The first opening of Death Note has a blink-and-you'll-miss-it moment where a glass statue of Light falls to the ground and breaks.
As far as intentional breaking goes, in GaoGaiGar they have Break In Case Of Monster of the Week glass covering a button as part of the over-the-top emphasis.
The connector for the GoldionCrusher was designed for GaoFighGar. It was actually used by Genesic GaoGaiGar, whose arm is significantly bigger than GaoFighGar's. As Geki Hyuuma advised, Guy "adjusted with [his] guts!"
In an episode of Princess Tutu, Fakir smashes through a window in order to confront the Dark Magical Girl (Mytho, however, just decided to use the door).
The Major deliberately drops a glass of champagne after dedicating a toast to the impending attack on London by Millenium.
The second being when Alucard's wine glass falls and shatters (in slo-mo!) before the start of his fight with Luke Valentine.
Umineko no Naku Koro ni does this with its Eyecatch. It actually comes straight from the visual novel, which would use the effect whenever there was about to be a time lapse in the narration.
The 1970's anime version of The Little Mermaid has Marina dramatically dropping a mirror on the floor after the prince told her that he's marrying another princess whom he believes saved his life when in reality it was Marina who saved him.
One episode of Cinderella Monogatari features Cinderella and her stepsisters being hired to clean the royal palace. The palace has a large china doll that has been in the royal family for generations. While cleaning the hallway, the stepsisters get into a fight and knock the doll off its pedestal, breaking it into pieces. As a result, the stepsisters are told that they won't be forgiven for it and are subsequently fired.
Happens in episode 85 of Ranma ½ when Ranma accidentally falls into Akane's dish of pot stickers which causes it to fall and break. Cue Akane getting down on her knees and staring at it with a broken expression while dramatic music plays in the background.
The "Line Must Be Drawn Here" scene from Star Trek: First Contact, in which Captain Picard loses his temper, shouts two Big Nos, and smashes the glass case holding his models of previous Enterprises. The camera even holds for an extra moment on the model of the ship from the television series sliding off of the shelf before it hits the ground.
Done surprisingly well in Iron Man 1. After learning that his weapons have been sold to a terrorist group without his consent and seeing the news report about how they're being used to terrorize an Afghan village, Tony Stark gets up and in a moment of fury/surprise uses his new and improved pulse-blasting gloves to shatter the windows of his shop.
In the movie Bicentennial Man, a young Little Miss is playing on the beach with a glass figurine of a horse. She invites Andrew to hold it, but Andrew fumbles the delicate figurine, causing it to fall from his grasp and be shattered on a rock. Little Miss is understandably furious at this, since the horse was not only her favorite figure, but also irreplaceable. To remedy the situation, Andrew studies the art of wood carving, and carves for Little Miss a wooden horse figurine, thereby exhibiting creativity for the first time.
The Movie of Watchmen does this: when Laurie figures out The Comedian was her father, she freaks out and punches a pillar of Jon's Martian glass palace, which leads to the whole structure shattering around them. It's pretty awesome.
In the film version of The Natural, Roy Hobbs' home run ball shatters the stadium lights.
La Haine begins with a shattering Molotov bottle in representation of the riots of Paris's ghettos.
Lampshaded and deconstructed in the Bollywood movie Taal: upon hearing his nephew is going to marry the daughter of a musician (basically a commoner), Manev's uncle smashes a glass on the floor. Manev then proceeds to smash seven glasses on the floor, and then says, "If smashing a glass makes your argument more valid, then I have smashed seven glasses on the floor, so my argument is seven times more valid."
Played for laughs in the George of the Jungle movie. Ursula, the heroine, nervously reveals to her parents - during a reception held for her and her fiance - that she no longer wishes to get married to her fiance. Her parents respond with a cheery, "That's OK, dear. We understand." The Narrator then quips, "Just kidding!" before Ursula's mother lets out a harrowing scream and promptly drops her wine glass, shattering it on the floor.
In the extended edition of Return of the King, Aragorn gets into a Palantír staring match with Sauron, who shows him a taunting vision of a dying/dead Arwen. The Evenstar pendant she gifted him with falls to the floor and shatters very prettily and dramatically into glittering bits, though he's later seen wearing it, so it was apparently a hallucination. The shot of the pendant shattering is shown before this scene, divorced from context, throughout the trilogy; it symbolises Arwen's dependence on Aragorn's victory to survive.
In the film version of Twilight, Rosalie shatters a glass bowl of salad in rage when she learns that Bella has already eaten and her family's efforts to cook for her were in vain.
The climax, taking place in a mirror lined ballet studio also has this in spades.
The World Is Not Enough shows Renard punching clean through a glass table in frustration, showing his utter inability to feel pain.
In Snow White & the Huntsman, where the queen's phantom army seem to be composed of black glass when killed, and in the climactic fight where amorphous humanoids composed of shards which fall from the queen's castle's ceiling fight the heroes. Her magic mirror though is composed of highly polished magic metal rather than glass.
Manhunter and Red Dragon has the killer at large; Francis Dollarhyde who leaves slivers of glass embedded in his victim's eyes. Inthe climax of the former, he's shown shattering a mirror as he prepares to kill his blind girlfriend.
The penultimate episode of Spaced Series 2 uses a slow-motion dropped wineglass to illustrate the shattering of trust and friendship when Marsha finds out that Tim and Daisy aren't a couple and have been lying to her for years.
Babylon 5 used it in the episode where Sheridan's dead first wife shows up at his door and Delenn drops a snowglobe to shatter in extreme slow-motion against the floor.
Tyrion knocks a wineglass off the table during a meeting with his father and his bannermen as a metaphor for the chances of securing peace with the Starks and Jaime's release from them now that Joffrey had killed Ned Stark in Game of Thrones.
Russell Mulcahey (the director of Highlander) started his career by directing many, many music videos in the 1980s. He practically invented the "glass object shattering in slow motion" motif used so often in the TEN videos he did for Duran Duran.
(Not entirely sure if this counts, but...) I THREW IT ON THE GROUND!
X Japan's videos for, among others, "Week End" and "Jade" feature this trope.
Castlevania: "What is a man?! *tosses wine glass* A miserable little pile of secrets! But enough talk! Have at you!"
Dracula does this quite a lot over the various games.
He also does it in I Wanna Be the Guy. Just like everything else in the game, the wine glass can kill you.
One of the scenarios in the Interactive Fiction game Constraints places you in the unlikely role of a vase on a shelf, waiting for the right dramatic moment to plummet to the floor.
Diego Armando in Ace Attorney, Case 3-4, grows so full of Tranquil Fury at recent events as to shatter a ceramic mug full of coffee in his bare hand.
In Persona 3, characters would summon their Persona by placing the gun-shaped Evoker to their head and pulling the trigger —and a flurry of blue "shards" would fly out the other side of their head, with the sound of glass breaking, to symbolize their own minds shattering in order for their inner selves to manifest. The same effect is used when the Protagonist (the only one who can switch Personas at will) "shattered" one Persona for another during battle, to represent his original personality breaking to make way for a new one.
Persona 4 used basically the same motif and sound effect, except that instead of their minds breaking via gunshot, the Tarot cards symbolizing the character's Persona would fly apart when struck by his or her Weapon of Choice. The Protagonist's "mind shattering like glass while changing Personas" part was removed, however, and only the sound effect remained. This is because, unlike the first game, the characters of 4 have earned the ability to summon their Personas at will, instead of needing to trigger them in moments of like or death.
Near the end of Mass Effect 3, Shepherd can shatter Kai Leng's sword with an interrupt.
In the first Dead Space, you'll run into a corridor with glass panes on the walls. Every single one shatters in some shockwave, announcing the arrival of something worse... Nope, just kidding; it's a jump scare.
In the second episode of My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Nightmare Moon does this to the depowered Elements of Harmony. There is even a shot of Twilight looking with shock as the shards fall to the ground.
People looking to be dramatic or draw attention will sometimes break glass while throwing a temper tantrum.