All examples found in Japanese manga and animation are here!
One example that occurs in multiple anime and manga is the translation of the phrase abunai (危ない), which is both an adjective meaning "dangerous" and an interjection meaning "Look out!" Often translators will mix up the two, having a character shout "This is dangerous!" while something dangerous is about to happen to one of their friends.
This seems to be a staple in many dubs and translations...
He's just carrying on the tradition set in Tsukihime, of course.
Shiki: Dead people can't be alive!
Of course, the implication lost in all this, more so in Shirou's example than Rin's, is pointing out what should happen, but didn't. They're pointing out the obvious because the obvious didn't happen. This is because the verb "殺す" (to kill) only implies deadly action that should result in someone being killed, not necessarily successful deadly action.
Rurouni Kenshin: Try and count all the times someone says "He's no ordinary swordsman!" (or something similar) every time Kenshin disappears because he's moving so fast or knocking down six enemies at a time.
Inuyasha has an entire cast of Captains Obvious, with characters gleefully re-stating something that was just mentioned by another Captain Obvious. For example, if a character is returning from being away, they'd show the character approaching, then one character would say something like "Hey, it's Character Name" then someone else would say "Character Name is coming back!" and "It's good that Character Name is back now!", leading to a whole chorus making sure that the audience knows exactly what's going on, regardless of how obvious it is.
Every time Kagome muses that Inuyasha is half-demon and "half demon means... half human, right?" as if it's a stunning new revelation in the first ten or so episodes, take a shot. It took her quite some time to wrap her head around it (no, we don't meet any half-demon half-gerbils who happen to look 99% human or anything.)
Tristan: In a few hours the sun will rise! [Once Yugi loses some cards from his children's' card game.] Tristan: If it's any consolation, in a few hours the sun will rise! [Later, as the sun rises.] Tristan: See, I was right about the sun!
That's actually what he said in the anime. Well, the first part anyway.
And, from the movie:
Anubis: Shut up! You're going to die! And then you'll be dead! Because I killed you!
"What?! My attack's not working!" "Huh?" "Great Scott! It's not!" "That can't be right! Can it?" "You bet it's right! My machine monster has magic-resistant armor that makes it resistant to all magic attacks!" "That's why he played a machine monster! It's resistant to magic! And not just magic monsters, but magic attacks, too!"
In Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, Jaden states the obvious a couple of times, while explaining his card effects.
"I activate the Flute of Summoning Kuriboh, which, if you couldn't tell, summons... a... Kuriboh."
"I activate The Warrior Returning Alive, which allows one of my warriors to return, you know, alive."
*enters a deserted submarine* Adrian: It's empty; I think it's deserted! Axel: That was quite the brilliant deduction, Adrian, so what are we gonna do now?
Yusei from Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's isn't exactly flawless in this regard either. On some occasions, he even uses the same Monster Effects or Spell/Trap Cards TWICE or more in one episode, which is normal enough. But he seriously doesn't need to explain the effect in detail TWICE in the same episode as if we're not paying attention the first time.
Tetsuro in the new Guyver series sometimes falls into this. When he's not constantly shouting "son of a bitch!".
Following Guyot's careful explanation of the process used to create Zoanoids, including Tetsuro stating that they are human in shock.
Tetsuro: Wait. You mean that Zoanids are made out of people?
Viral: Damn barbaric humans! Can't you beat us fist-to-fist you cowards? Kamina: This rock is my fist! Viral: A rock is a rock. It's not a damn fist! Kamina: Is stating the obvious the best you got, dumbass?
Setsuna F. Seiei: (Upon seeing the Masurao for the first time) That Mobile Suit is... NO FLAG?
A bit earlier, when Setsuna and Saji meets for the first time:
Saji: Oh. You must be our new neighbor. What's your name? Setsuna: Setsuna F. Seiei. Saji: Setsuna F. Seiei? That's a strange name.
All things considered, the only strange thing about the name is Setsuna having an 'F' as his middle name. Nobody knows what it means (but some fans believe it stands for Setsuna "Effing Overkill" Seiei, considering many of his kills being slightly excessive). It's also worth noting that his name is written with 3 different sets of characters, the only Gundam character ever to have that trait. Setsuna is written with the Kanji for the word. F. is written in Romaji, AKA Roman letters, and Seiei is written in Katakana.
So, there's a scene where Might Guy has brilliant lines such as "You surely are... someone I met before". Ironically, the latter is actually a subversion, as the villain is using a body duplication technique that's based on another body, and that one's rhythms are slightly different from the villain's own... so while Guy can see the bad guy, his instincts tell him that it's someone else. And he's right.
There's also when he looks at Gaara's gourd: "Nobody has noticed yet... but... that gourd is suspicious!"
There's also the Asuma vs Hidan fight. "Is he immortal?" "No shit, Sherlock!"
And there is also Pein's "do you hate me?" line after Naruto goes six tails due to witnessing Pein stab Hinata. Episode 167 made it worse (or hilarious depending on your view of the episode), as he says it after being smacked into the ground with a large chunk of mountain.
Masashi Kishimoto falls victim to this too as every time a plot point is shown he lampshades it.
During the Kenpachi vs. Nnoitora fight. "He's got more arms!" Thank you, Ichigo. We'd be lost without you.
Urahara temporarily surpasses Ichigo's stupidity in the Zanpakuto Rebellion arc, when the zanpakuto start rebelling against the shinigami. After several fight scenes, the new enemies completely devastating the Soul Society, Ichigo coming to his own (correct) conclusions, multipleInfo Dumps, Urahara gives us this little gem: "From the report, it seems that the majority of zanpakuto in Soul Society have begun to act against their shinigami."
Kazumi: It's called a school festival. It's a festival organized by the school.
Blame the translator— The Japanese have a word for "festival", a word for "school", and a different-sounding word for "school festival" (Though written as "school" and "festival". That's how the language works). The person she's explaining it to is a foreigner who possibly wouldn't know all the words.
Some days, it seems like the only reason Luna is around anymore in Sailor Moon:
[monster creates sea pillars and attacks Sailor Moon with them] Luna: Careful, Sailor Moon! That monster can attack with water!
Ami, to some extent. The dub rolls with this and makes her so redundant that it's a wonder they don't just tape her mouth shut until they need her to look up something specific.
Amy: " This is a portal inside a warped space......that leads to.....yet another space!!"
Sailor Moon Abridged makes this Amy's defining trait, after being a whispering The Voiceless. Mina is such a ditz, she moves into this territory as well.
Pokemon The First Movie should have a medal for the number of times the words "Mewtwo is a clone of Mew!", or something to that affect, are repeated.
Hell, the later dubbed seasons of the Pokémon anime are full of this. Characters frequently point out things that anybody watching the show can see.
Brock in the series is prone to this often (at least in the dub). It seems like every episode he has to explain everything that is going on, although this serves to educate viewers who aren't familiar with the Pokémon games.
There's also one in the Ash vs. Harrison battle.
Harrison: Hypno, use your Psychic attack! Announcer: (Harrison's Hypno lifts Ash's Totodile into the air) Hypno is using its Psychic attack!
Ken Hidaka from Weiss Kreuz is the kind of guy who feels the need to point out to his teammates that empty rooms are, in fact, empty. Sometimes when they're standing right next to him. In the selfsame empty room.
An early episode of Fist of the North Star has a drill instructor explaining to his men that "God's Army is the army of God". The line makes sense in Japanese, since he's explaining what the name "God's Army" means (Kami no Gun), but its pointlessly redundant in English.
In Gankutsuou, a character looks at an envelope and reacts to it with: '13 Rue De Dauphine? That's M. Noisier's house!' (Name and address deliberately changed to protect the fact I can't remember them.) He then turns the envelope towards the camera, and there's a small, blurry address line; but the name 'M. Noisier' is perfectly legible in large letters across the centre of the envelope.
Though Kalinin from Full Metal Panic! tends not to say things like this, he did have an instance where he felt the need to mention that Gauron is a "depraved pleasure seeker." You know, just in case the audience and the soldiers who just fought him (and had just witnessed his Ax-Crazy ways) didn't get it by now.
Kalinin was actually warning his subordinates to be wary of Gauron, saying that he might look "depraved and pleasure seeking" but he was still a pro — a very intelligent and cunning opponent. Also, the soldiers fighting him in that battle hadn't truly seen what he was capable of, and were probably inclined to dismiss him too easily, just like those guys in the Helmajistan arc. At that point, some anvils needed to be dropped. Though even Kalinin couldn't have predicted the whole new levels of insanity and lustful obsession Gauron had reached thanks to Sousuke. The whole pancreatic cancer thing.
Loveless: Yuiko, dear GOD. Sometimes it seems that she has become an entity beyond Cloudcuckoolander and made this trope her main goal in life.
Sakura: If you forcibly impale me with something, I will die.
Dokuro really does need reminding every now and then. Not that it will do any good.
Mirai Nikki: Yukki, have you honestly just figured that outNOW!?
Most lines of the narrator from Ookami San To Shichinin No Nakamatachi come down to "what is just happening on the screen", although the way she says them (taking such obvious pleasure in pointing out the salacious side of story events) is what makes having a narrator worthwhile.
Shinji: Right, I am me and she is she. But are you really sure that the perceptions of others form my true self?
Misato: It's true, Shinji Ikari.
Asuka: Has it taken you this long to realize that?! What an idiot!
End of Evangelion has a much simpler example when a dying Misato is confronting a depressed Shinji: "You hate yourself, don't you?" Like, seriously, did you just realize that Misato?? Congratulations!
D.Gray-Man: "What is this?" "It's a sword. You've just been stabbed."
In the Japanese live-action version of Hana Yori Dango, Makino and Tsukasa are waiting to cross the street when the light turns from red to green. He remarks, "The light's green", as if no one else could see it.
Kore wa Zombie desu ka? has Ayumu remark to Yuu: "If you hadn't brought me back to life, I'd still be dead." People do generally stay dead if you don't bring them back to life, yes.
In the 1980s Astro Boy, a cyborg called Inspector Holmes is shot in the only human part of him: his head. Astro's reaction? "You shot him! In the head! His head was the only part of that was human! You shot him in his head!"
Oku-sama wa Mahou Shoujo Late in the series, Ureshiko Asaba is judged to be erased, whereupon Kagura Tatsumi immediately clarifies, "That means you'll die!" Being wiped from existence is pretty much the same as dying, if not worse.