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Fun fact - foreign names (or regular names in their Anglicised forms) are considered the height of cheapest snobbery. For example, while English names like Kevin, Jessica or Brian and their Polonised forms are in use, they are also punchline of jokes about the lowest of low and carry a hefty social stigma.[[note]]PlayedForLaughs in the urban fantasy novel ''Podatek'', where being named "Pamela" drove a girl [[TheSociopath mad]] enough that she is now the chief enforcer of the magical mafia, whose mood has two settings: EmotionlessGirl and the [[AxCrazy one that magicks you into next Tuesday]]. And even the boss of said mafia is careful to call her by her chosen nickname, "Czarna Kasieńka" (Black Katie).[[/note]] If you absolutely must give your Polish character a Celtic name, Brygida (Bridget) and Artur (Arthur) are old and established enough not to carry the stigma and are the best choices, although Brygida is rather rare.

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Fun fact - foreign names (or regular names in their Anglicised forms) are considered the height of cheapest snobbery. For example, while English names like Kevin, Jessica or Brian and their Polonised forms are in use, they are also punchline of jokes about the lowest of low and [[GhettoName carry a hefty social stigma.stigma]].[[note]]PlayedForLaughs in the urban fantasy novel ''Podatek'', where being named "Pamela" drove a girl [[TheSociopath mad]] enough that she is now the chief enforcer of the magical mafia, whose mood has two settings: EmotionlessGirl and the [[AxCrazy one that magicks you into next Tuesday]]. And even the boss of said mafia is careful to call her by her chosen nickname, "Czarna Kasieńka" (Black Katie).[[/note]] If you absolutely must give your Polish character a Celtic name, Brygida (Bridget) and Artur (Arthur) are old and established enough not to carry the stigma and are the best choices, although Brygida is rather rare.


* I'm allergic to nuts. - Mam alergię na orzechy.
* May I have a little halva? Is it with nuts? - Czy mogę się poczęstować chałwą? Czy jest z orzechami?

to:

* I'm allergic to nuts. - Mam alergię na orzechy.
orzechy. [[note]]"Orzechy" is a general word for nuts. If you mean peanuts, it would be: Mam alergię na ''orzeszki ziemne''.[[/note]]
* May I have a little partake in this halva? Is it with nuts? - Czy mogę się poczęstować chałwą? Czy jest z orzechami?



* Could you direct me to the (men's/ladies) room/little shop/electrical outlet? - Czy może mi pan/pani wskazać drogę do (męskiej/damskiej) toalety/sklepiku/gniazdka elektrycznego?

to:

* Could you direct me to the (men's/ladies) room/little shop/electrical outlet? outlet/vegetarian restaurant? - Czy może mi pan/pani wskazać drogę do (męskiej/damskiej) toalety/sklepiku/gniazdka elektrycznego?elektrycznego/wegetariańskiej restauracji[[note]]There are chain vegetarian restaurants in Poland, which you will be able to recognise from across the street, but to find more gourmet meatless grub, ask the locals[[/note]]?


Added DiffLines:

* My ankle hurts a lot now. - Teraz bardzo mnie boli kostka.


See [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGd6Ve00R7I here]] for ''The Unconquered'' - a quick digest of Poland's war-time drama, narrated by Creator/SeanBean (who else?).



A diminutive sometimes just denotes that something is tiny (''Dałeś mi tę kanapeczkę?'' - You've given me this tiny sandwich?), or [[CutenessProximity cute]] (''Jaki śliczny kiciuś!'' - What a cute kitty!), is always (always) used in BabyTalk (''Zobacz, skarbie, kotek!'' - Look, darling, a kitty!), sometimes [[{{Irony}} ironically]] and sometimes by older people who don't realise how annoying diminutives can be when overused. Also, when talking about food, especially food the speaker likes or wants you to try and appreciate. Moving on.

to:

A diminutive sometimes just denotes that something is tiny (''Dałeś mi tę kanapeczkę?'' - You've given me this tiny sandwich?), or [[CutenessProximity cute]] (''Jaki śliczny kiciuś!'' - What a cute kitty!), is always (always) used in BabyTalk (''Zobacz, skarbie, kotek!'' - Look, darling, a kitty!), kitty!) or when talking about babies, sometimes [[{{Irony}} ironically]] and sometimes by older people who don't realise how annoying diminutives can be when overused. CutenessOverload will be telegraphed by multi-story diminutives. If someone is doing this to ''[[UpToEleven verbs]]'' the cuteness has reached hazardous levels. Also, when talking about food, especially food the speaker really likes or wants you to try and appreciate. Moving on.


It is worth to note Polish native speakers have considerably easier time learning ''pronounciation'' of other languages, as long as they aren't tonal. This comes from all the vowels and consonant that exists in Polish (thus leaving very few sounds that are tough to make for Poles), along with the fact Polish alphabet allows to create home-made transcription and transliteration with ease, further helping with learning. On the flip-side, foreign grammar tends to be a nightmare for Polish users and the more structurised the sentence patterns are, the harder it gets. Polish itself allows to re-shuffle order of words in sentence in almost any configuration (and without [[StrangeSyntaxSpeaker sounding like Master Yoda]]) thanks to conjugation of all parts of speech (the only cases when you need to keep order are adjective+noun pairs, and complex sentences. For the latter, general rule of thumb is that last object mentioned in independent clause is mentioned by dependent one). When facing a language that lacks that feature and relying on strict sentence patterns instead, Poles draw a blank and[=/=]or make distinctive mistakes.

to:

It is worth to note Polish native speakers have considerably easier time learning ''pronounciation'' of other languages, as long as they aren't tonal. This comes from all the vowels and consonant that exists in Polish (thus leaving very few sounds that are tough to make for Poles), along with the fact Polish alphabet allows to create home-made transcription and transliteration with ease, further helping with learning. On the flip-side, foreign grammar tends to be a nightmare for Polish users and the more structurised the sentence patterns are, the harder it gets. Polish itself allows to re-shuffle order of words in sentence in almost any configuration (and without [[StrangeSyntaxSpeaker sounding like Master Yoda]]) thanks to conjugation of all parts of speech (the [[note]]The only cases when you really need to keep general order of things are adjective+noun pairs, and compound complex sentences. For the latter, general rule of thumb is that last object mentioned in independent clause is mentioned by dependent one).sentences[[/note]]. When facing a language that lacks that feature and relying on strict sentence patterns instead, Poles draw a blank and[=/=]or make distinctive mistakes.


'''Note''': the ''actual'' reason why Polish language is such a hot mess isn't actually ForTheEvulz, but rather us playing "square peg, round hole" with linguistics: at it's start, Polish wasn't that different from [[UsefulNotes/RussianLanguage Russian]] - we share similar pronunciation, down to using ''yer'' (Ъ and ь) to denote palatalization at the end of the word. However, instead of going with Cyrillic script - which was well-suited for peculiarities of Slavic languages - we decided to adopt Latin alphabet instead (think of Poland as a new kid in school, trying to copy up other cool kids). That makes plenty of things difficult, including "u" and "ó" [[note]]since aforementioned ''yer'' sounds started disappearing, space reserved for pronouncing them was "moved", transforming "o" into longer "ó/oo" sound[[/note]] and "rz" and "ż" [[note]]"rz" used to have palatalized pronunciation ("ri" - like in "rigged"), but later lost it - and after some tongue-twisting experimentations, everyone just started pronouncing it as "ż" instead [[/note]] differences. At the same time, however, we left some [[TheRemnant leftovers of older pronunciation]], including nasal vovels "ą" and "ę" (which devolve into plain "o" and "e" in languages like Russian or Czech).

Add the fact that written Polish really haven't taken off before XII century (and even after that, for a long the spelling was largely DependingOnTheWriter) to the resulting MacGyvering of a language, and you can see why it can be so confusing.



* In RealLife, people named [[Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy Sienkiewicz]] or [[Literature/PanTadeusz Mickiewicz]] tend to meet with some [[MrSmith disbelief]] when introducing themselves, since these are both household names, but both are still used, because RealityIsUnrealistic (oh, and sometimes parents can be [[WhoNamesTheirKidDude cruel enough]] to add given name of historical character as well. Come on, just try to tell policeman that ''you're really named George Washington'')

to:

* In RealLife, people named [[Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy Sienkiewicz]] or [[Literature/PanTadeusz Mickiewicz]] tend to meet with some [[MrSmith disbelief]] when introducing themselves, since these are both household names, but both are still used, because RealityIsUnrealistic (oh, and sometimes parents can be [[WhoNamesTheirKidDude cruel enough]] to add given name of historical character as well. Come on, just try to tell policeman that ''you're really named George Washington'')
RealityIsUnrealistic.


* In RealLife, people named [[Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy Sienkiewicz]] or [[Literature/PanTadeusz Mickiewicz]] tend to meet with some [[MrSmith disbelief]] when introducing themselves, since these are both household names, but both are still used, because RealityIsUnrealistic.

to:

* In RealLife, people named [[Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy Sienkiewicz]] or [[Literature/PanTadeusz Mickiewicz]] tend to meet with some [[MrSmith disbelief]] when introducing themselves, since these are both household names, but both are still used, because RealityIsUnrealistic.
RealityIsUnrealistic (oh, and sometimes parents can be [[WhoNamesTheirKidDude cruel enough]] to add given name of historical character as well. Come on, just try to tell policeman that ''you're really named George Washington'')


It is worth to note Polish native speakers have considerably easier time learning ''pronounciation'' of other languages, as long as they aren't tonal. This comes from all the vowels and consonant that exists in Polish (thus leaving very few sounds that are tough to make for Poles), along with the fact Polish alphabet allows to create home-made transcription and transliteration with ease, further helping with learning. On the flip-side, foreign grammar tends to be a nightmare for Polish users and the more structurised the sentence patterns are, the harder it gets. Polish itself allows to re-shuffle order of words in sentence in almost any configuration (and without [[StrangeSyntaxSpeaker sounding like Master Yoda]]) thanks to conjugation of all parts of speech. When facing a language that lacks that feature and relying on strict sentence patterns instead, Poles draw a blank and[=/=]or make distinctive mistakes.

to:

It is worth to note Polish native speakers have considerably easier time learning ''pronounciation'' of other languages, as long as they aren't tonal. This comes from all the vowels and consonant that exists in Polish (thus leaving very few sounds that are tough to make for Poles), along with the fact Polish alphabet allows to create home-made transcription and transliteration with ease, further helping with learning. On the flip-side, foreign grammar tends to be a nightmare for Polish users and the more structurised the sentence patterns are, the harder it gets. Polish itself allows to re-shuffle order of words in sentence in almost any configuration (and without [[StrangeSyntaxSpeaker sounding like Master Yoda]]) thanks to conjugation of all parts of speech. speech (the only cases when you need to keep order are adjective+noun pairs, and complex sentences. For the latter, general rule of thumb is that last object mentioned in independent clause is mentioned by dependent one). When facing a language that lacks that feature and relying on strict sentence patterns instead, Poles draw a blank and[=/=]or make distinctive mistakes.
mistakes.

'''Note''': the ''actual'' reason why Polish language is such a hot mess isn't actually ForTheEvulz, but rather us playing "square peg, round hole" with linguistics: at it's start, Polish wasn't that different from [[UsefulNotes/RussianLanguage Russian]] - we share similar pronunciation, down to using ''yer'' (Ъ and ь) to denote palatalization at the end of the word. However, instead of going with Cyrillic script - which was well-suited for peculiarities of Slavic languages - we decided to adopt Latin alphabet instead (think of Poland as a new kid in school, trying to copy up other cool kids). That makes plenty of things difficult, including "u" and "ó" [[note]]since aforementioned ''yer'' sounds started disappearing, space reserved for pronouncing them was "moved", transforming "o" into longer "ó/oo" sound[[/note]] and "rz" and "ż" [[note]]"rz" used to have palatalized pronunciation ("ri" - like in "rigged"), but later lost it - and after some tongue-twisting experimentations, everyone just started pronouncing it as "ż" instead [[/note]] differences. At the same time, however, we left some [[TheRemnant leftovers of older pronunciation]], including nasal vovels "ą" and "ę" (which devolve into plain "o" and "e" in languages like Russian or Czech).

Add the fact that written Polish really haven't taken off before XII century (and even after that, for a long the spelling was largely DependingOnTheWriter) to the resulting MacGyvering of a language, and you can see why it can be so confusing.

Added DiffLines:

It is worth to note Polish native speakers have considerably easier time learning ''pronounciation'' of other languages, as long as they aren't tonal. This comes from all the vowels and consonant that exists in Polish (thus leaving very few sounds that are tough to make for Poles), along with the fact Polish alphabet allows to create home-made transcription and transliteration with ease, further helping with learning. On the flip-side, foreign grammar tends to be a nightmare for Polish users and the more structurised the sentence patterns are, the harder it gets. Polish itself allows to re-shuffle order of words in sentence in almost any configuration (and without [[StrangeSyntaxSpeaker sounding like Master Yoda]]) thanks to conjugation of all parts of speech. When facing a language that lacks that feature and relying on strict sentence patterns instead, Poles draw a blank and[=/=]or make distinctive mistakes.


Many Polish words [[TheUnpronounceable are impossible to pronounce]] by non-native speakers. Very few non-natives can speak Polish so fluently that their foreign accent will not be instantly noticed[[note]]A feat Poles find highly impressive, especially when achieved by non-Slavs[[/note]]. Polish is considered to be the most difficult of the Slavic languages for English speakers to learn, which is saying something. Even among native speakers, learning Polish is a trying task; anecdotal accounts postulate that most native Polish speakers don't become truly fluent in the language until they're around 12 years of age, give or take a few years. And about fifth of all schoolchildren during the elementry school tend to have issues with grammar that takes years to correct, especially in regards of conjugation and verb participles.

to:

Many Polish words [[TheUnpronounceable are impossible to pronounce]] by non-native speakers. Very few non-natives can speak Polish so fluently that their foreign accent will not be instantly noticed[[note]]A feat Poles find highly impressive, especially when achieved by non-Slavs[[/note]]. Polish is considered to be the most difficult of the Slavic languages for English speakers to learn, which is saying something. Even among native speakers, learning Polish is a trying task; anecdotal accounts postulate that most native Polish speakers don't become truly fluent in the language until they're around 12 years of age, give or take a few years. And about fifth of all schoolchildren during the elementry school tend to have issues with grammar that takes take years to correct, especially in regards of conjugation and verb participles.


Many Polish words [[TheUnpronounceable are impossible to pronounce]] by non-native speakers. Very few non-natives can speak Polish so fluently that their foreign accent will not be noticed. Polish is considered to be the most difficult of the Slavic languages for English speakers to learn, which is saying something. Even among native speakers, learning Polish is a trying task; anecdotal accounts postulate that most native Polish speakers don't become fluent in the language until they're around 16 years of age, give or take a few years.

to:

Many Polish words [[TheUnpronounceable are impossible to pronounce]] by non-native speakers. Very few non-natives can speak Polish so fluently that their foreign accent will not be noticed.instantly noticed[[note]]A feat Poles find highly impressive, especially when achieved by non-Slavs[[/note]]. Polish is considered to be the most difficult of the Slavic languages for English speakers to learn, which is saying something. Even among native speakers, learning Polish is a trying task; anecdotal accounts postulate that most native Polish speakers don't become truly fluent in the language until they're around 16 12 years of age, give or take a few years.
years. And about fifth of all schoolchildren during the elementry school tend to have issues with grammar that takes years to correct, especially in regards of conjugation and verb participles.


Many Polish words [[TheUnpronounceable are impossible to pronounce]] by non-native speakers. Very few non-natives can speak Polish so fluently that their foreign accent will not be noticed. Polish is considered to be the most difficult of the Slavic languages for English speakers to learn, which is saying something.

to:

Many Polish words [[TheUnpronounceable are impossible to pronounce]] by non-native speakers. Very few non-natives can speak Polish so fluently that their foreign accent will not be noticed. Polish is considered to be the most difficult of the Slavic languages for English speakers to learn, which is saying something.
something. Even among native speakers, learning Polish is a trying task; anecdotal accounts postulate that most native Polish speakers don't become fluent in the language until they're around 16 years of age, give or take a few years.


** Poles' consumption of alcohol is rather unremarkable, when compared in quantity to other European nations. Be wary, though, if you've made Polish friends. They may want to test your strength, [[DrinkingContest If You Know What I Mean]].
** The reason for that reputation might be that unlike Britons and their [[UsefulNotes/BritishPubs casual pub culture]], Poles prefer to drink in binges. Sadly, while there's a growing tendency to drink casually, quantity still seems more important than quality, with most drinkers judging the beverage's value by the alcohol percentage.

to:

** Modern Poles' consumption of alcohol is rather unremarkable, when compared in quantity to other European nations. Be wary, though, if you've made Polish friends. They may want to test your strength, [[DrinkingContest If You Know What I Mean]].
** The reason for that reputation might be that unlike Britons and their [[UsefulNotes/BritishPubs casual pub culture]], Poles prefer to drink in binges. Sadly, while there's a growing tendency to drink casually, quantity still seems more important than quality, with most drinkers judging the beverage's value by the alcohol percentage. There is also a historical context - soon after introduction of potato, a way to make very cheap vodka out of it was developed. By mid-19th century Poles gained a reputation of notorious drunkards and alcoholism remained an extremely serious problem until late TheSeventies, while drinking at work was normal and socially accepted until the fall of communism. So the fact current alcohol consumption is so unremarkable is a ''good'' thing.


One - surnames '''inflect'''. The -ski, -cki ended ones inflect like adjectives, because that's what they really are - they were originally derived from the name of someone's estate, for example: the owner of a place named "Brzezina" would be called Jan z Brzeziny (John of Brzezina) in [[TheHighMiddleAges XII century]], but Jan Brzeziński in [[UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance XV century]]. Some were UsefulNotes/{{Patronymic}}, ("Piotrowski" - Peter's son) but the usual patronymic ending is -icz ("Piotrowicz") - these inflect like nouns (see below). Other adjectival names like "Chudy" are derived from nicknames (sometimes [[EmbarrassingNickname embarrasing]]).

to:

One - surnames '''inflect'''. The -ski, -cki ended ones inflect like adjectives, because that's what they really are - they were originally derived from the name of someone's estate, for example: the owner of a place named "Brzezina" would be called Jan z Brzeziny (John of Brzezina) in [[TheHighMiddleAges XII 12th century]], but Jan Brzeziński in [[UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance XV 16th century]]. Some were UsefulNotes/{{Patronymic}}, ("Piotrowski" - Peter's son) but the usual patronymic ending is -icz ("Piotrowicz") - these inflect like nouns (see below). Other adjectival names like "Chudy" are derived from nicknames (sometimes [[EmbarrassingNickname embarrasing]]).


* You're a sweetie. - [inf.] Jesteś kochany [m.]/ kochana[f.].

to:

* You're a sweetie. - [inf.] Jesteś kochany [m.]/ kochana[f.].[talking to a male sweetie]/ kochana[talking to a girl].


A diminutive sometimes just denotes that something is tiny (''Dałeś mi tę kanapeczkę?'' - You've given me this tiny sandwich?), or [[CutenessProximity cute]] (''Jaki śliczny kiciuś!'' - What a cute kitty!), is always (always) used in BabyTalk (''Zobacz, skarbie, kotek!'' - Look, darling, a kitty!), sometimes [[{{Irony}} ironically]] and sometimes by older people who don't realise how annoying diminutives can be when overused. Moving on.

to:

A diminutive sometimes just denotes that something is tiny (''Dałeś mi tę kanapeczkę?'' - You've given me this tiny sandwich?), or [[CutenessProximity cute]] (''Jaki śliczny kiciuś!'' - What a cute kitty!), is always (always) used in BabyTalk (''Zobacz, skarbie, kotek!'' - Look, darling, a kitty!), sometimes [[{{Irony}} ironically]] and sometimes by older people who don't realise how annoying diminutives can be when overused. Also, when talking about food, especially food the speaker likes or wants you to try and appreciate. Moving on.

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