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** One argument against electric cars was that they would still contribute to pollution since much of California's energy was produced by burning coal. While that is partially true, overall emissions from driving an electric car would still be lower, at least when considering only the power cycle. The contributions of [=EVs=] to pollution remain a matter of debate when considering the entire production process, including mining of raw materials, production, and disposal. Studies have been all over the place on ''that'' point.

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** One argument against electric cars was that they would still contribute to pollution since much of California's energy was produced by burning coal. While that is partially true, overall emissions from driving an electric car would still be lower, at least when considering only the power cycle. The contributions of [=EVs=] to pollution remain a matter of debate when considering the entire production process, life cycle, including mining of raw materials, production, manufacturing, and disposal. Studies have been all over the place on ''that'' point.


** One argument against electric cars was that they would still be contributed to pollution since much of California's energy was produced by burning coal. While that is partially true, overall emissions from driving an electric car would still be lower.

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** One argument against electric cars was that they would still be contributed contribute to pollution since much of California's energy was produced by burning coal. While that is partially true, overall emissions from driving an electric car would still be lower.lower, at least when considering only the power cycle. The contributions of [=EVs=] to pollution remain a matter of debate when considering the entire production process, including mining of raw materials, production, and disposal. Studies have been all over the place on ''that'' point.


** Policy makers such as the California Air Resources Board where pushed into rejecting the mandate, and into pursuing alternatives that were uneconomical and distracted from already viable technologies. The head of the California Air Resources Board when the ZEV mandate was dissolved, Alan Lloyd, was in fact head of the Fuel Cell Partnership, which promoted hydrogen powered vehicles, which the film argues is not a viable technology

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** Policy makers such as the California Air Resources Board where were pushed into rejecting the mandate, and into pursuing alternatives that were uneconomical and distracted from already viable technologies. The head of the California Air Resources Board when the ZEV mandate was dissolved, Alan Lloyd, was in fact head of the Fuel Cell Partnership, which promoted hydrogen powered vehicles, which the film argues is not a viable technology

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** Also, real-world ranges can and do vary wildly based on how a vehicle is used, and also on the external temperature. Battery electric vehicles ([=BEVs=]) are at their most efficient in stop-and-go driving, since essentially all use regenerative braking (i.e., using some of the energy from braking to recharge the batteries). Many electric vehicles lose half or more of their stated range in highway driving. Also, battery vehicles lose considerable range in very hot and very cold temperatures. It's no accident that in the 2010s and early 2020s, a disproportionate share of [=BEVs=] have been sold in California, whose most populated areas essentially never freeze in winter and have fairly mild temperatures for most of the year.


** While it is technically possible to build an electric vehicle with a 300 mile range, they are prohibitively expensive; the Tesla Roadster, built using better technology than was available in the 1990s, only boasted a 240 mile range and a $100,000+ price tag. The Nissan Leaf, an electric vehicle produced for the general public circa 2010, had a range similar to the [=EVs=] from the 1990s and was not cheap, in part due to its $15,000 battery pack which Nissan may or may not have been taking a loss on.

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** While it is technically possible to build an electric vehicle with a 300 mile 300-mile range, they are started out as prohibitively expensive; the Tesla Roadster, built using better technology than was available in the 1990s, only boasted a 240 mile range and a $100,000+ price tag. The Nissan Leaf, an electric vehicle produced for the general public circa 2010, had a range similar to the [=EVs=] from the 1990s and was not cheap, in part due to its $15,000 battery pack which Nissan may or may not have been taking a loss on. By mid-2021, [=EVs=] with 300-mile ranges had become fairly expensive instead of prohibitively so. Nowadays, $100K will buy you as much as 400 miles of range (the Tesla Model S Long Range), and two other Tesla models ("Long Range" variants of the Model 3 and Model Y) as well as one version of the Ford Mustang Mach-E (a crossover instead of a sports car) will give you 300-plus miles for no more than $55K.



* RayOfHopeEnding: While the cancellation of the [=EV1=] program may have stopped mass produced electric vehicles for a time, converted [=EVs=], prototypes like the Tesla Roadster, and looming energy and climate limits would mean the electric car would return. This renaissance was later explored in ''Revenge Of The Electric Car.''

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* RayOfHopeEnding: While the cancellation of the [=EV1=] program may have stopped mass produced electric vehicles for a time, converted [=EVs=], prototypes like the Tesla Roadster, and looming energy and climate limits would mean the electric car would return. This renaissance was later explored in ''Revenge Of The of the Electric Car.''Car''.



* SpiritualSuccessor: The [=EV1=] was this to the Impact concept car, which was a successor to the solar-powered Sunraycer. The Chevy Volt is considered a descendant of the [=EV1=].

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* SpiritualSuccessor: The [=EV1=] was this to the Impact concept car, which was a successor to the solar-powered Sunraycer. The now-discontinued Chevy Volt is Volt, a plug-in hybrid with a small gas engine, and its successor, the all-electric Chevy Bolt, are considered a descendant descendants of the [=EV1=].


* MetaphoricallyTrue: While it is technically possible to build an electric vehicle with a 300 mile range, they are prohibitively expensive; the Tesla Roadster, built using better technology than was available in the 1990s, only boasted a 240 mile range and a $100,000+ price tag. The Nissan Leaf, an electric vehicle produced for the general public circa 2010, had a range similar to the [=EVs=] from the 1990s and was not cheap, in part due to its $15,000 battery pack which Nissan may or may not have been taking a loss on.

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* MetaphoricallyTrue: MetaphoricallyTrue:
**
While it is technically possible to build an electric vehicle with a 300 mile range, they are prohibitively expensive; the Tesla Roadster, built using better technology than was available in the 1990s, only boasted a 240 mile range and a $100,000+ price tag. The Nissan Leaf, an electric vehicle produced for the general public circa 2010, had a range similar to the [=EVs=] from the 1990s and was not cheap, in part due to its $15,000 battery pack which Nissan may or may not have been taking a loss on.

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[[quoteright:350:https://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/mv5bmtc1mtm0mta2n15bml5banbnxkftztcwmtk1otizmq_v1.jpg]]


* CorruptCorporateExecutive: See UsefulNotes/ConspiracyTheories

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* CorruptCorporateExecutive: See UsefulNotes/ConspiracyTheoriesThe film argues that the heads of the numerous entities involved all conspired to subvert the development of electric vehicles. The evidence:
** Policy makers such as the California Air Resources Board where pushed into rejecting the mandate, and into pursuing alternatives that were uneconomical and distracted from already viable technologies. The head of the California Air Resources Board when the ZEV mandate was dissolved, Alan Lloyd, was in fact head of the Fuel Cell Partnership, which promoted hydrogen powered vehicles, which the film argues is not a viable technology
** Car companies were doing little to educate consumers about electric vehicles and wanted to kill the product they were trying to make. The ads and commercials for the electric car were as surreal as they were uninformative, and the idea that electric cars require little to no maintenance or moving parts would cut into the profits of automakers and dealerships that provide both, and they were more interested in building cars like the Hummer, than they were about building cleaner cars.
** The batteries were argued to be limited in range, but not enough to cut into to average daily commute of an American motorist. The advances in batteries were in some cases suppressed by the oil industry. The lithium-ion batteries now found in electric cars could have given the [=EV1=] a '''300''' mile range.
** The oil industry seeks to limit technologies that reduce fuel consumption and manipulate prices so their product can remain on the market and other technologies are pushed away.
** [[CorruptPolitician The federal government is argued to be influenced by the interests of automakers and oil companies]]. While it does touch upon the relationship between George Bush and Big Oil, it also discussed how even in the Clinton and Gore White House, no major changes were enacted with in fuel economy standards, in spite of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partnership_for_a_New_Generation_of_Vehicles Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles(PNGV)]] program that had been enacted with the auto industry to develop fuel efficient cars.



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* StylisticSuck: GM apparently invoked this with their [[http://scottgoodson.typepad.com/.a/6a00d834516bfa69e201053618a333970c-pi various]] [[http://scottgoodson.typepad.com/.a/6a00d834516bfa69e2010536104815970b-800wi ads]] and [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g7cgUm7o9k commercials]] to discourage demand for the cars, and to educate consumers as little as possible about them.

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* StylisticSuck: GM apparently invoked this with their [[http://scottgoodson.typepad.com/.a/6a00d834516bfa69e201053618a333970c-pi various]] [[http://scottgoodson.typepad.com/.a/6a00d834516bfa69e2010536104815970b-800wi ads]] and [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3g7cgUm7o9k commercials]] to discourage demand for the cars, and to educate consumers as little as possible about them.them.
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--> In 1996, electric cars began to appear on roads all over California. They were quiet and fast, produced no exhaust, and ran without gasoline. Ten years later, these futuristic cars were almost entirely gone. What happened? Why must we be haunted by the ghost of the electric car?

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--> -> In 1996, electric cars began to appear on roads all over California. They were quiet and fast, produced no exhaust, and ran without gasoline. Ten years later, these futuristic cars were almost entirely gone. What happened? Why must we be haunted by the ghost of the electric car?



''Who Killed The Electric Car?'' is a 2006 documentary directed by Chris Paine and distributed by Sony Classic Pictures.

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''Who Killed The Electric Car?'' is a 2006 documentary directed by Chris Paine and distributed by Sony Classic Pictures. \n It is narrated by Creator/MartinSheen.



The film explores the reasons for the dismantlement of the [=EV1=] program, wondering if their was a conspiracy in the termination of the [=EV1=] program.

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The film explores the reasons for the dismantlement of the [=EV1=] program, wondering if their there was a conspiracy in the termination of the [=EV1=] program.



* Creator/MartinSheen: The narrator.


* ConspiracyTheories: The film argues there was an enormous conspiracy to subvert the development of electric vehicles. The evidence:
** Policy makers such as the California Air Resources Board where pushed into rejecting the mandate, and into pursuing alternatives that were uneconomical and distracted from already viable technologies. The head of the California Air Resources Board when the ZEV mandate was dissolved, Alan Lloyd, was in fact head of the Fuel Cell Partnership, which promoted hydrogen powered vehicles, which the film argues is not a viable technology
** Car companies were doing little to educate consumers about electric vehicles and wanted to kill the product they were trying to make. The ads and commercials for the electric car were as surreal as they were uninformative, and the idea that electric cars require little to no maintenance or moving parts would cut into the profits of automakers and dealerships that provide both, and they were more interested in building cars like the Hummer, than they were about building cleaner cars.
** The batteries were argued to be limited in range, but not enough to cut into to average daily commute of an American motorist. The advances in batteries were in some cases suppressed by the oil industry. The lithium-ion batteries now found in electric cars could have given the [=EV1=] a '''300''' mile range.
** The oil industry seeks to limit technologies that reduce fuel consumption and manipulate prices so their product can remain on the market and other technologies are pushed away.
** [[CorruptPolitician The federal government is argued to be influenced by the interests of automakers and oil companies]]. While it does touch upon the relationship between George Bush and Big Oil, it also discussed how even in the Clinton and Gore White House, no major changes were enacted with in fuel economy standards, in spite of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partnership_for_a_New_Generation_of_Vehicles Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles(PNGV)]] program that had been enacted with the auto industry to develop fuel efficient cars.



* CorruptCorporateExecutive: See ConspiracyTheories

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* CorruptCorporateExecutive: See ConspiracyTheoriesUsefulNotes/ConspiracyTheories


The film explores the reasons for the dismantlement of the [=EV1=] program, wondering if their was a conspiracy in the termination of the EV1 program.

to:

The film explores the reasons for the dismantlement of the [=EV1=] program, wondering if their was a conspiracy in the termination of the EV1 [=EV1=] program.



* CoolCar: The EV1, to many people who drove it.

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* CoolCar: The EV1, [=EV1=], to many people who drove it.



* MetaphoricallyTrue: While it is technically possible to build an electric vehicle with a 300 mile range, they are prohibitively expensive; the Tesla Roadster, built using better technology than was available in the 1990s, only boasted a 240 mile range and a $100,000+ price tag. The Nissan Leaf, an electric vehicle produced for the general public circa 2010, had a range similar to the EVs from the 1990s and was not cheap, in part due to its $15,000 battery pack which Nissan may or may not have been taking a loss on.

to:

* MetaphoricallyTrue: While it is technically possible to build an electric vehicle with a 300 mile range, they are prohibitively expensive; the Tesla Roadster, built using better technology than was available in the 1990s, only boasted a 240 mile range and a $100,000+ price tag. The Nissan Leaf, an electric vehicle produced for the general public circa 2010, had a range similar to the EVs [=EVs=] from the 1990s and was not cheap, in part due to its $15,000 battery pack which Nissan may or may not have been taking a loss on.



* SpiritualSuccessor: The EV1 was this to the Impact concept car, which was a successor to the solar-powered Sunraycer. The Chevy Volt is considered a descendant of the EV1.

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* SpiritualSuccessor: The EV1 [=EV1=] was this to the Impact concept car, which was a successor to the solar-powered Sunraycer. The Chevy Volt is considered a descendant of the EV1.[=EV1=].


* HummerDinger: The Hummer is a frequent critic. But what was glaring was the fact that the US government was giving business owners who bought the Hummer ''ten of thousands of dollars'' in tax deductions, while people who bought a fuel efficient car got only a few thousand dollars.

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* HummerDinger: The Hummer is an obvious AcceptableTarget in a frequent critic. movie about electric cars. But what was glaring was the fact that the US government was giving business owners who bought the Hummer Hummers ''ten of thousands of dollars'' in tax deductions, while people who bought a fuel efficient car got only a few thousand dollars.

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* HummerDinger: The Hummer is a frequent critic. But what was glaring was the fact that the US government was giving business owners who bought the Hummer ''ten of thousands of dollars'' in tax deductions, while people who bought a fuel efficient car got only a few thousand dollars.


* AwesomeButImpractical: Hydrogen cars are portrayed this way: an exciting new alternative, but one that is inefficient, costly, and distracting from more [[BoringButPractical reasonable solutions like better fuel economy standards]].

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* AwesomeButImpractical: AwesomeButImpractical:
**
Hydrogen cars are portrayed this way: an exciting new alternative, but one that is inefficient, costly, and distracting from more [[BoringButPractical reasonable solutions like better fuel economy standards]]. standards]].
** The Sunraycer was very awesome, winning a race across the Australian Outback, but very impractical. But it inspired GM executives into producing a practical electric car.


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* CoolOldGuy: Stan Ovshinsky, GadgeteerGenius and inventor of the Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery.

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