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Brazil is the largest Portuguese-speaking country in the world, as well as the largest country in both South America and Latin America. It's composed of 27 Federative Units, meaning 26 states and one federal district (think of it like the US States and Washington D.C.). These states are further categorized into five regions: the Central-West Region (which also contains the Federal District), the Southeast Region, the South Region, the Northeast Region, and the North Region. The majority of the population lives in the Southeast Region, while the Amazon Rainforest takes up the majority of the North Region.
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The government of each state has it's own executive, legislative and judiciary branches, with the executive branch being headed by a state governor and also including a vice-governor, several secretaries of state—each one in charge of a given portfolio—and the state attorney-general, the legislative branch being composed of a unicameral body composed of state deputies, and the judiciary branch being composed of a Court of Justice and the judges of law.


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    Central-West Region 

Federal District

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-DF
Demonym(s): Brasiliense
Seat of Government: Brasilia
Area: 2,240mi2 / 5,802km2 (27th)
Population: 2,852,372 (20th)

The capital of Brazil, but curiously not the original one (that honor goes to Rio de Janeiro) as it was built in the 50s and inaugurated in the 60s by the government in a effort to encourage the population of moving inwards since most Brazilians lived along the coastal line. Its the smallest state in the country measuring 5,802 km2 and it has a tropical savanna climate because of its geographical location.

Goiás

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-GO
Demonym(s): Goiano
Capital & Largest City: Goiânia
Area: 131,308mi2 / 340,086km2 (7th)
Population: 6,523,222 (12th)

Mato Grosso

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-MT
Demonym(s): Mato-grossense
Capital & Largest City: Cuiabá
Area: 348,788mi2 / 903,357km2 (3rd)
Population: 3,224,357 (18th)

Mato Grosso do Sul

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-MS
Demonym(s): Sul-mato-grossense or Mato-grossense-do-sul
Capital & Largest City: Campo Grande
Area: 137,886.719mi2 / 357,124.962km2 (6th)
Population: 2,619,657 (21st)
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    Southeast Region 

São Paulo

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-SP
Demonym(s): Paulista
Capital & Largest City: São Paulo
Area: 95,839.4mi2 / 248,222.8km2 (12th)
Population: 44,035,304 (1st)

Minas Gerais

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-MG
Demonym(s): Mineiro
Capital & Largest City: Belo Horizonte
Area: 226,459.84mi2 / 586,528.29km2 (4th)
Population: 20,734,097 (2nd)

Rio de Janeiro

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-RJ
Demonym(s): Fluminense
Capital & Largest City: Rio de Janeiro
Area: 16,871.2mi2 / 43,696.1km2 (24th)
Population: 16,461,173 (3rd)

Espírito Santo

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-ES
Demonym(s): capixaba, espiritossantense or espirito-santense
Capital: Vitória
Largest City: Vila Velha
Area: 17,790.6mi2 / 46,077.5km2 (23rd)
Population: 3,885,049 (14th)

    South Region 

Rio Grande do Sul

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-RS
Demonym(s): Rio-grandense, Sul-rio-grandense or Gaúcho
Capital & Largest City: Porto Alegre
Area: 112,645mi2 / 291,748km2 (9th)
Population: 11,207,274 (5th)

Paraná

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-PR
Demonym(s): Paranaense
Capital & Largest City: Curitiba
Area: 76,955.9mi2 / 199,314.9km2 (15th)
Population: 11,081,692 (6th)

Santa Catarina

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-SC
Demonym(s): Catarinense or Barriga-Verde (Green Belly)
Capital & Largest City: Florianópolis
Area: 36,813.366mi2 / 95,346.181km2 (20th)
Population: 6,727,148 (11th)

    Northeast Region 

Bahia

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-BA
Demonym(s): Baiano
Capital & Largest City: Salvador
Area: 218,431mi2 / 565,733km2 (5th)
Population: 15,126,371 (4th)

Pernambuco

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-PE
Demonym(s): Pernambucano/Pernambucana
Capital & Largest City: Recife
Area: 37,958.327mi2 / 98,311.616km2 (19th)
Population: 9,277,727 (7th)

Ceará

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-CE
Demonym(s): Cearense
Capital & Largest City: Fortaleza
Area: 56,505.4mi2 / 146,348.3km2 (17th)
Population: 8,842,791 (8th)

Maranhão

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-MA
Demonym(s): Maranhense
Capital & Largest City: São Luís
Area: 128,179.466mi2 / 331,983.293km2 (8th)
Population: 6,850,884 (10th)

Paraíba

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-PB
Demonym(s): Paraibano
Capital & Largest City: João Pessoa
Area: 21,847.4mi2 / 56,584.6km2 (21st)
Population: 3,943,885 (13th)

Rio Grande do Norte

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-RN
Demonym(s): Potiguar or Norte-rio-grandense
Capital & Largest City: Natal
Area: 20,384.955mi2 / 52,796.791km2 (22nd)
Population: 3,408,510 (16th)

Alagoas

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-AL
Demonym(s): Alagoano (male), Alagoana (female)
Capital & Largest City: Maceió
Area: 10,721.2mi2 / 27,767.7km2 (25th)
Population: 3,321,730 (17th)

Piauí

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-PI
Demonym(s): Piauiense
Capital & Largest City: Teresina
Area: 97,115.962mi2 / 251,529.186km2 (11th)
Population: 3,194,718 (19th)

Sergipe

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-SE
Demonym(s): Sergipano
Capital & Largest City: Aracaju
Area: 8,459.7mi2 / 21,910.4km2 (26th)
Population: 2,219,574 (22nd)

    North Region 

Pará

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-PA
Demonym(s): Paraense
Capital & Largest City: Belém
Area: 481,735.6mi2 / 1,247,689.5km2 (2nd)
Population: 8,073,924 (9th)

Amapá

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-AP
Demonym(s): Amapaense
Capital & Largest City: Macapá
Area: 55,141.020mi2 / 142,814.585km2 (18th)
Population: 750,912 (26th)

Tocantins

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-TO
Demonym(s): Tocantinense
Capital & Largest City: Palmas
Area: 107,190.03mi2 / 277,620.91km2 (10th)
Population: 1,496,880 (24th)

Roraima

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-RR
Demonym(s): Roraimense
Capital & Largest City: Boa Vista
Area: 86,602.32mi2 / 224,298.98km2 (14th)
Population: 496,936 (27th)

Rondônia

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-RO
Demonym(s): Rondoniano or Rondoniense
Capital & Largest City: Porto Velho
Area: 91,728.67mi2 / 237,576.16km2 (13th)
Population: 1,748,531 (23rd)

Amazonas

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-AM
Demonym(s): Amazonense
Capital & Largest City: Manaus
Area: 606,468.3mi2 / 1,570,745.7km2 (1st)
Population: 3,873,743 (15th)

Acre

Postal Code Abbreviation: BR-AC
Demonym(s): Acreano
Capital & Largest City: Rio Branco
Area: 58,912mi2 / 152,581km2 (16th)
Population: 790,101 (25th)

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