Literature: Of Human Bondage
Of Human Bondage
is a 1915 novel, a Classic bildungsroman
by W. Somerset Maugham
. Half autobiographical and half-fiction, it was ranked #66 on the list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. There are three different film adaptations, one in 1934, 1946, and 1964.
The story begins with Philip Carey as an orphan with an unfortunate club-foot who is taken in by his pious and strict vicar uncle and aunt and raised by them. After being sent to boarding school in his uncle's hopes of him getting a scholarship to Oxford there, Philip decides to take off to Germany and leave his cruel classmates and suffocating relatives behind. He studies German there and learns of fascinating viewpoints from his new friend Hayward and the eccentric boarders. He has his first fling there with an older woman, and soon after feels guilty and leaves to become an accountant in London. This work is miserable for him, and he gives up and instead decides to become a painter in Paris. There his views are even more shaped and distorted, and he meets a number of fascinating people - his mentors, his friends, and the unhappy woman who pines for him unrequited, Fanny Price. After tragedy and the realization of his lack of talent, he goes to London to study as a doctor like his father did - and meets the toxic waitress he falls madly in love with, Mildred. Mildred breaks his heart and he moves on to have an affair with Norah Nesbitt, but Mildred continues to come back to haunt him.
Does Philip find love and purpose by the end? Does he ever figure out what the wise old drunk meant about Persian rugs holding the meaning of life? You'll have to read all 600 pages to find out.
Of the three film adaptations, the most famous is the 1934 film starring Leslie Howard (Ashley in Gone with the Wind
) and Bette Davis
in her Star-Making Role
as Mildred. Davis had to badger Warner Brothers, which had groomed her to be a sexpot Captain Ersatz
of Jean Harlow
, to loan her to RKO so she could play the part. It made her a huge star. It also created the first Academy Award
controversy, when Davis, whom many people thought would win the Best Actress award, wasn't even nominated. The Academy then announced that write-in candidates would be allowed. Davis finished third in the balloting, as Claudette Colbert won for It Happened One Night.
Tropes related to the novel:
Tropes related to the 1934 film:
- Award Snub: Bette Davis was deliberately kept from being nominated by Jack Warner, as the film wasn't for his studio where she had her contract. The following year, the Academy hired the accounting firm Price Waterhouse to oversee the voting process to prevent something like this from happening again; Price Waterhouse (and its successor, PricewaterhouseCoopers) has overseen the voting ever since.
- Incurable Cough of Death: When Mildred shows up at Phillip's again with a hacking cough, it's game over.
- Kubrick Stare: Mildred flashes one while at dinner with Phillip.
- Lighter and Softer: Mildred is not quite so obviously a prostitute, although it's still pretty obvious. Her disease gets changed from syphillis to tuberculosis.
- Love Martyr: Phillip takes a while to get over Mildred. He takes her back when she turns up pregnant after her relationship with Miller went sour. He takes her in yet again after Griffiths dumps her, although this time he just lets her live in his spare room.
- Ooh, Me Accent's Slipping: Davis struggles with a Cockney accent.
- Pragmatic Adaptation: The film concentrates exclusively on Phillip's relationship with Mildred, cutting out the first part of the book that deals with Phillip's childhood, education, and time as a struggling artist in Paris.
- Really Gets Around: Mildred sleeps with half of London while accepting money and favors from Phillip. She even comes on to Griffiths while the three of them are out to dinner together.
- Streetwalker: Mildred's sad fate.
- Tantrum Throwing: When Phillip finally rejects her, Mildred flips out and wrecks his apartment, smashing his things, slicing up his paintings, and burning the bonds that were meant to finance his medical school tuition.
- Victorian Novel Disease: Here it is dramatically averted. Davis wanted Mildred to look like someone who was really dying of TB. The last shot of a severely ill Mildred slumped beside her bed is shocking.
- Victoria's Secret Compartment: Where Mildred was hiding the love letter that Griffiths sent her.