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** One case was "solved" (by Sally, not Encyclopedia) because a couple sat in a restaurant with the man's back to the wall rather than the woman's, from which Sally deduced that each was actually a member of the other gender in disguise. This is because of a rule of etiquette that the woman should sit against the wall, so she can see and be seen. For this to be evidence, it would have to be the case that people followed this "rule" with no, or at best, very few exceptions; only Sally had ever heard of it. This same solution supposes that the victim is a woman so strong only a man could've knocked her out with one punch, ignoring the victim's own strength and the possibility for other women to be that strong.

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** One case was "solved" (by Sally, not Encyclopedia) because a couple sat in a restaurant with the man's back to the wall rather than the woman's, from which Sally deduced that each was actually a member of the other gender in disguise. This is because of a rule of etiquette that the woman should sit against the wall, so she can see and be seen. For this to be evidence, it would have to be the case that people followed this "rule" with no, or at best, very few exceptions; only Sally had ever heard of it. This same solution supposes that the victim is a woman so strong only a man could've knocked her out with one punch, ignoring the victim's own strength and fact that the possibility for other victim is, well, a very strong woman, which by itself admits that very strong women to be that strong.exist.


** An alleged suicide note from a linguistics professor is determined to be a fake due to some grammatical "mistakes" that a true linguist would never make, including the use of a split infinitive. The correctness of split infinitives is a matter of great debate; while some do abhor them, many grammarians have no problem with them at all. And that's before you have to wonder if a person contemplating suicide is in the correct frame of mind to even consider proofreading their own ''suicide note'' (not to mention the fact that linguistics isn't about adhering to all the grammar "rules" your seventh-grade English teacher taught you).

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** An alleged suicide note from a linguistics professor is determined to be a fake due to some grammatical "mistakes" that a true linguist would never make, including the use of a split infinitive. The correctness of split infinitives is a matter of great debate; while some do abhor them, many grammarians have no problem with them at all. And that's before you have to wonder if a person contemplating suicide is in the correct frame of mind to even consider proofreading their own ''suicide note'' (not to mention the fact that linguistics isn't about adhering to all linguists might have their own takes on the grammar "rules" your seventh-grade English teacher taught you).language).


** An alleged suicide note from a linguistics professor is determined to be a fake due to some grammatical "mistakes" that a true linguist would never make, including the use of a split infinitive. The correctness of split infinitives is a matter of great debate; while some do abhor them, many grammarians have no problem with them at all. And that's before you have to wonder if a person contemplating suicide is in the correct frame of mind to even consider proofreading their own ''suicide note''.

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** An alleged suicide note from a linguistics professor is determined to be a fake due to some grammatical "mistakes" that a true linguist would never make, including the use of a split infinitive. The correctness of split infinitives is a matter of great debate; while some do abhor them, many grammarians have no problem with them at all. And that's before you have to wonder if a person contemplating suicide is in the correct frame of mind to even consider proofreading their own ''suicide note''.note'' (not to mention the fact that linguistics isn't about adhering to all the grammar "rules" your seventh-grade English teacher taught you).

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*** Conan Doyle himself checked that theory after getting some mail from the readers, and admitted that this is, indeed, his mistake; he also said that Holmes could've used a different clue: on an uneven ground the bike leaves a deeper track when going upwards than downwards, and that is enough in the context of the story.


** "A Study in Pink" has Sherlock deduce that the former owner of John's mobile was his brother and a drunk runs entirely on these. He assumes that people not wanting to pay the entire rent of a flat would be frugal in every other aspect of their lives despite flat mates being quite common among people of varying financial backgrounds. He assumes that older people don't have cell phones, which was sort of true in the time period the show was produced but the phone being a gift explains that. The scratches on the power connection are a shout out to the same deduction being used in the original stories but for watch winding. However as most cell phone owners can attest, the tiny plug of that style of cell phone is difficult to find and people often plug their phones in in the dark, most cell phones over six months old will have scratches around the outlet, whatever the owners intoxication level. In fairness, he did admit the last one was a "shot in the dark," and later explicitly stated he wasn't expecting to get ''everything'' right. Parodied in [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKQOk5UlQSc this skit]].

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** "A Study in Pink" has Sherlock deduce that the former owner of John's mobile was his brother and a drunk runs entirely on these. He assumes that people not wanting to pay the entire rent of a flat would be frugal in every other aspect of their lives despite flat mates being quite common among people of varying financial backgrounds. He assumes that older people don't have cell phones, which was sort of true in the time period the show was produced but the phone being a gift explains that. The scratches on the power connection are a shout out to the same deduction being used in the original stories but for watch winding. However as most cell phone owners can attest, the tiny plug of that style of cell phone is difficult to find and people often plug their phones in in the dark, most cell phones over six months old will have scratches around the outlet, whatever the owners intoxication level. In fairness, he did admit the last one was a "shot in the dark," and later explicitly stated he wasn't expecting to get ''everything'' right. Parodied in [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKQOk5UlQSc this skit]].skit.]]


* One Encyclopedia Brown-esque story concluded that the suspect was obviously lying because he claimed he was at a laundromat putting clothes into a top-loading dryer. The detective claimed that ''all'' dryers are front-loading. This is incorrect; top-loading models existed on the market even in the time period when the story was written[[note]]although since they're pretty uncommon, it becomes a matter of going to the laundromat and checking if the place really does use top-loading dryers[[/note]].

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* One Encyclopedia Brown-esque story concluded that the suspect was obviously lying because he claimed he was at a laundromat putting clothes into a top-loading dryer. The detective claimed that ''all'' dryers are front-loading. This is incorrect; top-loading models existed on the market even in the time period when the story was written[[note]]although written.[[note]]Although since they're pretty uncommon, it becomes a matter of going to the laundromat and checking if the place really does use top-loading dryers[[/note]].dryers.[[/note]]


* One entry in ''Literature/TheArmchairDetective'' series stated that one true way of knowing if a pre-UsefulNotes/WorldWarII telegram is false is if the phrase "UsefulNotes/WorldWarI" or "The First World War" is ever mentioned, on the assumption that nobody could have foreseen a second World War before it started. However, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_One#Names it was used by some almost immediately after hostilities began]]. Note that the series in general isn't particularly prone to this. In his defense, those were not ''common'' terms, and would hardly be included in a telegram where they could easily say "The War" or "The Great War" with fewer letters. It may not be rock-solid evidence, but it's a good reason to be very skeptical.

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* One entry in ''Literature/TheArmchairDetective'' series stated that one true way of knowing if a pre-UsefulNotes/WorldWarII telegram is false is if the phrase "UsefulNotes/WorldWarI" or "The First World War" is ever mentioned, on the assumption that nobody could have foreseen a second World War before it started. However, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_One#Names it was used by some almost immediately after hostilities began]]. began.]] Note that the series in general isn't particularly prone to this. In his defense, those were not ''common'' terms, and would hardly be included in a telegram where they could easily say "The War" or "The Great War" with fewer letters. It may not be rock-solid evidence, but it's a good reason to be very skeptical.


** One involving a sword from UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar. The guy hawking it claimed it was authentic due to the engraving showing that it was given to Stonewall Jackson by Robert E. Lee after the First Battle of Bull Run. The 'correct' answer was that the sword was fake, because [[AnachronisticClue nobody would have called it FIRST Bull Run]] until there had been a Second Bull Run. However, given how long it can take to commission, make, retrieve, and engrave a sword, it's entirely possible that the second battle a year later either already happened or was soon coming, necessitating the need for specificity. In fact, there are two other problems with the story, both of which would have been better pieces of evidence. One, Confederate forces did not refer to either battle as Bull Run at all, but rather as the Battles of Manassas[[note]]The one being Union-specific nomenclature referring to a creek that passes through the battlefield, the other being Confederate nomenclature referring to the nearby city of Manassas, VA.[[/note]], and two, General Lee wasn't ''present'' for the First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas: the Confederates there were led by P.G.T. Beauregard. Sobol pointed this latter fact out in later editions.

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** One involving a sword from UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar. The guy hawking it claimed it was authentic due to the engraving showing that it was given to Stonewall Jackson by Robert E. Lee after the First Battle of Bull Run. The 'correct' answer was that the sword was fake, because [[AnachronisticClue nobody would have called it FIRST Bull Run]] until there had been a Second Bull Run. However, given how long it can take to commission, make, retrieve, and engrave a sword, it's entirely possible that the second battle a year later either already happened or was soon coming, necessitating the need for specificity. In fact, there are two other problems with the story, both of which would have been better pieces of evidence. One, Confederate forces did not refer to either battle as Bull Run at all, but rather as the Battles of Manassas[[note]]The Manassas,[[note]]The one being Union-specific nomenclature referring to a creek that passes through the battlefield, the other being Confederate nomenclature referring to the nearby city of Manassas, VA.[[/note]], [[/note]] and two, General Lee wasn't ''present'' for the First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas: the Confederates there were led by P.G.T. Beauregard. Sobol pointed this latter fact out in later editions.


** Another amusing in-universe example in ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration''. At the beginning of the episode "Ship in a Bottle", Data, playing Sherlock Holmes on the holodeck, says that the suspect has to be guilty because the attacker was left handed. Data throws an object at the suspect, which the suspect catches, proving that the suspect is left handed. Except, as Geordi points out, the object is in the suspect's right hand. Data notes that there must be a glitch in the holodeck switching the dominant hand of the holodeck characters. [[AGlitchInTheMatrix This actually becomes a critical clue later in the episode.]]

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** Another amusing in-universe example in ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration''. At the beginning of the episode "Ship in a Bottle", Data, playing Sherlock Holmes on the holodeck, says that the suspect has to be guilty because the attacker was left handed. Data throws an object at the suspect, which the suspect catches, proving that the suspect is left handed. Except, as Geordi points out, the object is in the suspect's right RIGHT hand. Data notes that there must be a glitch in the holodeck switching the dominant hand of the holodeck characters. [[AGlitchInTheMatrix This actually becomes a critical clue later in the episode.]]

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**Another amusing in-universe example in ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration''. At the beginning of the episode "Ship in a Bottle", Data, playing Sherlock Holmes on the holodeck, says that the suspect has to be guilty because the attacker was left handed. Data throws an object at the suspect, which the suspect catches, proving that the suspect is left handed. Except, as Geordi points out, the object is in the suspect's right hand. Data notes that there must be a glitch in the holodeck switching the dominant hand of the holodeck characters. [[AGlitchInTheMatrix This actually becomes a critical clue later in the episode.]]


* A common one seen in multiple detective series is the unwavering belief that [[ValuesDissonance all women are physically weaker than all men]], which is commonly brought up as a foolproof alibi. Even when there's an elderly, overweight or disabled man in the room who doesn't get the same courtesy. Especially headache-inducing in the Moonlight Sonata case of ''Manga/DetectiveConan'', where a female doctor is written off as a suspect because she's petite with thin arms and couldn't have lifted the bodies. (Each of which are taller than her and would require quite a feat to move around the way they did.) Then [[spoiler: when it's found out "she" is actually a crossdressing man this alibi immediately vanishes, ''even though he's still the exact same muscleless {{Bishounen}} waif.'']] \\

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* A common one seen in multiple detective series is the unwavering belief that [[ValuesDissonance all women are physically weaker than all men]], which is commonly brought up as a foolproof alibi. Even when there's an elderly, overweight or disabled man in the room who doesn't get the same courtesy. Especially headache-inducing in the Moonlight Sonata case of ''Manga/DetectiveConan'', where a female doctor is written off as a suspect because she's petite with thin arms and couldn't have lifted the bodies. (Each of which are taller than her and would require quite a feat to move around the way they did.) Then [[spoiler: when [[spoiler:when it's found out "she" is actually a crossdressing man this alibi immediately vanishes, ''even though he's still the exact same muscleless {{Bishounen}} waif.'']] \\'']]



%% The vital clue that solves the mystery in the novel Fatal Equilibrium doesn't work at all once the FridgeLogic sets in. [[spoiler: Canoes would necessarily have a smaller price variance only if one assumes all canoes are the same, which is a bad assumption to make when applied to non-theoretical situations. This is even worse when the protagonist makes the comparison of a hammer truck and a car. Anyone with half a brain would realize that, while the price variance of a specific make and model of car would likely be smaller than that of a hammer, cars in general have a considerably larger variance due to differences in performance, fuel efficiency, mileage, current fads, etc. This effect could actually be even more pronounced in the society under question, which did not have mass production, meaning each canoe would be unique.]]
%% [[spoiler: Even in the US, a cheap canoe can be had for as little as $400, while a large Grumman can run you over $2000, ''five times'' more expensive. The price of a canoe varies with the size of the canoe, the materials it's made of, and the quality of its construction.]]

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%% The vital clue that solves the mystery in the novel Fatal Equilibrium doesn't work at all once the FridgeLogic sets in. [[spoiler: Canoes [[spoiler:Canoes would necessarily have a smaller price variance only if one assumes all canoes are the same, which is a bad assumption to make when applied to non-theoretical situations. This is even worse when the protagonist makes the comparison of a hammer truck and a car. Anyone with half a brain would realize that, while the price variance of a specific make and model of car would likely be smaller than that of a hammer, cars in general have a considerably larger variance due to differences in performance, fuel efficiency, mileage, current fads, etc. This effect could actually be even more pronounced in the society under question, which did not have mass production, meaning each canoe would be unique.]]
%% [[spoiler: Even [[spoiler:Even in the US, a cheap canoe can be had for as little as $400, while a large Grumman can run you over $2000, ''five times'' more expensive. The price of a canoe varies with the size of the canoe, the materials it's made of, and the quality of its construction.]]



* Zigzagged in ''Literature/TheDresdenFiles'' book, ''Literature/GhostStory''. While confronting Aristedes [[spoiler: Butters pretends to be a Warden. Aristedes notices that Butters doesn't have a sword, and therefore isn't a Warden. This is not actually accurate. They are currently unable to make new magic swords, so younger Wardens don't have them. Dresden notes this, but since neither Aristedes or Butters know about this, it doesn't matter that he's technically wrong.]]

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* Zigzagged in ''Literature/TheDresdenFiles'' book, ''Literature/GhostStory''. While confronting Aristedes [[spoiler: Butters [[spoiler:Butters pretends to be a Warden. Aristedes notices that Butters doesn't have a sword, and therefore isn't a Warden. This is not actually accurate. They are currently unable to make new magic swords, so younger Wardens don't have them. Dresden notes this, but since neither Aristedes or Butters know about this, it doesn't matter that he's technically wrong.]]


->"''Literature/EncyclopediaBrown? What a hack! To this day, I occasionally reach into my left pocket for my keys with my right hand, just to prove that little brat wrong.''"

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->"''Literature/EncyclopediaBrown? ->"''Encyclopedia Brown? What a hack! To this day, I occasionally reach into my left pocket for my keys with my right hand, just to prove that little brat wrong.''"


* In "Ego Trip", ''Creator/JohnByrne'' 's story in [[Franchise/{{Batman}} Batman]] 3D, a receipt is found that mentions delivery of "zzxjoanw" to the victim. The cops figure it must have been some garbled message to someone named "Joan". Batman, armed with encyclopedic knowledge, knows that a zzxjoanw is actually a Maori drum and deduces that the victim was a collector of obscure musical instruments. The problem is that in real life, "zzxjoanw" is actually a fictitious entry in a 1903 music encyclopedia that managed to make it into two other books of "interesting words" over the next 50+ years, and no such instrument actually exists (Maori doesn't even have the letters Z, X, and J).

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* In "Ego Trip", ''Creator/JohnByrne'' 's Creator/JohnByrne's story in [[Franchise/{{Batman}} ''[[Franchise/{{Batman}} Batman]] 3D, 3D'', a receipt is found that mentions delivery of "zzxjoanw" to the victim. The cops figure it must have been some garbled message to someone named "Joan". Batman, armed with encyclopedic knowledge, knows that a zzxjoanw is actually a Maori drum and deduces that the victim was a collector of obscure musical instruments. The problem is that in real life, "zzxjoanw" is actually a fictitious entry in a 1903 music encyclopedia that managed to make it into two other books of "interesting words" over the next 50+ years, and no such instrument actually exists (Maori doesn't even have the letters Z, X, and J).


* The vital clue that solves the mystery in the novel Fatal Equilibrium doesn't work at all once the FridgeLogic sets in. [[spoiler: Canoes would necessarily have a smaller price variance only if one assumes all canoes are the same, which is a bad assumption to make when applied to non-theoretical situations. This is even worse when the protagonist makes the comparison of a hammer truck and a car. Anyone with half a brain would realize that, while the price variance of a specific make and model of car would likely be smaller than that of a hammer, cars in general have a considerably larger variance due to differences in performance, fuel efficiency, mileage, current fads, etc. This effect could actually be even more pronounced in the society under question, which did not have mass production, meaning each canoe would be unique.]]
** [[spoiler: Even in the US, a cheap canoe can be had for as little as $400, while a large Grumman can run you over $2000, ''five times'' more expensive. The price of a canoe varies with the size of the canoe, the materials it's made of, and the quality of its construction.]]

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* %% The vital clue that solves the mystery in the novel Fatal Equilibrium doesn't work at all once the FridgeLogic sets in. [[spoiler: Canoes would necessarily have a smaller price variance only if one assumes all canoes are the same, which is a bad assumption to make when applied to non-theoretical situations. This is even worse when the protagonist makes the comparison of a hammer truck and a car. Anyone with half a brain would realize that, while the price variance of a specific make and model of car would likely be smaller than that of a hammer, cars in general have a considerably larger variance due to differences in performance, fuel efficiency, mileage, current fads, etc. This effect could actually be even more pronounced in the society under question, which did not have mass production, meaning each canoe would be unique.]]
** %% [[spoiler: Even in the US, a cheap canoe can be had for as little as $400, while a large Grumman can run you over $2000, ''five times'' more expensive. The price of a canoe varies with the size of the canoe, the materials it's made of, and the quality of its construction.]]


What makes the argument doubly galling is that Conan constantly travels with [[TheWatson Ran]], who is an ActionGirl who regularly punches chips of concrete off of building corners, puts sizable dents into metal poles, and kicks in doors. No one has any doubts that she is extremely strong. Yet Conan continues to use the argument that a woman is too weak to do certain tasks, ''in the presence of Ran''.

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