To be blunt, any nocturnal carnivorous or parasitic supernatural being will be labeled a "Vampire" by folklorists. Entire books have been written on the subject.
Romanian mythology has what's called strigoi. Quick notes:
Unlike Russia's upir, which is a walking, bloodsucking corpse from day one, strigoi start as harmless poltergeists.
Some ill-omens can point to a human rising as a strigoi, but they're just indicators of what's possible: stuff like a black cat walking across the grave, moonlight falling on it, monkshood growing nearby, the list goes on and isn't conclusive.
Driving a stake through the heart of a recently deceased strigoi vio (or human doomed to rise as a strigoi mort) will keep it from rising altogether. If that can't be done, wait until the spirit manifests through poltergeist activity and then call in the priest to exorcise it.
The ghost grows increasingly more volatile until it's spent seven whole years in the town it inhabited in life. Then it's free to wander around the land.
Makes more of 'em by fathering children instead of with an infectious bite. The kids will become strigoi mort after death.
Strigoi are also frequently described as being able to turn into owls, much like modern vampires turn into bats. "Strigoi" in fact is etymologically related to the word "Strix", "owl" or "screecher" in latin.
Romanian lore also includes an Eldritch Abomination variant called a Varcolac, that apparently has the ability to swallow the moon for a small amount of time.
A majority of European vampires (or revenants, see first point) are corpses with a ruddy complexion, skin and nails that have fallen off to reveal new ones below, and have gained weight/bloated up. In short, they look like bodies in the natural process of decay.
But to the average ignorant medieval peasant they would look like they were alive, especially with the nails and hair and bloating.
Malaysian vampire lore includes a truly bizarre creature called a Penanngalan, which looks human by day, but by night detaches its head and flies (trailing its intestines) to people's windows where it uses its long, thin tongue to suck blood. It can be killed by filling its body with glass (so it shreds it's organs on re-entry) or trapped with thorns on a windowsill. Notably, this vampire, unlike most mythological variants, is vulnerable to sunlight, but only in its detached form, which is why trapping it until sun-up is a viable way to kill it.
Filipino mythology has basically the same creature, but instead called a Manananggal, that detaches its entire upper body and grows bat wings.
Bali folklore has yet another similar creature known as the Leyak, except it only drinks blood from the fetuses of pregnant women.
The Japanese have two very similar creatures, one that detaches its head and is basically the same as a Penanggal, and one that simply stretches its neck out.
And finally, Burma has an all-male variant called a Kephn, that is arguably worse than all of the above because it feeds on people's souls.
In the Andes, there is the Pishtaco. Instead of drinking your blood, he drains the fat out of your body and sells it to the white man on the coast, who uses it to grease his machines. After he's dried you out, he cuts you up. Makes an appearance in Death in the Andes by Mario Vargas Llosa and on the ninth season Supernatural episode, "The Purge".
India has the Vetala, an evil spirit that inhabits a corpse, transforms it into a batlike monster and drinks blood. It's notable for functioning more like a trickster spirit then a vampire, and enjoys rhymes and riddles.
Ghana has the Adze, a disgusting, hunched gnome that takes the shape of a firefly to feed on blood.
Also from West Africa are the Asanbosam and Sasabonsam. The former is described as a humanoid with hook-like legs, while the latter is a monstrous bat-like ogre. Both are agreed to be tree-dwelling blood-drinkers with teeth made of iron, so they are often synonymous.
In Finnish folklore, a child born out of wedlock, murdered by its mother after birth and buried in forest would stalk after her for the rest of her life, seeking to suck her breasts, not for milk but for blood, until she died. If they couldn't find their mother, they could go after any unfortunate woman. The stories usually depicted them as naked, paper-white toddlers, in spite of the murder taking place when they were newborns.
In Albanian folklore, a 13th century tale speaks of the Dhampyr. A soldier goes to war but he promises his wife to come back to give her a son, legacy and stuff. Of course, he dies, yet still comes back, undead. He has the son and raises him, all this time not going in the sun. When his wife tells his mother that she is living with him she tells her that the dead are dead and the living should not mess with that. They get him high on weed (not making it up) and expose him to the sun. The end. How do we get from this to Blade, Blood+ and Vampire Hunter D? Who knows.
In China, there are the Jiangshi, which are something of a mix between the traditional Slavic vampires and zombies. One notable difference is that the Jiangshi is not free of rigor mortis: Given enough time after its death, the creature will get so stiff that it will be able to move only by hopping.
Asturias (northern Spain) has the Guaxa, a nocturnal creature with the aspect of an extremely old woman with big owl eyes and a single, needle-like tooth that uses to suck the blood of children. It can squeeze in through any crack, and sleeps by day in a cave or a hole in a tree - making it oddly similar to the "Teliko" seen in The X-Files.
Brazilian Folklore features the urban legend of the "Papa Figo" ("Liver Eater") who's always described by roaming the night in search of children to drink their blood and eat their liver (thus his name) because of some sort of rare disease, for which only the liver of children can serve as medicine. Further more, he's often described as very skinny, pale, tall, with long fingernails and long teeth. He also tends to be a very wealthy man with the means to hire thugs to find suitable children, making him basically a Brazilian Count Dracula of sorts.
Australian Aboriginal mythology contains a creature called the yara-ma-yha-who, which can be roughly described as their equivalent of a vampire. It's a monstrous humanoid that Was Once a Man and can transform another human being into a creature like it by drinking their blood, but the similarity ends there, which isn't nearly as reassuring as it might sound. The yara-ma-yha-who is a little red man with a large head, an even larger toothless mouth, and incredibly longtentacle-like fingers, which lurks in fig trees waiting for unsuspecting travelers to pass by. When they do, it reaches down and entangles them in its tentacle-fingers, draining their blood with the Lamprey Mouth-like suckers that line them. Not for sustenance, but just to keep its prey nice and weak so it can swallow them whole. After that, it regurgitates them, and when it does, they come out ever-so-slightly redder an ever-so-slightly shorter, with an ever-so-slightly larger head and ever-so-slightly longer fingers. Then it lets them go, falls asleep, and waits to catch them again another day so it can repeat the process, again and again until its hapless victim is completely transformed into a yara-ma-yha-who themselves. Oh, and in some versions of the tale, it specifically preys on children.
Judaism has the estries. Although they are all women, it is unclear if the estries are a One-Gender Race or women who have become cursed. They have Voluntary Shapeshifting and flight. The estries need to feed on blood to survive. They cannot fly if their hair is bound. If someone injured them, the estries must eat the bread and salt of there person responsible or die. More recent depiction of them tend to give them more traditional vampire weaknesses including silver and wooden stakes.
Scotland has the baobhan sith (pronounced Baa-VAN-Shee), which is usually depicted as a stunning fairy-like woman with feet resembling deer hooves, which she often conceals with a long dress. Rather than bats, they're also said to shapeshift into crows or ravens.