Professor Bernard Quatermass is a heroic scientist character featured in four television serials — The Quatermass Experiment (BBC, 1953), Quatermass II (BBC, 1955), Quatermass and the Pit (BBC, 1958), and Quatermass (ITV, 1979) — and a radio serial — The Quatermass Memoirs (BBC, 1996) — all written by Nigel Kneale.
The Quatermass Experiment: The British Rocket Group, led by Professor Bernard Quatermass (Reginald Tate), successfully launches the first manned mission into space. When it returns, it's carrying an alien lifeform with the potential to bring about the end of life on Earth.
Quatermass II: Professor Quatermass (John Robinson) is asked to investigate a series of strange meteor showers, and discovers that they're part of a subtle alien invasion.
Quatermass and the Pit: Professor Quatermass (André Morell) is called in when building excavations uncover a mysterious object that turns out to be an alien spacecraft that has lain undisturbed for five million years.
Quatermass: Professor Quatermass (John Mills) comes out of secluded retirement when his granddaughter disappears. He finds that she has joined a New Age group called the Planet People, who believe that benevolent aliens will come and take them to a better life on another planet. This being science fiction, there really are aliens, and they really are taking Planet People, but Quatermass has grave doubts about their benevolence.
The Quatermass Memoirs: Really a retrospective documentary about the series, but includes a fictional strand, set before Quatermass, in which the retired Professor (Andrew Keir) is interviewed about his career.
The Quatermass serials were very successful, and broke the ground for original science fiction on television (previous TV SF had either been children's telefantasy or adapted from literature). As one instance of the series' influence, 1970s Doctor Who owes a huge debt to Kneale and Quatermass, both in the types of stories being told and in the willingness of BBC executives to let the series tell them.The first three serials were successfully remade as films by Hammer, two of which were scripted by Kneale himself. The fourth was re-edited directly into a film-length version, titled The Quatermass Conclusion, and given a limited theatrical release.The Quatermass Experiment was remade for television by the BBC in 2005 as a single feature-length drama, with the spy subplot and some comic material edited out to save time. For added conformity to the original, this version was broadcast live (the first live drama broadcast on the BBC for many years, with the exception of filmed stage plays) with no special effects that would have been unavailable for TV in 1953. Notable amongst the cast is a pre-WhoDavid Tennant.
The serials provide examples of:
Adult Fear: The plot runs on this in Quatermass— teens and young adults under an alien influence become violent; scientist Joe Kapp loses his wife and children in one of the alien attacks.
The three 1950s serials, as was usual in those days because the video recorder hadn't been invented yet.note The first videotape machines were used in the US in 1958, the same year as the third Quatermass serial, but the BBC didn't acquire some until a few years later. The second and third serials did include some scenes that were filmed in advance, with the film being played back and fed into the live broadcast feed at the appropriate point.
The 2005 remake of The Quatermass Experiment was also done live, as a gimmick, although it backfired slightly because the live footage was treated to look like film.
Circle of Standing Stones: In the fourth serial (also released in re-edited form as a movie, and variously called The Quatermass Conclusion or just Quatermass), young people are drawn to stone circles and apparently ascended to a higher plane. But all is not as it seems. It is eventually revealed that standing stones and other ancient sites are warning markers at places where an alien device killed people in the past — and is doing so again.
Compilation Movie: Quatermass was edited down into a feature film called The Quatermass Conclusion for release in other countries, like the US.
Content Warnings: Quatermass II and Quatermass and the Pit were both preceded by content warnings for those "of a nervous disposition", possibly the first ever British examples.
Huffety puffety Ringstone Round. If you lose your hat it will never be found, So pull up your britches right up to your chin, And fasten your cloak with a bright new pin, And when you are ready, then we can begin, Huffity, puffity puff!
Decoy Protagonist: In Quatermass and the Pit, Roney actually achieves a lot more when it comes to understanding and neutralising the alien menace than Quatermass.
The Dog Bites Back: Yeah, Quatermass II aliens, it's a great idea to liquidise your rebellious minions' representatives For the Evulz when the minions have rocket-launchers.
Dressing as the Enemy: To infiltrate the higher security domes in Winnerden Flats, Quatermass nabs a dead plant worker's uniform in Quatermass II.
The Generation Gap: In Quatermass it turns out that the Generation Gap is caused by the malign influence of aliens.
Heroic Sacrifice: Dr. Roney in Quatermass and the Pit. Also, Quatermass and his granddaughter in Quatermass.
Hidden Depths: James Fullalove is a reporter for an evening newspaper who is fluent in Medieval Latin.
Hostile Terraforming via Atmosphere Abuse: Part of the aliens' plan in Quatermass II. An alien vanguard takes over selected humans so they can build a chemical plant to make an atmosphere that will support their kind of life, and kill off all terrestrial life.
Human Resources: Quatermass speculates that this is the alien's motivation in Quatermass, although we never find out for sure.
"I Know You're in There Somewhere" Fight: Show up at some point in all of the BBC shows: Quatermass with the three astronaut personalities still inside the monster in The Quatermass Experiment, Quatermass and the possessed Dillon in Quatermass II, and reversing the usual roles, Roney talking Quatermass down when he falls under the Martian ship's influence in Quatermass and the Pit.
Justified Title: Quatermass II features the Professor's experimental rocket, known as the Quatermass II. Kneale later confessed that he only wrote in that connection because he couldn't think of a better title for the second serial than "Quatermass II", and he had to justify it to himself.
Kill It with Fire: The Army's plan to kill the creature in Westminster Abbey at the end of The Quatermass Experiment.
Colonel Breen and the Minister in Quatermass and the Pit.
Subverted however in Quatermass II, where's he's hampered by them, but also helped by Fowler, a senior civil servant who is experienced enough in the way the system works to realise there's something distinctly wrong going on.
Omnidisciplinary Scientist: Professor Quatermass develops into one of these over the course of the three fifties serials, although in the first he pointedly notes that he's "only an engineer" during one scene. Justified, since when you keep running into hostile aliens, you eventually learn to be prepared.
Pillar of Light: In the fourth, self-titled serial the Planet People are a sect who believe they are being transported to a wonderful new planet by beams of light that descend to the Earth. Professor Quatermass discovers that the beams have a much deadlier purpose.
Public Domain Soundtrack: Gustav Holst's "Mars: Bringer of War" from The Planets is the theme for the first two serials and the 2005 remake.
Starfish Aliens: The aliens in The Quatermass Experiment and Quatermass II are weird to almost Eldritch Abomination levels. Put another way, the least bizarre aliens Quatermass encounters are three-legged telepathic insects from Mars.
The Wild Hunt: The episode "The Wild Hunt" of Quatermass and the Pit involves the alien race holding a periodic Wild Hunt to weed out the unfit. Quatermass theorises that this urge has been genetically passed down through the human race, leading to wars and racial conflict.
The Hammer films provide examples of:
Accidentally Accurate: In Quatermass and the Pit (1967), the protagonists uncover remains of primitive humans from five million years ago. The characters state that no such remains have ever been found back that far in time before. In 1974, Lucy would be found and she would be the oldest human/hominid remains at 3.2 million years until even earlier specimens were found, making the concept of humans being in existence five million years ago well within possibility.
Captain Ersatz: After the success of The Quatermass Xperiment Hammer immediately wanted to make a sequel. They couldn't get the rights however, so they made X the Unknown a movie with an extremely similar plot-structure and atmosphere to the first with a highly Quatermass-like hero named Doctor Adam Royston.
Compilation Movie: The Quatermass Conclusion is an odd example, since the original serial was deliberately written and shot so that it could be edited down into a much shorter movie. An interesting idea, and it almost worked.
Xtreme Kool Letterz: The first film was actually titled The Quatermass Xperiment, to draw attention to its X ratingnote approximately an R rating in modern US terms (for motives as described in Avoid the Dreaded G Rating, except that this film came by its rating honestly).
You Look Familiar: Sladden the drill technician in Quatermass and the Pit is played by Duncan Lamont, who played Victor Carroon in the original BBC serial.