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Son of [=Æthelred=] II and brother of Edmund Ironside. Following the death of Harthacnut, Edward restored the rule of the House of Wessex to the English throne. A deeply pious and religious man (hence his byname), he presided over the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey, leaving much of the running of the country to Earl Godwin and his son Harold. Edward died childless, eight days after the building work on Westminster Abbey had finished. With no natural successor, England was faced with a power struggle for control of the throne.

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Son of [=Æthelred=] II and brother half-brother of Edmund Ironside. Following the death of Harthacnut, Edward restored the rule of the House of Wessex to the English throne. A deeply pious and religious man (hence his byname), he presided over the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey, leaving much of the running of the country to Earl Godwin and his son Harold. Edward died childless, eight days after the building work on Westminster Abbey had finished. With no natural successor, England was faced with a power struggle for control of the throne.
throne.

Since his immediate successor both was not of royal blood and was killed and overthrown within less than a year of taking the throne, Edward the Confessor is often considered the "true" last Anglo-Saxon King of England. On the other hand, he was also arguably the first ''Norman'' King of England, since not only was his mother Norman but he was largely raised in Normandy (having been exiled during the reign of Cnut and his sons) and during his reign was controversial among the Anglo-Saxon nobility for his pro-Norman sympathies. After his death, this was largely forgotten, with his religious piety (he and Edward the Martyr are the only Kings of England to be officially recognized saints by the Catholic Church) being the basis for his posthumous reputation.



Despite having no royal bloodline, Harold Godwinson, son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, was elected king by the Witan (a council of high ranking nobles and religious leaders), following the death of Edward the Confessor. The election result failed to meet with the approval of one William, Duke of Normandy, who claimed that Edward, his first cousin once-removed, had promised the throne to him several years earlier. Harold defeated an invading Norwegian army at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, then marched south to confront William of Normandy who had landed his forces in Sussex. The death of Harold at the Battle Of Hastings meant the end of the English Anglo-Saxon kings and the beginning of [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfNormandy Norman rule]].

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Despite having no royal bloodline, Harold Godwinson, son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, was elected king by the Witan (a council of high ranking nobles and religious leaders), following the death of Edward the Confessor. The election result failed to meet with the approval of one William, Duke of Normandy, who claimed that Edward, his first cousin once-removed, had promised the throne to him several years earlier. [[note]]There's a strong chance this promise actually happened, given Edward's own Norman upbringing and the fact that he and William had been quite close.[[/note]] Harold defeated an invading Norwegian army at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, then marched south to confront William of Normandy who had landed his forces in Sussex. The death of Harold at the Battle Of Hastings meant the end of the English Anglo-Saxon kings and the beginning of [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfNormandy Norman rule]].


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!!Edgar [=Ætheling=] / Edgar II of England
->'''Lived''': c. 1052 -- c. 1125
->'''Reigned''': 15 October -- 10 December 1066
->'''Parents''': Edward the Exile and Agatha
->'''Consort''': none
->'''Nickname''': ''[=Ætheling=]''
----

On paper, there was one final Anglo-Saxon King of England. After Harold's death, the Witan promptly elected the grandson of Edmund Ironside, Edgar [=Ætheling=], to be the new king. Edgar was the last remaining male member of the House of Wessex and thus considered the only plausible option since they were unwilling to accept William's claim. Edgar was never actually crowned and since William didn't care about the Witan's permission, he never actually ruled England. He briefly tried to retake the throne with the aid of his brother-in-law King Malcolm III of Scotland, but after this failed Malcolm convinced him to give up on becoming king.


A word on pronunciation; the Anglo-Saxons had a predilection for some pretty intimidating-looking, tongue-warping names, though a good starting point is to know that the prefix “[=Æth=]” is pronounced “eth” to rhyme with “Beth”. You’ll see a lot of [=Æthel=]-something-or-other, which means "noble", and is common prefix for high-status Anglo-Saxon names; [=Æthelred =] — “Eth-uhl-red” — for example means "noble counsel", [=Æthelflæd=] — “Eth-uhl-fled” — means “noble beauty” and [=Ælfflæd=] — “Elf-fled” — means “beautiful elf”.

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A word on pronunciation; the Anglo-Saxons had a predilection for some pretty intimidating-looking, tongue-warping names, though a good starting point is to know that the prefix “[=Æth=]” is pronounced “eth” to rhyme with “Beth”. You’ll see a lot of [=Æthel=]-something-or-other, which means "noble", and is common prefix for in high-status Anglo-Saxon names; [=Æthelred =] — “Eth-uhl-red” — for example means "noble counsel", [=Æthelflæd=] — “Eth-uhl-fled” — means “noble beauty” and [=Ælfflæd=] — “Elf-fled” — means “beautiful elf”.


!!'''Cnut the Great of Denmark, Norway and England'''

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!!'''Cnut the Great of Denmark, Norway England, Denmark and England'''Norway'''


->'''Consorts''': (1) Świętosława of Poland; (2) [[AwesomeMcCoolName Sigrid the Haughty]]; (3) Gunhild of Wenden

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->'''Consorts''': (1) Świętosława of Poland; (2) [[AwesomeMcCoolName Sigrid the Haughty]]; Haughty; (3) Gunhild of Wenden


Eighth century England consisted of seven Anglo-Saxon sub-kingdoms which existed in a state of internecine warfare. Occasionally a king of one of the larger three kingdoms, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, would emerge from the dynastic turmoil to be accepted as ''Bretwalda'' (Bretanwealda in Old English) or 'overlord' by the others. One such was Egbert, of the House of Wessex, the first monarch to establish a stable and extensive rule over all of Anglo-Saxon England. His ancestor, Cerdic of Wessex (519-534), the [[FounderOfTheKingdom founder]] of the Wessex line, claimed a mythical [[AGodAmI descent from the great Anglo-Saxon pagan god Wōden]] himself. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Cerdic was a Saxon Ealdorman who landed in Hampshire in 495 with his son Cynric and fought with the Britons becoming the first King of Wessex. The dynasty he founded was to rule England for over two hundred years and produced such varying characters as Alfred (871-899), the only English monarch ever to be bestowed with the epithet “the Great” who amongst varied achievements, established a peace with the invading Vikings and founded the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

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Eighth century England consisted of seven Anglo-Saxon sub-kingdoms which existed in a state of internecine warfare. Occasionally a king of one of the larger three kingdoms, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, would emerge from the dynastic turmoil to be accepted as ''Bretwalda'' (Bretanwealda in Old English) or 'overlord' by the others. One such was Egbert, of the House of Wessex, the first monarch to establish a stable and extensive rule over all of Anglo-Saxon England. His ancestor, Cerdic of Wessex (519-534), the [[FounderOfTheKingdom founder]] of the Wessex line, claimed a mythical [[AGodAmI descent from the great Anglo-Saxon pagan god Wōden]] himself. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Cerdic was a Saxon Ealdorman who landed in Hampshire in 495 with his son Cynric and fought with the Britons becoming the first King of Wessex. The dynasty he founded was to rule England for over two hundred years and produced such varying characters as Alfred (871-899), the only English monarch ever to be bestowed with the epithet “the Great” who amongst varied achievements, established a peace with the invading Vikings and founded the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.


< Prior to the arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]. See also UsefulNotes/CelticKingdoms for detail on the Britons the Saxons displaced, and UsefulNotes/Boudica for detail on one of Britain’s most famous, even earlier monarchs.\\\

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< Prior to the arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]. See also UsefulNotes/CelticKingdoms for detail on the Britons the Saxons displaced, and UsefulNotes/Boudica UsefulNotes/{{Boudica}} for detail on one of Britain’s most famous, even earlier monarchs.\\\


< Prior to the arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]. See also UsefulNotes/CelticKingdoms for detail on the Britons the Saxons displaced\\\

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< Prior to the arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]. See also UsefulNotes/CelticKingdoms for detail on the Britons the Saxons displaced\\\
displaced, and UsefulNotes/Boudica for detail on one of Britain’s most famous, even earlier monarchs.\\\


< Prior to the arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]\\\

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< Prior to the arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]\\\
Britain]]. See also UsefulNotes/CelticKingdoms for detail on the Britons the Saxons displaced\\\


< Prior to the Saxon invasion, we’re going back to [[Myth/KingArthur Arthur’s]] time\\\

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< Prior to the Saxon invasion, arrival of the Saxons we’re going back to [[Myth/KingArthur Arthur’s]] time\\\
[[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire Roman Britain]]\\\

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< Prior to the Saxon invasion, we’re going back to [[Myth/KingArthur Arthur’s]] time\\\


Edward's heir [=Æthelstan=] was also a distinguished and audacious soldier who pushed the boundaries of the kingdom to their furthest extent yet. In 927-8, he took York from the Danes; he forced the submission of king Constantine of Scotland and of the northern kings; all five Welsh kings agreed to pay a huge annual tribute (reportedly including 25,000 oxen), and he also eliminated opposition in Cornwall.

The battle of Brunanburh in 937, in which [=Æthelstan=] led a force drawn from Britain and defeated an invasion by the king of Scotland in alliance with the Welsh and Danes from Dublin, earned him recognition by lesser kings in Britain.

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Edward's heir [=Æthelstan=] was also a distinguished and audacious soldier who pushed the boundaries of the kingdom to their furthest extent yet. In 927-8, he took York from the Danes; he forced the submission of king Constantine of Scotland and of the northern kings; all five Welsh kings agreed to pay a huge annual tribute (reportedly including 25,000 oxen), and he also eliminated opposition in Cornwall.

The battle of Brunanburh in 937, in which
Cornwall. [=Æthelstan=] led a force drawn from Britain became the first king to rule the whole of England and defeated an invasion he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of Scotland in alliance with the Welsh and Danes from Dublin, earned him recognition by lesser kings in Britain.
England.



!!Edmund II Ironside of England

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!!Edmund II Ironside of England



Although he was held in high regard during the 11th and 12th centuries, Edmund, who was given the nickname 'Ironside' by the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle in recognition of his bravery, has since been eclipsed by those who came immediately before and after him. The son of [=Æthelred=] II, Edmund had led the resistance to Canute’s invasion of England since 1015. Following the death of his father, he was chosen king by the people of London. The Witan (the king’s council) however elected Canute. Following his defeat at the Battle of Assandun, Edmund made a pact with Canute to divide the kingdom between them. This treaty ceded control of all of England, with the exception of Wessex, to Canute. It also stated that when one of the kings died the other would take all of England… Edmund died later that year, probably assassinated.


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Although he was held in high regard during the 11th and 12th centuries, Edmund, who was given the nickname 'Ironside' by the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle in recognition of his bravery, has since been eclipsed by those who came immediately before and after him. The son of [=Æthelred=] II, Edmund II had led the resistance to Canute’s invasion of England since 1015. Following the death of his father, he was chosen king by the people of London. The Witan (the king’s council) however elected Canute. Following his defeat at the Battle of Assandun, Edmund made a pact with Canute to divide the kingdom between them. This treaty ceded control of all of England, with the exception of Wessex, to Canute. It also stated that when one of the kings died the other would take all of England… Edmund died later that year, probably assassinated.



His influence was so profound that later genealogies of the English monarchy would claim that all the sovereigns of Britain, save for Canute, Hardecanute, the Harolds, and William the Conqueror, were descended from him. Precisely why he was so influential is debated, in that the ancient sources conflict in their accounts of his life, who he was, and what he accomplished -- so much so, in fact, that his origin, ethnicity, and even his very existence have been extensively disputed.

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His influence was so profound that later genealogies of the English monarchy would claim that all the sovereigns of Britain, save for Canute, Hardecanute, Cnut, Harthacnut, the Harolds, and William the Conqueror, were descended from him. Precisely why he was so influential is debated, in that the ancient sources conflict in their accounts of his life, who he was, and what he accomplished -- so much so, in fact, that his origin, ethnicity, and even his very existence have been extensively disputed.


->'''Lived''': ? -- 13 January 858

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->'''Lived''': ? c. 795 -- 13 January 858


After him, over the next two hundred years, there followed a long line of succession (Cynric, Ceawlin, Ceol, Ceolwulf, Cynegils, Cwichelm, Cenwalh, Penda, Cenwalh (restored), Seaxburh, Cenfus [=Æscwine=], Centwine, [=Cædwalla=], Ine, [=Æthelheard=], Cuthred, Sigeberht, Cynewulf and Beorhtric) leading up to Egbert, who is the next notable ruler...

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After him, over the next two hundred years, there followed a long line of succession (Cynric, Ceawlin, Ceol, Ceolwulf, Cynegils, Cwichelm, Cenwalh, Penda, Cenwalh (restored), Seaxburh, Cenfus Cenfus, [=Æscwine=], Centwine, [=Cædwalla=], Ine, [=Æthelheard=], Cuthred, Sigeberht, Cynewulf and Beorhtric) leading up to Egbert, who is the next notable ruler...

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