The Tombs of Atuan (1971)
The Farthest Shore (1972)
Decades later, Le Guin returned to Earthsea with a fourth novel, followed after another decade by a collection of new short stories and one final novel. These books were more adult than the original trilogy, dealing with some very mature subjects.
Tales from Earthsea (2001)
The Other Wind (2001)
The world of Earthsea is a sprawling archipelago where magic is a part of everyday life, dragons are an occasional threat, and the afterlife is a very real place. The original trilogy focuses on Ged, a wizard who rises from a modest life as a goatherd in a sleepy village to become the Archmage, the master of the school of magic who rules in place of Earthsea's long-abandoned line of kings. Ged overcomes grave mistakes made early in his life in A Wizard of Earthsea, then acts as a mentor to the young priestess Tenar in The Tombs of Atuan and the young prince Arren in The Farthest Shore as each of these characters comes of age and accepts their role in life as he once did.The later books shift the focus away from Ged and instead build Earthsea itself as more complex and rich character, exploring the history and geography of its various islands, examining the lives of commoners who don't spend their days sailing around on grand adventures and speaking to dragons, and addressing the massive weaknesses of the archipelago's society, especially its treatment of women.In many ways the Earthea Cycle represented a radical departure from the then dominant view of fantasy in featuring a wizard as the main character rather than as a supporting character, featuring a cast of mostly brown-skinned and red-skinned characters, featuring women in prominent roles, exploring an islander society instead of the standard medieval European setting, and advancing the story by having the characters make increasingly complex moral and personal decisions rather than simply winning in sword fights or obtaining treasure. It also avoids ever becoming particularly verbose; all but the fifth book are well under 300 pages, with few words spent on the intricate and time-consuming exposition that defines other fantasy authors like Tolkien.The series was the subject of an animated film from Studio Ghibli called Tales from Earthsea and a poorly-received TV adaptation by the SyFy channel, originally called Legend of Earthsea, and later retitled Earthsea.
Defrosting Ice Queen: Arha/Tenar fits this trope very much in The Tombs of Atuan, although there is a subversion in that while the protagonist, Ged who plays the role of dashing adventurer in the novel, does not "defrost" her through sex as often happens, but rather helps her develop a sense of morality and reconnect with her buried humanity.
Deserted Island: Ged is sea-wrecked on a very small one during the first book.
Deus ex Machina: At the end of Tehanu, where Kalessin arrives and saves Tenar right as she's about to be pushed off a cliff by Ged. Aspen and the rest of the men are unceremoniously done away with as well.
Dragon Hoard: The dragons in the series are obsessed with hoarding jewelry... at least at first.
Expanded Universe: Le Guin's Earthsea short stories, some of which were compiled into Tales From Earthsea.
Exponential Potential: Dragons seem to follow this pattern. Any competent wizard can kill a young dragon with little to no effort—early in his career, Ged defeats six dragons in rapid succession pretty easily. Ancient dragons however, are almost impossible to kill by conventional means and can use magic just as well, if not better than the most powerful human mages.
Famed in Story: A Wizard of Earthsea is explicitly described as being about Ged when he was young and not famed in story; in it, a friend declares he will make a song so his deeds will be remember, but either he didn't or the song was lost (only distorted pieces survive). However, by The Farthest Shore, Ged is indeed famed.
Despite the lines in A Wizard of Earthsea saying that stories of the events of that novel were lost, it is clear that they are common knowledge by the time of the Other Wind, as shown by Alder.
Familiar: Ged's Otak—a small, rodentlike creature similar in size and disposition to a weasel. He tames it in the wild using the Old Speech, and it follows him around everywhere after that, usually riding on his shoulder or resting in his hood.
Fat Best Friend: Vetch, although he is more intelligent and complex than most examples of this trope
Functional Magic: the magic taught in Roke seems to cover the gamut pretty widely, though with an unusual caveat of geography: the further one gets away from Roke, the less reliable the magic that Roke teaches becomes. Vetch, grown up in the East Reach, says that certain spells he learned at home are useless at Roke, while some spells taught to him in Roke lose their potency in the East Reach.
Not entirely true: Men are actually bound to speak the truth when using the true speech, whereas Dragons can lie at will. If you make an illusion that a rock is a diamond, using the true name for rock will break the illusion. There is a way of changing the rock to a diamond, but it is incredibly dangerous as if you make a mistake you could turn all rocks to diamonds.
Good Scars, Evil Scars: Ged, after unleashing a never-exactly specified evil into the world, is scratched up rather terribly by the thing on one side of his face, and scarred for life. However, in that same book someone says approvingly that the scars indicate him as a true hero - and more importantly they are a sign of his kinship with the Nameless Ones, which Tenar is priestess of.
He's actually not aware that anyone thinks his scars are heroic. The guy who thinks this is very young, and very awed by Ged, and he thinks the scars are the tracks of a dragon's claws, since Ged is known for having vanquished an important dragon early in his career.
Humans Are White: Averted. White humans (Kargish) are rare in Earthsea. Most people we encounter are Ambiguously Brown, with Le Guin having said that they look vaguely Native American, or black. Ged has red-brown skin and Tenar has white skin.
Human Sacrifice: Done (and threatened to be done) quite often in The Tombs of Atuan.
I Know Your True Name: The name is the thing, and the true name is the true thing. Know the true name, and you can control the thing. This power is limited in that there are literally countless numbers of names in the world, and no human, at least, can ever learn them all. You can't control the sea, for example, for to control you the sea you have to know the name of every shore it touches, something impossible for a man to do in one lifetime.
Language Of Truth: The Old Speech. Except for the dragons. Well, dragons can't lie, but they can certainly omit, obfuscate and otherwise mislead.* Or, you know, set you on fire and eat you.
Living Legend: "His life is told of in the Deed of Ged and in many songs, but this is a tale of the time before his fame, before the songs were made."
Living Shadow: What Ged summons up and then must deal with in the first book.
The Magic Goes Away: A much more specific example, limited to Ged only, who used up all his magic to seal the door between the land of the dead and the living.
Magic Versus Science: Tenar (the priestess) is ironically disbelieving that Ged can actually perform magic until she sees him actually cast a spell. This is because of her Kargish upbringing—the Kargad are magically uninclined and take a rather arrogantly skeptical view of the western world's magical abilities. (This isn't because they are in any way rationalists: in fact the Kargads are the only people in Earthsea who actually worship gods, and nasty ones at that - the Nameless Ones that Tenar serves are pretty horrible, while most Kargads prefer to worship their own kings.)
Meaningful Rename: Every human gets a new secret name when they come of age, and adopt a publicly-used nickname.
Medieval European Fantasy: Totally averted. Most of the characters are dark-skinned/non-white (with great care taken to distinguish between the various shades of brown), and if any era of actual history matches Earthsea, it's ancient times, not the Middle Ages. (For instance, the tech level is late Bronze Age, augmented by widespread use of magic for things like animal husbandry and weather control.)
If you're having a hard time figuring this out, just envision the settlements as looking Middle Eastern or Indian or perhaps Polynesian (and yes, African), and you'll probably end up freeing yourself from the chains of this trope forever.
The Nothing After Death: the land of the dead is presented as a dry sunless place where the dead keep their names, but not their spirits. This is later revealed to not actually be the real afterlife but a barrier to reaching the real one, established because the first human wizards wanted access to the true names and thus power. Nice job breaking it, wizards.
The Obi-Wan: Ged has three of them: his aunt, Ogion, and Archmage Nemmerle. Only Nemmerle dies. Well, Ogion (Ahal) does, too, but from extreme old age, and not until after the end of the original trilogy.
Ocean Punk: One of the classic and most refined examples.
Only Known by Their Nickname: Most people in Earthsea are like this—they receive a true name when they come of age, but keep it a secret to all but those whom they trust completely. Ged for instance, is known to the vast majority of Earthsea's population as "Sparrowhawk".
Our Dragons Are Different: The intelligent and deadly Tolkien variety, at least in the Dragon Run corner of the far West Reach. When one approaches the East Reach, the farthest islets of Earthsea, there are still dragons... but they're about the size of housecats, and completely harmless and unintelligible.
Powers That Be: The Nameless Ones in The Tombs of Atuan. Their actual existence is up for debate until the point where Ged pisses them off and they retaliate by trying to collapse the great labyrinth around him and Tenar.
Reality Warper: A wizard can do this, if he changes something's true name, or otherwise changes something's nature.
Shapeshifter Mode Lock: Ged almost loses his personality once. It is stated that one wizard spent so much time as a bear he lost his humanity and killed his son. He had to be hunted down afterwards.
Shoulder-Sized Dragon: The harekki Yarrow keeps as a pet in A Wizard of Earthsea, possibly the very first example.
Space Whale Aesop: While probably not intended to be a simple Aesop, Ged's explanation to Arren about life and death and how Cob's actions disturbed The Balance may look like one: "Do not desire eternal life, or else words will lose their true meanings and everyone will eventually go mad".
Title Drop: A variant; the titles of the books are often casually said early on, and then dropped traditionally with meaning. In the case of The Other Wind, the title could almost be considered Arc Words.
"Where," the Summoner said, "where is that land?"
"On the other wind," said Irian. "The west beyond the west."