Fourth Wall. An In-Universe Camera, as the name suggests, is actually present in the "world" of the story: Characters may notice and talk to it, it may get bumped or shaken by the environment, and may even be seen in a reflection. This frequently makes it a target for Camera Abuse, and works rather well with a Jitter Cam. It's also a favorite device of the Documentary Episode, where another character is assigned a role of operating the camera. May lead to a Left It In situation, if a character explicity asks for something to be "edited out" (but it's, of course, left in, since you the viewer are watching it). When the camera is meant to represent the "eyes" of a character, it's a P.O.V. Cam. If the cameraman is an amateur and the plot is about what happened to them, it's a Found Footage Film. See also Show Within a Show. For a gameplay mechanic that frequently uses this trope, see First Person Snapshooter.
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- All visuals shown in Flag comes from video recordings made by one of two reporter main characters, the camera on the Mini-Mecha, or in-universe Stock Footage.
- YuYu Hakusho is revealed to be composed of the case footage from Yusuke's time as a spirit detective. Considering some of the things we're shown throughout the series, including internal monologues, flashbacks, everyone's life before Yusuke even died, musical scores, and multiple camera angles, this footage must have been put through a lot of pre- and post-production.
Films — Animated
- Surf's Up
- In Wreck-It Ralph, the action inside Hero's Duty is displayed to the player by a camera robot that travels with the soldiers and simulates the first person perspective for the player. Naturally, it suffers Camera Abuse as its lens breaks when Ralph uses the robot as a shield against a Cy-bug.
- Likewise, we do see the camera guy who is doing the live footage of racer introductions in Sugar Rush that appears on the jumbotron adjacent to the spectator's stands.
- The fake Hilarious Outtakes in A Bug's Life, Monsters, Inc. and Toy Story 2.
- One of the special features of the Monsters, Inc. DVD is a camera fly-by of each of the film's sets. During the fly-by of the Monsters Inc. building you can briefly see the camera (operated by Those Two Guys Smithy and Needleman) reflected in the restroom mirrors. Mike also waves at the camera as it goes by on the door storage area.
- In Cars, a security guard tells the cameraman shooting the scene where the instant replay of the Dinoco 200 race is shown to get out.
Films — Live-Action
- The Blair Witch Project is a famous example, and almost epitomizes the trope.
- REC, its sequels, and the American remake Quarantine
- Cannibal Holocaust
- All of $la$her$ was shot from the view of a single cameraman on a murder game show. The camera was a character, one who followed the action for the studio and broadcast audience, but couldn't be harmed due to electrical collars on all the contestants and slashers.
- The film 84 Charlie MoPic is explained in-world as the contents of a can of undeveloped film that came back from an LRRP (Long Range Recon Patrol) mission that had a combat cameraman attached.
- Diary of the Dead
- Paranormal Activity, its sequel, and the straight-to-video Asylum ripoff, Paranormal Entity.
- Indie art film Guy is told entirely from the perspective of an unnamed filmmaker's camera as she documents the day-to-day life of a total stranger.
- RENT uses this as a framing device, complete with its camera man, Mark Cohen.
- The Truman Show has scenes that demonstrate the number and variety of hidden cameras capturing Truman's life.
- The Troll Hunter.
- Chronicle is shot through multiple in universe cameras. Most of it is from a camera owned by Andrew, a main character who almost obsessively documents his life, but it also includes the camera of Casey, a video blogger. In the last part of the movie, it switches between many different cameras, including security cameras, cable news, police video, and even camera phones.
- There's a scene in The Tall Blond Man With One Black Shoe where the title character, an innocuous concert violinist, is identified as a spy in an airport. He walks through the concourse, putting a big piece of sticky candy in his mouth, and every few seconds the frame freezes, as various spies take his picture...always catching him with an awkward twisted expression as the candy gets stuck in his teeth.
- The indie film Killer Flick, in which the main characters are a quartet of filmmakers who exist within the fictional world of the exploitation film that they are creating. The cameraman "One Eye" is usually shooting the footage that we see, but sometimes he appears in frame as well.
- Hellzapoppin': The protagonists address the cameraman throughout the picture. They shout at him to turn on the sound, to fix the broken reel, to rewind the previous footage or to follow them rather than focus on an attractive girl in a swimsuit.
- Often happens on Mel Brooks's films for Breaking the Fourth Wall jokes.
- Twice in High Anxiety the camera crew accidentally breaks through the set during a dolly shot, causing the actors to turn toward the camera. In the second example, you can hear the crew arguing about it.
- In Spaceballs, Dark Helmet hits a camera operator during the Schwarz ring battle, and promptly blames Lonestar.
- The horror film The Den is shown entirely from the perspective of a webcam, a cellphone camera, and a Go-Pro.
Live Action TV
- Mystery Science Theater 3000: The camera is an actual robot, "Cambot", and we see the show through his perspective. We only see him in the opening "Robot Roll Call", and he's actually looking into a mirror to show himself. That's why his name is backwards. There's also the external camera, Rocket Number Nine, which is basically its own satellite which is remote-controlled by Cambot.
- Deep 13's cameras were remote controlled in Season One, with the respective sound effects. By the next season, they were operated by Jerry and Sylvia, the Mads' mole men neighbors.
- The Outer Limits (1995) episode "Manifest Destiny" was filmed almost entirely from this point of view.
- The Sanctuary episode "Instinct": The first-person camera is held by the cameraman of the reporter who gets tangled up with the Sanctuary team while they're pursuing a giant insect.
- The camera used by the documentary crew in The Office.
- The show seldom explicitly refers to the presence of cameramen, though. So seldom, in fact, that when the camera crew is actually discussed or referred to onscreen, it can be a little jarring.
- The kinos in Stargate Universe are floating, remote control camera balls. They frequently are the camera for parts of most episodes and are the only cameras in the kino webisodes, as the name might suggest.
- The Supernatural episode "Ghostfacers" was seen almost entirely through the lens of a few cheap cameras, carried by the Ghostfacers themselves.
- Arrested Development is on the fence. While it's never explicitly stated to be a mockumentary, the camera acts like it's a person carrying a camera- it jumps, shudders, looks through keyholes and under doors. It also gets thrown out of a court in accordance with rules banning televised trials. So while it doesn't say so, it does this quite a lot. However, if this trope is actually in effect, some serious Fride Logic ensues about just how personal the Bluths are willing to get in this "documentary."
- Star Trek: The Original Series's two-part episode "The Menagerie" uses footage shot for the original pilot, "The Cage", as evidence in Spock's trial. Kirk wants to know the origin, since "No ship makes record tapes in such detail." Commodore Mendez later comments that "this is a trial, not a theater."
- The "Why Are You Here?" episode of The Hitchhiker centers around the filming of an episode of the in-universe show "Nighthawks" (also called "Why Are You Here?"). The only time we don't see the camera's perspective is at the end, with the Hitchhiker giving the ending remarks.
- The backglass for America's Most Haunted shows the four ghost hunters from the POV of a camcorder viewfinder.
- Halo: Combat Evolved has a scene shot from the perspective of a soldier's helmet camera, when they discover the Flood.
- In Super Mario 64, the camera is actually controlled by a Lakitu member of a news crew following Mario around the castle. Notably, if you enter a room with a mirror, the camera-carrying Lakitu is reflected in the mirror.
- In the first Resident Evil, there's a scene from a S.T.A.R.S. member's shoulder camera before he gets devoured.
- The basic mechanic of Suda 51's Michigan is that the player is a cameraman, attempting to film the events that unfold. The story progresses differently depending on what the player films.
- In Paranormal, your character is attempting to document the haunting that's infested his house. Active play is from the POV of your camcorder; during the downtime between nights of filming, closed-circuit camera footage is shown.
- Kat explains early in Endless Ocean that she sends down an remote-guided minisub to record your dives, which justifies the third-person view and how the camera will occasionally brush kelp and fish aside. You can never see it when in first-person, though.
- In El Goonish Shive, most of the "Catnip" storyline is from cameras Tedd set up to record Grace's transformations. Also most of the appearances of Carol Brown, the news reporter, are portrayed as footage from her cameraman's camera.
- KateModern loves this, as characters frequently kick or drop the camera.
- In Pure Pwnage, the camera is being controlled by Kyle, a character in his own right, with some notable exceptions for dramatic effect.
- "The Sky Young Skit Show" is a rather humorous example of this. The skits are about three friends hanging around in L.A., in which one is never shown or named, as he is the designated cameraman, leading the titular character to say in a recent episode: "What are you? You're just like, a camera...and a hand...And why are you following me?" The interesting part about it is that in previous episodes, the characters interact as if the camera is not even there, causing the whole episode "Sky Discusses Faces" to get REALLY confusing.
- Billy's webcam in Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog serves as the camera during the blog segments of the episodes.
- Anything to do with The Slender Man Mythos on youtube. Marble Hornets started it all, followed by Tribe Twelve , Everyman HYBRID and others.
- The Joker Blogs: The first few entries consist of the title character's recorded therapy sessions with Dr Harleen Quinzel. After he escapes, he steals Dr Arkham's camera so he can keep making entries, and later uses Jack Ryder's. This is phased out after the first season.
- Although the point of a vlog is to address the audience through the camera, Tobuscus takes it a step further by addressing the camera as the audience and introing every entry by asking the audience what they are doing in whatever ridiculous place he chooses.
"Audience? What are you doing in front of a steamroller, audience? That's precarious!"
- The episode "Wild Cards" of Justice League, where the Joker set these up all over Las Vegas—along with twenty-six bombs. They played it pretty loose just to keep things going, though.
- Sometimes invoked in Birdz, what with lead character Eddie sometimes filming his family in his aspirations to become a filmmaker.