"They shouldn't even be growing in the same hemisphere!"Lots of writers put animals where they don't belong. But to most people who aren't botanists, most plants look pretty similar. So you're safe sticking any old plant anywhere... right? Uh, well, wrong. Sometimes writers, artists, or programmers will stick a very specific plant into a scene, and it'll be completely misplaced. There is some overlay here with Television Geography in live action. This can be easily justified since many travelers have introduced plants from elsewhere if the new area's climate can accommodate them. For example, relatively few palm trees grow native in the US, and cacti grow only in North and Latin America unless taken abroad. Also, if a work of fiction is set somewhere that's like somewhere in the ancient or medieval world but isn't specifically there, they have an out for including things like potatoes or any other real-life plant: it's not set in the real world. Plant misplacement is especially present in works taking place in rainforests since it's hard to search for the tree species growing in these locations even with the help of the Internet. Not only there are a lot of different tree species unknown to the public, but different rainforests have different trees. This can come up frequently in Fantasy works set in pseudo-Medieval Europe: it's actually anachronistic for them to have New World crops like tobacco, potatoes, tomatoes, maize-corn, etc. For that matter, rubber shouldn't exist in such worlds (rubber trees have been exported around the world, but they're native to South America). Different Fantasy series handle this different ways - with some just embracing the anachronism. All Deserts Have Cacti is a common subtrope. May occasionally be the result of SoCalization, though filmmakers are careful not to show palm trees growing in places too temperate for them. Viewers aren't that moronic.
— Prof. Summerlee, BBC/A&E TV miniseries adaptation of The Lost World
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- In an Ocean Spray commercial, they claimed to be on a blueberry farm in Maine, but were standing in front of high-bush blueberries with no other trees visible. This is much more common in the south; Maine blueberry farms are mostly filled with the low-bush variety, which tend to grow in rocky terrain, and are frequently surrounded by pine forests.
Anime and Manga
- Major season 4 features the main character Goro Shigeno playing for a minor league team in Memphis, TN where the stadium is surrounded by a cityscape featuring palm trees planted LA style along the streets. Memphis is a very forested city, but palm trees don't grow well there.
- Used in an Awesome by Analysis moment in Naruto. While Sasuke and Naruto are unconscious and Sakura is protecting them, the three Sound Ninjas try to kill them all. Dozo is clued into the fact that Sakura has laid traps by the fact that the dirt is a different color and that the type of grass she used to cover the dirt doesn't grow in the forest they're in. Which makes one wonder where she got the grass.
- Tintin in the Congo had rubber trees, native to South America, growing wild in Africa. Could possibly be justified post-hoc if they're not truly wild, but simply feral. There are commercial rubber plantations in Africa. Also counts as Early Installment Weirdness, as the author infamously didn't do any research for the rest of this volume.
- Roman legionaries are seen Peeling Potatoes as part of their chores in Astérix, some 1700 years before their discovery by the western world. Justified by Rule of Funny, as Anachronism Stew is nearly the entire point.
- The Chick Tract Boo! depicts druids in the medieval British Isles carving jack-o-lanterns out of pumpkins. Pumpkins are native to the Americas — historically speaking, they should have been carving turnips.
Films — Animated
- The Emperor's New Groove features venus flytraps that are apparently growing on vines... in the middle of the vaguely South American jungle. Real life venus flytraps are found only in a vanishingly small range in coastal North Carolina. They are horrifyingly endangered in the wild. (The More You Know...). And Venus Flytraps don't "snap" shut; it usually takes at least second or two for the trap to mostly close, and several minutes to seal up completely. It also doesn't go "snap" - it's silent. The "teeth" are stiff bits of leaf, so no they can't bite your finger, nor can anything larger than a largish housefly get stuck in the trap. (Take two leaves, hold them together around your finger. Try to get loose. There ya go.) And despite what you see in movies, the biggest trap is less than two inches across.
- Disney's The Jungle Book: if you look very closely during the Elephant Patrol's first appearance in the film, you can actually see acacia trees in the background. Acacias grow in very dry deserts and scrubland, not jungles. In the same movie, Baloo explains to Mowgli in a song how to pick the fruit of the prickly pear... which is a species of cactus from the arid zones of America (though it's known to become an invasive species elsewhere, especially in Australia).
- An earlier animated work called Goliath II featured acacia trees growing in India.
- Another Disney case, The Little Mermaid II: Return to the Sea features a massive tropical coral reef beneath friggin polar ice sheet.note Actual polar marine ecosystems can sometimes appear quite lush, but definitely not tropical coral reefs with colorful fish. That's a pinch from the movie's big geography mess-up. Wait... complete with ice-hating giant clams.
Films — Live-Action
- Austin Powers lampshades this in The Spy Who Shagged Me. While supposedly driving along an English country road which looks remarkably like one in California, he remarks to camera: "You know what's remarkable? Is how much England looks in no way like Southern California."
- How coconuts exist in Arthurian Britain is a constant Running Gag in Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
- In Jurassic Park, Casuarina trees (found only in southeast Asia, Australia and India) coexist with Coast Redwood trees (found only in certain parts of California) on the same Costa Rican island.
- A particularly egregious example showing California Doubling in Ben & Arthur with a shot of the palm trees at the "Vermont" airport. There are also abundant subtropical flora in the garden where Ben and Arthur have their "New England" wedding.
- The Lord of the Rings: J.R.R. Tolkien stated that Middle-earth is supposed to actually be our real world, thousands of years ago in some lost historical era (as opposed to a pure fantasy construction), and the parts were actually see more or less turned into Europe many eons later. Tolkien was also painfully aware, however, that it would be anachronistic for New World crops to exist in a pseudo-medieval setting like this (particularly one actually meant to be in the real past). This infamously led Tolkien to come up with an elaborate explanation for how the Hobbits can still smoke tobacco: the Numenorean explorers brought it to Middle-earth from some other continent (i.e. the ancient analogue of the Americas or something). Potatoes also exist in Middle-earth, and presumably were brought to it in the same fashion.
- As an expert linguist, Tolkien also thought it was anachronistic to have characters use the real-life words for these plants, which are of Native American origin (someone in the distant past of Europe wouldn't call it "tobacco"). This is why he came up with calling it "pipe-weed". He also has characters refer to "taters" most often (except for the one memorable scene when Samwell spells out that by "taters" he means "po-tay-toes"). Tolkien went so far as to even remove references to "tomatoes" from later editions of The Hobbit after the first publication edition.
- There are some references to "corn" in Tolkien's works, but apparently he's using it very specifically in the more old-fashioned sense of "grain" in general ("corn" and "grain" used to be synonyms), not referring to "maize-corn" like the Maya would eat in the Americas.
- A Song of Ice and Fire is a bit of a different situation from Tolkien, in that the author stated it is not supposed to be our real-life world in the distant past or future, just an alternate Fantasy world - albeit one loosely inspired by the real Middle Ages. Westeros is essentially a continent-sized version of the British Isles (roughly the size of South America), Essos is pseudo-Eurasia, Sothoryos is pseudo-Africa, etc. Generally, New World Crops have never been mentioned: tobacco, potatoes, tomatoes, maize-corn, rubber. There are one or two mentions of "pumpkins" or "turkeys" in the entire, Door Stopper length novel series, but these might just be random errors. Instead of tobacco, they have a loose analogue called "sourleaf", though it's not smoked, only chewed (much like chewing tobacco). Some readers might be confused that Martin uses the term "corn", though apparently much like Tolkien he's just using it in the general sense of "grain".
- ...While rarely and inconsistently mentioned, there are undeniable examples of New World Crops in Westeros. In the second novel there's a scene in which Arya is in the riverlands and clearly eating roasted maize-corn on the cob, in its own ears. Repeated mention is also made of Dornish hot peppers - and if you thought they might just be pepper spices, reference is made to them being stuffed, so they're clearly bell peppers, a New World Crop.
- Justified and lampshaded in Jurassic Park, where the incongruous flora is mentioned as being potentially damaging to the megafauna, but was added to the park anyway because it's pretty. There are other examples pointed out by Ellie Sattler, who first identifies an extinct plant by the leaves shortly after arriving on the island. She then points out, as one of the signs that the whole endeavor is negligent and careless, that some of the decorative plants in the visitor's center are toxic to humans. She then diagnoses the digestive problems of a stegosaurus by noting that there are toxic berries growing in the same place it would scoop up gizzard stones.note
- The Science of Discworld II: The Globe plays with potatoes. Rincewind is horrified that Elizabethan England doesn't have the humble spud.
- In-universe example in Tamora Pierce's Daja's Book — the characters need an illusion to cover up a magical artifact they've accidentally created in the middle of nowhere, so Niko makes a tree. Plant-mage Briar comments that it's a nice illusion, but that you'd never find a cork oak this far north. So Niko changes it to a pine.
- Toldi, a heroic poem that served as the artistic debut of Hungarian poet János Arany, comes close to making this mistake, when the titular outcast nobleman is reunited with his loyal servant. The servant mentions maize in an offhand sentence. The plot takes place centuries before the discovery of America so there was not way he would know what maize is.
- The island where The Swiss Family Robinson find themselves hosts an astonishing and unlikely variety of flora and fauna.
- Lampshaded in-universe in Dream Park, when S.J. remarks that the vegetation in Gaming Area A is from South America rather than New Guinea. Justified in-novel (though not in-Game) by the fact that the jungle setting had been constructed by the Army for a war-game scenario simulating an attack on Brazil, and was being reused for the South Seas Treasure Game.
- In the climax of Duma Key, which takes place on an island off the west coast of Florida, the main characters have to go through a jungle containing plants that should not be there without human interference, like Australian or Brazilian trees. Justified, because the jungle was raised through supernatural means by the Big Bad as protection.
- It's occasionally claimed that the trees visible in establishing shots on Seinfeld couldn't possibly grow in a New York climate — however, those shots are all taken in New York!
- The X-Files:
- The series was filmed predominantly in British Columbia for its first few seasons before moving to California. Consequently, everywhere on Earth looks mysteriously like Canada early on and like California later on. In a particularly egregious example, British Columbia became Puerto Rico in "Little Green Men" by turning up the color saturation and dubbing on jungle sound effects. Similarly, "Anasazi" had a New Mexico that was actually a Canadian quarry painted orange.
- The opposite happened once the show moved to California. Desert shots—like the ones in "Within/Without" which were actually shot in a desert—were more realistic, while the ones portraying other parts of the US became markedly less realistic. Season 7's "Chimera," for example, set in Vermont, has many plant species (and weather for the time period it's set it) that simply do not exist in New England.
- The episode "Detour" purportedly took place in the Apalachicola Forest in north-central Florida. A Pacific Northwest forest was used as the set instead of the expected live oaks and slash pines.
- Lost is famous for it. One example, in several episodes of the second season we see aloe vera barbardensis... in the jungle. Also, you can see their plastic pots sometimes. This can easily be handwaved, since the island apparently has the ability to move.
- In any given episode of Friends, look closely at "Central Park" and you'll see a great example of California Doubling: since when do Eucalyptus and Cycad trees survive in New York?
- Xena: Warrior Princess eating a tomato. In ancient Greece.
- Hercules: The Legendary Journeys had lots of ancient Greek villages with tomato-filled carts and corn cobs drying outside.
- St. Louis, Missouri is not nearly as riddled with evergreen trees and Lawrence, Kansas is not as leafy as Supernatural would have you believe, and most of the trees that are there are deciduous.
- The area "just outside of Grand Junction" happens to be a desert, which makes all the leafy greens outside the car when one of the characters states their location seem a little odd to Colorado natives.
- It's possible they're lost ontop of Grand Mesa...in the spring. Even that is a stretch.
- And Longmont, Colorado is not the idyllic mountain town with thick green foliage shown in the show. It's a suburb of Denver.
- Demian, in his Television Without Pity recaps, often makes mention of Bobby's house set in the lush coastal rainforests of central South Dakota.
- The area "just outside of Grand Junction" happens to be a desert, which makes all the leafy greens outside the car when one of the characters states their location seem a little odd to Colorado natives.
- Star Trek has been known to feature American vegetation on planets, even the ones where no man has gone before. Since they also have Human Aliens, Klingon coffee, and Romans speaking modern American English, that's hardly inconsistent. They wave "parallel evolution" around a lot on Star Trek. For a specific example of getting real-world vegetation wrong in Star Trek that doesn't have the "another planet" excuse, in the first episode of Enterpise, the Klingon ship crashes in Broken Bow, Oklahoma in the middle of a flat corn field. Broken Bow is far from flat, and in a coniferous forest to boot. You'd have to go to central and western Oklahoma to have any big giant corn fields like the one shown in this episode. Also doubles as Artistic License - Geography due to the lack of the ubiquitous Ouachita Mountains that surround the area. Now, it wouldn't be bad if it had been set in Broken Arrow, which still has rolling hills, but has lots of flat areas to grow corn in, but they apparently didn't think of that.
- In one episode of Deep Space Nine, Dr. Bashir lampshades it outright, by wondering why there's so much chlorophyll in the cells of plants on a planet orbiting a red giant.
- Good Eats plays this for comedy. The episode "Down and Out in Paradise" is framed as Alton Brown being stranded on a desert island in order to show of tropical foods. Throughout the episode the various fruits, such as pineapples, mangos, and coconuts he finds confuses him as to where exactly he is, since none of those are naturally found in the same location. Turns out he was in Hawaii and just couldn't see the city across the bay from him due to losing his glasses.
- In one episode of CSI, the murder victim was found on a golf course. One clue to just where on the course the murder took place was a specific variety of bentgrass on the golf cart. Some bentgrasses are grown specifically for golf course use (they apparently make nice greens). The one they found is a noxious weed, and if it was growing anywhere on a tournament-class golf course the entire landscaping crew would have been fired.
- Stargate SG-1:
- Daniel comes into contact with his wife and finds out where her child is, the planet he and his wife meet on is entirely covered in blooming Scotch Broom, which is quite invasive in the Pacific Northwest.
- Scenes that take place in the woods immediately outside Cheyenne Mountain usually depict a lush forest with lots of ferns, which certainly would not be found in comparatively arid Colorado Springs.
- Subverted in Farscape where the presence of Strelitzia a.k.a. "Bird of Paradise" flowers which at first appears to be an example of this trope is actually a major plot point.
- The 2001 miniseries of The Lost World has Prof. Summerlee lampshading the strange combination of flora he finds on the eponymous South American plateau.
- Lampshaded in an Ellery Queen episode where a cartoon magnate chews out his backgrounds man for drawing palm trees in Wisconsin. He was apparently supposed to draw elm trees.
- Rizzoli & Isles regularly shows palm trees lining the streets of Boston, which is way too far north to support them outside of carefully monitored indoor habitats.
- William Shakespeare and potatoes:
- Falstaff declares "Let the sky rain potatoes" in The Merry Wives of Windsor. Since Sir John is from the reign of Henry IV (1347-1413), he should have never heard of potatoes. (He then says "Let it thunder to the tune of Greensleeves", so Will wasn't even trying to set this in the 14th century any more. Which doesn't stop the in-story editor of Falstaff by Robert Nye using the non-existence of potatoes as evidence everything John Fastolf says is nonsense.)
- In Troilus and Cressida, Thersites refers to "the devil Luxury, with his fat rump and potato-finger". During The Trojan War.
- The main theme for Kirby Super Star sub game The Great Cave Offensive is called Trees in the Depths of the Earth.
- Animal Crossing has rafflesia, if you let there be enough weeds in your town, then one will eventually pop out of nowhere. It isn't that jarring, considering this is the same game where you can fish up piranhas and coelecanth from a small town filled with anthropomorphic animals.
- Absolutely everywhere in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, though it's justified by being imported species for government experiments. Interestingly, the one example The Last Days of FOXHOUND chose to lampshade this trope (tumbleweeds) is actually a native species to the region, and an invasive weed in the southwestern United States where it is most well known.
- The Valparaiso map of Bad Company 2 takes places in a jungle. The real Valparaiso is nowhere near any jungles, and has a semi-arid climate that more closely matches Southern California. Ditto the Valparaiso track in Wipeout 2097
- Halo 3: Plants from the Pacific Northwest (e.g. rhododendrons, ivy)note in the African jungle. And there aren't any jungles in that part of Kenya anyways.
- And again with Rafflesias, The King of Fighters XIII has one in the Brazil stage.
- For some reason, Glacier le Cactank of Mega Man Zero 3 is an ice-based cactus based in a snowy region.
- In the multiplayer level "Turbine" in Call Of Duty Black Ops II, there are cacti littered around the map, which is explicitly set in the Sarawat Steppes of Yemen, on the Arabian Peninsula. Thing is, cacti are native to the Americas, not western Asia. Since the game is set in the future, though, you could make the argument that they're a non-native invasive species.
- The Elder Scrolls
- Tamriel, primarily a Medieval European Fantasy setting, includes real-life plants from Europe, Africa, and the Americas all in one continent. For example, despite otherwise being closer to a North African desert, Hammerfell includes cacti. Further, poisonous nightshades (Europe) can be found growing among edible "new world" plants like potatoes, tomatoes, and corn.
- Many plant species are also found growing outside of their typical climates. In the cold northern clime of Skyrim alone, one can find Boston Ferns (Florida and the Caribbean), Orchids growing in the ground (Philippines, and they grow in trees), Cryptanthus (Brazil), Norfolk Island Pines (New Zealand), and even variegated Algerian Ivy (a modern garden cultivar that was certainly not available to the Scandinavians in the Middle Ages). Likewise, Moon Sugar, a Fantastic Drug similar in appearance and effect to real-world cocaine, is primarily grown in the desert environment of Elsweyr. Real life Coca plants are almost entirely grown in low-altitude South American jungle environments.
- One episode of Disney's Aladdin: The Series had Africans growing corn in the Middle Ages.
- Dora the Explorer is implied to take place in Central America. She has been seen picking wild blueberries in the show; mainly on Blueberry Hill, where the villain Swiper the Fox lives. Blueberries never grow in Central America, they're farther north.
- G.I. Joe: Renegades made the same mistake with St. Louis that Supernatural did: though all the trees around Duke's family's house are (correctly) deciduous, the ones passed by in all the car-cashes were all conifers, which would only makes sense if they were going past a series of enormous Christmas tree yard.
- Total Drama lampshades it. Chef expresses confusion as to what a palm tree (found almost exclusively in tropical or subtropical climates) is doing in temperate northern Toronto.
- Thanks to mankind's tendency to move species around for the hell of it, you can find certain species in areas where they have no right whatsoever to grow. There is a small Caribbean island infested with pine trees that the government was having the darnedest time killing off. The eucalyptus tree, native to Australia, has expanded across southern California, South Africa, Madagascar's highlands, and Ethiopia, and north of Spain for the same reason. Much like Misplaced Wildlife, this either kills off the plants moved or the indigenous plants, depending on the environment. Many countries maintain noxious/invasive weed eradication programs similar to this US example.
- Eucalyptus trees in particular are exceptionally good at draining swamps, which is why they were imported into places as diverse as Israel (Mandatory Palestine at the time) and Southern California.
- A good real life example is in California: Palm Trees. They're not native to this area, they were just brought here because they grow nicely here and "look pretty." Problem. Here? They -rain- pollen, so if you're in So Cal and wonder why you can't stop sneezing: it's because of this trope.
- The one exception is the Washington Palm, Washingtonia filifera. It's for this tree that Palm Springs was named. However, this is usually not the same tree that lines the streets of LA and other Southwestern cities.
- You know where else you find palm trees? Ireland. To give an idea of how messed up that is, Ireland sits on the fifty-third parallel, which puts it on the same latitude as Edmonton, though the Gulf Stream makes the temperatures relatively warm and stable.
- Here's one that might blow your mind: tumbleweeds are not native to the American west. Their common name among botanists is Russian Thistle. They were originally accidentally unleashed on South Dakota in 1870 or 1874 in a shipment of flaxseed, and had colonized the west coast by 1900. They now have such a strong association with The Wild West in popular perception that Western movies are almost obligated to include them, even if they weren't present at the time depicted.
- Kudzu in the southeastern US is another notorious example; it's originally from China. Fun fact: it's edible. The Japanese make desserts out of the starch and jelly from the flowers, and the Vietnamese mix the starch with citrus and water to make a refreshing summertime drink.
- And in Florida (as well as Lake Victoria in Africa), Water Hyacinths from South America. They clog the lakes up. The Florida State government, for example, said, "Do what you want. Get rid of this!" in legalese.
- Almost as bad in the North as Kudzu is in the South, English Ivy has gone from picturesque ornamental plant to major pest.
- Tamarisk, aka Salt Cedar, is a drought-hardy plant that was brought to some areas of the US (Colorado and Utah have loads of this, particularly the Colorado river system), but is a majorly invasive species. You see, Tamarisk is originally from the Kazakh steppes not far from Russia. Eastern Colorado has a very similar climate to the Tamarisk's natural habitat, but has none of the natural counters to it. Thus this tree spreads like weeds all over the southwest's precious little water resources. It's difficult to kill off (you can't burn them out, the roots survive to grow again), they can (and in several places DO) suck a river dry, they weed out the native trees and plants and they're ugly to boot! The Colorado state and local governments have been waging a war against these plants for over 10 years and have yet to make significant progress against them. The current strategy employed is introducing ANOTHER species, the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongata, which is released en mass every year to go out and eat the tamarisk.
- Russian Olive is also similar in Colorado, as it's actually outlawed. The Tree of Heaven is also considered a noxious weed, and it can grow anywhere, even out of a crack in the road.
- Another huge problem in the western US? Grass. Namely cheatgrass and several other species of brome. Originally introduced as feed, it went wild and took over the landscape, obliterating all native grasses in their path. Not only that, but because they aren't well adapted to dry environments, they're a huge fire hazard. Every year there are thousands of wildfires spread and fueled by these grasses.
- Likewise, the common dandelion isn't native to North America. It was introduced by European settlers as a salad green and medicinal herb, and has gone on to become the single most recognizable lawn-and-garden weed on the continent. There are native species in the same genus, but ironically they're mostly being driven extinct by competition from the invasive sort and/or by gardeners' indiscriminate attempts to eradicate anything that looks like a dandelion.
- Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), native to Europe and Asia, has become a major pest in parts of the US, and a particular bane of equestrians, as it spreads prolifically and is toxic to horses.
- Originally imported from Europe for erosion control in developed areas in the temperate US (particularly around roads), Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) has since been designated a noxious weed due to its tendency to spread rapidly and crowd out native species.
- Bindweed, often mistaken for Morning Glory due to being in the same family.
- Blackcurrant almost became this. It's native to Europe, but was outlawed in the US because it carried the vector for white pine rust, and this threatened the logging industry in New England. While it is not a federal ban anymore, it's making a bit of a "comeback" from places like New York. (As a result, Americans prefer the more native Cranberries or blueberries.)
- Another Floridian example - one variety of melaleuca, the paper bark tea tree (usually just "melaleuca" to locals) was originally brought in to help quickly drain swampland to make more habitable land, particularly near the Everglades. Between its thirst, its ability to block out saplings of local plants, and the fact that almost nothing native to Florida eats it, it has become a serious menace to the Everglades.
- Anywhere north of the sixtieth parallel is either boreal forest, tundra, or shield country (or, if you go really far north, sea ice). Boreal forest has a very distinctive appearance - the trees are mostly conifers, with the occasional birch or larchnote thrown in, and very tall and skinny. A forest full of thick deciduous angiosperm (or worse, non-coniferous gymnosperm; very few will confuse a ginkgo for a pine) trees pretending to be the Yukon isn't particularly convincing, no matter how much snow is on the ground.
- Most cases of grass in the Mesozoic era or earlier, due to Science Marches On. The "Walking With..." was one of the only series to avert this, until they recently found out that there was grass during the Cretaceous period.
- The Middle Ages in general are a big victim of this, what with all the American crops that didn't exist there yet, the most conspicuous being potatoes, a staple food in modern Europe. Name the fantasy novel that takes place in pseudo-Medieval-Europe that doesn't have potatoes in it. They're just too yummy to let go.
- Similarly, tomatoes. Tomatoes originated in South America. Today, Italian cuisine puts tomatoes in a lot—and even then, the Italians don't use tomato as much as some of the other Mediterraneans (the Spaniards, Turks, and Egyptians come to mind for putting tomatoes in anything they can think of).
- Other fun products of the Colombian exchange introduced to the Old World: chocolate, chili (especially in Korea), rubber, paprika (a Hungarian staple spice), and maize corn (as contrasted with the more general definition of corn as any cereal crop).
- Tall, waving White Pines (covered in snow, no less) in Georgia (See Dreaming of a White Christmas).
- Pineapples are strongly associated with Hawaii... and originated in South America. To the extent that in Peru, if not other South American countries, restaurants will frequently call menu items "Hawaiian" if pineapple is an ingredient.
- Speaking of Hawaii, this is a very interesting example. Studies have shown that sweet potatoes were a widely-used crop of ancient Hawaii. More studies have shown that sweet potatoes are, in fact, not native to Hawaii or any of the islands the Native Hawaiians could've migrated from. They're actually native to South America. How the Native Hawaiians obtained sweet potatoes has been a subject of debate.
- Cottonwood trees have invaded northern Arizona (there is in fact an Arizona city named for them).
- Indian Figs are native to the Americas, but have successfully invaded most of the Mediterranean region after they were introduced in the 1500s. They also became a plague in Australia in the 19th and early 20th centuries, prompting government policies to eradicate them. A more common name for Indian figs is "prickly pear cactus", for clarity.
- Hydrangeas are not native to the Azores, but began to proliferate there after being brought over.
- Garlic mustard, native to Europe, is a huge problem in North America.
- A German soccer team trainer once famously stated that a certain African player should go back to Africa to dribble around the cacti; little did he know that there's only one cactus species that can be found on the whole African continent, the mistletoe cactus.
- Rhododendron ponticum is not native to the UK, having been introduced in the 18th century (it had existed in region prior to the last Ice Age but had not recolonised after the ice retreated). It has caused untold damage to the native flora and fauna and is considered a major pest with eradication strategies having been in place for years. However, it's found everywhere so people often don't realise that it's an introduced species, or how much damage it's doing to the environment. This lack of awareness is especially evident in period shows where, despite the producers doing their best to make the location look as un-modern as possible, they don't tend to care if plants such as rhododendron appear in shot despite them not having been introduced to the country at the time of the show's setting.
- In Last Chance to See, Douglas Adams notes that privet, that plant synonymous with dull suburban hedgerows, has become an absolute menace on islands where European settlers wanted to mark their borders with something that reminded them of home.