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* ''Film/TheEmpireStrikesBack'' features a justified example of this (considering the MotivationalLie Luke was told about Darth Vader killing his father), resulting in the original LukeIAmYourFather reveal.


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* ''Creator/CarlHiaasen'' novel ''Bad Monkey'' features the main character investigating the mysterious disappearance of a Medicare fraudster, believing that his wife and her mysterious new boyfriend killed him for the insurance money. Then, it turns out that the new boyfriend ''is'' her husband in an assumed identity and they [[FakingTheDead faked his death]] in order to collect the insurance money and escape a police investigation.


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* Invoked by Kokichi and Kaito in ''VisualNovel/DanganronpaV3''. In a desperate bid to defeat the mastermind, Kokichi convinces Kaito to kill him in a hydraulic press. However, they film the murder to make it appear as though Kaito had died and make it impossible to examine the body. During the trial, Kaito hides in an Exisal, using a voice modifier and a script prepared by Kokichi to impersonate him and confuse everyone. The point was to nullify the game by making a murder Monokuma couldn't judge fairly, though the plan failed after Shuichi saw through the charade.

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* Invoked by Kokichi and Kaito in ''VisualNovel/DanganronpaV3''. ''VisualNovel/DanganronpaV3KillingHarmony''. In a desperate bid to defeat the mastermind, they set up a plan in which no one, not even the cameras, can determine which of them killed the other. Kokichi convinces Kaito to kill him in a hydraulic press. However, they film the murder to make it appear as though Kaito had died and make it impossible to examine the body. During the trial, Kaito hides in an Exisal, using a voice modifier and a script prepared by Kokichi to impersonate him and confuse everyone. The point was to nullify the game by making a murder Monokuma couldn't judge fairly, though the plan failed after Shuichi saw through the charade.charade and exposed Kaito as the killer.


* In ''Disney/BrotherBear'', Kenai and his brother Denahi are tracking down the bear who killed their oldest brother Sitka. Kenai corners the bear and kills it, but the spirits turn him into a bear directly afterwards. When Denahi arrives on the scene, he sees Bear!Kenai and thinks it is the bear that killed Sitka, surmising that it killed Kenai too. He spends the rest of the movie tracking down Kenai to kill him for...killing Kenai.
* Invoked by Yzma in ''Disney/TheEmperorsNewGroove''. She tells the guards that Pacha and Kuzco (who has been turned into a llama) murdered the emperor (Kuzco).

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* In ''Disney/BrotherBear'', ''WesternAnimation/BrotherBear'', Kenai and his brother Denahi are tracking down the bear who killed their oldest brother Sitka. Kenai corners the bear and kills it, but the spirits turn him into a bear directly afterwards. When Denahi arrives on the scene, he sees Bear!Kenai and thinks it is the bear that killed Sitka, surmising that it killed Kenai too. He spends the rest of the movie tracking down Kenai to kill him for...killing Kenai.
* Invoked by Yzma in ''Disney/TheEmperorsNewGroove''.''WesternAnimation/TheEmperorsNewGroove''. She tells the guards that Pacha and Kuzco (who has been turned into a llama) murdered the emperor (Kuzco).

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* Invoked by Kokichi and Kaito in ''VisualNovel/DanganronpaV3''. In a desperate bid to defeat the mastermind, Kokichi convinces Kaito to kill him in a hydraulic press. However, they film the murder to make it appear as though Kaito had died and make it impossible to examine the body. During the trial, Kaito hides in an Exisal, using a voice modifier and a script prepared by Kokichi to impersonate him and confuse everyone. The point was to nullify the game by making a murder Monokuma couldn't judge fairly, though the plan failed after Shuichi saw through the charade.


* In "Action Comics #303: The Monster From Krypton", red Kryptonite transforms Franchise/{{Superman}} into a dragon-like creature called a drang. When he holds his cape to communicate the change, ComicBook/JimmyOlsen thinks the monster killed him and alerts ComicBook/{{Supergirl}} and the army.

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* In "Action Comics ''ComicBook/ActionComics'' #303: The "The Monster From Krypton", red Kryptonite transforms Franchise/{{Superman}} into a dragon-like creature called a drang. When he holds his cape to communicate the change, ComicBook/JimmyOlsen thinks the monster killed him and alerts ComicBook/{{Supergirl}} and the army.


* An episode of ''Series/TaleFromTheCrypt'' has a man working with his coroner brother to fake his death for a huge insurance payout. After getting plastic surgery, he waits at an island for his wife to join him with the payout. When she fails to, he flies back home to discover she's now married to his brother and they're both living large off the settlement. The man calls the cops to turn them in for fraud only to discover the surgery is so good and the fake murder done so well that they don't believe he's really him. In fact, they're convinced the only way he could know so much is if he's the killer so the man ends up arrested, tried, convicted and ''sent to the electric chair'' for his own murder with his last words being telling everyone who he really is!

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* An episode of ''Series/TaleFromTheCrypt'' ''Series/TalesFromTheCrypt'' has a man working with his coroner brother to fake his death for a huge insurance payout. After getting plastic surgery, he waits at an island for his wife to join him with the payout. When she fails to, he flies back home to discover she's now married to his brother and they're both living large off the settlement. The man calls the cops to turn them in for fraud only to discover the surgery is so good and the fake murder done so well that they don't believe he's really him. In fact, they're convinced the only way he could know so much is if he's the killer so the man ends up arrested, tried, convicted and ''sent to the electric chair'' for his own murder with his last words being telling everyone who he really is!

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* An episode of ''Series/TaleFromTheCrypt'' has a man working with his coroner brother to fake his death for a huge insurance payout. After getting plastic surgery, he waits at an island for his wife to join him with the payout. When she fails to, he flies back home to discover she's now married to his brother and they're both living large off the settlement. The man calls the cops to turn them in for fraud only to discover the surgery is so good and the fake murder done so well that they don't believe he's really him. In fact, they're convinced the only way he could know so much is if he's the killer so the man ends up arrested, tried, convicted and ''sent to the electric chair'' for his own murder with his last words being telling everyone who he really is!


Maybe TheHero is undercover to avoid a FrameUp. Maybe he touched the wrong artifact and became a BalefulPolymorph. The point is, he's looking different, often monstrous. Then someone (often his loved ones, for [[PlayedForDrama dramatic impact]]) catch him with his personal effects. [[RoaringRampageOfRevenge Uh oh.]] Our hero has just been Mistaken for Own Murderer. Now he has to correct the mistake, and fast, before the people who made the mistake kill him in retribution for his "murder".

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Maybe TheHero is undercover to avoid a FrameUp. Maybe he they touched the wrong artifact and became a BalefulPolymorph. The point is, he's they're looking different, often monstrous. Then someone (often his their loved ones, for [[PlayedForDrama dramatic impact]]) catch him them with his their personal effects. [[RoaringRampageOfRevenge Uh oh.]] Our hero has just been Mistaken for Own Murderer. Now he has they have to correct the mistake, and fast, before the people who made the mistake kill him them in retribution for his their "murder".


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!! Examples:
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** When the Ninth Doctor regenerates, Rose [[Recap/DoctorWho2005CiNSDoctorWhoChildrenInNeed thinks]] this stranger has done something to the Doctor and demands he brings him back.



** When the Ninth Doctor regenerates, Rose thinks this stranger has done something to the Doctor and demands he brings him back.



--> '''The creature is wanted for a murder he didn't commit. David Banner is believed to be dead and he must let the world think that he is dead until he can find a way to control the raging spirit that dwells within him'''
* Argentine series ''Lalola'' (and its multiple {{Foreign Remake}}s) focused on Lalo, a man who [[ManIFeelLikeAWoman was turned into a woman by a spell]] placed on him by a scorned lover. He then adopts the name of Lola, and is accused of Lalo's murder towards the end of the series.

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--> '''The -->'''The creature is wanted for a murder he didn't commit. David Banner is believed to be dead and he must let the world think that he is dead until he can find a way to control the raging spirit that dwells within him'''
* Argentine series ''Lalola'' (and its multiple {{Foreign Remake}}s) focused focuses on Lalo, a man who [[ManIFeelLikeAWoman was is turned into a woman by a spell]] placed on him by a scorned lover. He then adopts the name of Lola, and is accused of Lalo's murder towards the end of the series.



* ''WesternAnimation/StevenUniverse'' has this as the conclusion to an important murder mystery arc. [[spoiler: Despite what Homeworld records said, Rose Quartz did not kill Pink Diamond. Pink Diamond [[FakingTheDead faked her own death]] and made out her alter ego to be responsible, in order to force the other Diamonds to leave Earth alone.]]

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* ''WesternAnimation/StevenUniverse'' has this as the conclusion to an important murder mystery arc. [[spoiler: Despite [[spoiler:Despite what Homeworld records said, Rose Quartz did not kill Pink Diamond. Pink Diamond [[FakingTheDead faked her own death]] and made out her alter ego to be responsible, in order to force the other Diamonds to leave Earth alone.]]


* ''Series/DoctorWho'': In "[[Recap/DoctorWhoS35E2TheWitchsFamiliar The Witch's Familiar]]", Missy convinces Clara to [[DressingAsTheEnemy get into a Dalek exo-suit and pretend to be a Dalek]] with her as a prisoner. Upon finding the Doctor, Missy claims that she's the Dalek that killed Clara, with the Doctor starting to believe her due to the Dalek system preventing Clara from telling the truth. It's only by Clara getting the suit to say "Mercy", [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness something a Dalek would never say]], does the Doctor realize something's amiss and opens the exo-skeleton to find Clara inside, before giving Missy a TranquilFury-filled GetOut for nearly tricking him into killing his best friend.

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* ''Series/DoctorWho'': ''Series/DoctorWho'':
**
In "[[Recap/DoctorWhoS35E2TheWitchsFamiliar The Witch's Familiar]]", Missy convinces Clara to [[DressingAsTheEnemy get into a Dalek exo-suit and pretend to be a Dalek]] with her as a prisoner. Upon finding the Doctor, Missy claims that she's the Dalek that killed Clara, with the Doctor starting to believe her due to the Dalek system preventing Clara from telling the truth. It's only by Clara getting the suit to say "Mercy", [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness something a Dalek would never say]], does the Doctor realize something's amiss and opens the exo-skeleton to find Clara inside, before giving Missy a TranquilFury-filled GetOut for nearly tricking him into killing his best friend.friend.
** When the Ninth Doctor regenerates, Rose thinks this stranger has done something to the Doctor and demands he brings him back.


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->'''Leela''': They killed my parents!
->'''Fry''': Close. ''(pulls down the hoods to reveal they're both purple-haired cyclopes)''
->'''Leela''': They...are my parents.
-->-- ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}'', "Leela's Homeworld'

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->'''Leela''': They killed my parents!
->'''Fry''':
parents! \\
'''Fry''':
Close. ''(pulls down the hoods to reveal they're both purple-haired cyclopes)''
->'''Leela''':
cyclopes)''\\
'''Leela''':
They...are my parents.
-->-- ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}'', "Leela's Homeworld'
Homeworld"



* ''ComicBook/TheBatmanAdventures'': [[DownplayedTrope Downplayed.]] In Issue #8, Summer Gleeson is supposed to have a date with a man who, unbeknownst to her, was Clayface under a disguise but arrives on time to see Clayface being arrested and wonders what happened to her date.
-->'''Summer:''' I was supposed to meet somebody here. Tall, blond... handsome. But I don't see him anywhere. Did... that thing...\\
'''Batman:''' No, Miss Gleeson. The person you described... was never here.
* In the ''ComicBook/DoctorWhoTitan'' Ninth Doctor story "The Transformed", some superpowered teens think that alien gargoyle-like creatures are killing and disappearing them. In fact, the condition that gave them the superpowers causes them to mutate into the gargoyles.



* ''ComicBook/{{Princeless}}'': Princess Adrienne's Dad thinks she was killed by the mysterious knight who destroyed her tower. The knight ''is'' Princess Adrienne.



* ''ComicBook/{{Princeless}}'': Princess Adrienne's Dad thinks she was killed by the mysterious knight who destroyed her tower. The knight ''is'' Princess Adrienne.
* ''ComicBook/TheBatmanAdventures'': [[DownplayedTrope Downplayed.]] In Issue #8, Summer Gleeson is supposed to have a date with a man who, unbeknownst to her, was Clayface under a disguise but arrives on time to see Clayface being arrested and wonders what happened to her date.
-->'''Summer:''' I was supposed to meet somebody here. Tall, blond... handsome. But I don't see him anywhere. Did... that thing...
-->'''Batman:''' No, Miss Gleeson. The person you described... was never here.
* In the ''ComicBook/DoctorWhoTitan'' Ninth Doctor story "The Transformed", some superpowered teens think that alien gargoyle-like creatures are killing and disappearing them. In fact, the condition that gave them the superpowers causes them to mutate into the gargoyles.



* In the ''Land Before Time'' fanfic ''The Seven Hunters'' the gang of seven wishes for the power to defeat the T-Rex Red Claw and get their wish in an unexpected way by being transformed into meat-eaters. After realizing their children are missing the gang's parents find the transformed kids and chase them out of the valley with murderous intent under the mistaken assumption that they had killed their children.



* In the ''Land Before Time'' fanfic ''The Seven Hunters'' the gang of seven wishes for the power to defeat the T-Rex Red Claw and get their wish in an unexpected way by being transformed into meat-eaters. After realizing their children are missing the gang's parents find the transformed kids and chase them out of the valley with murderous intent under the mistaken assumption that they had killed their children.



[[folder:Film - Animated]]

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[[folder:Film - Animated]] Animated]]
* In ''WesternAnimation/Ben10DestroyAllAliens'', [[spoiler: a Galvanic Mechamorph goes on a {{Roaring Rampage of Revenge}} against a Tok'ustar whom he believes killed his son Azmuth. However, it is revealed in the end that the Tok'ustar ''is'' Azmuth because of a glitch in the Omnitrix.]]



* In ''WesternAnimation/{{Ben 10 Destroy All Aliens}}'', [[spoiler: a Galvanic Mechamorph goes on a {{Roaring Rampage of Revenge}} against a Tok'ustar whom he believes killed his son Azmuth. However, it is revealed in the end that the Tok'ustar ''is'' Azmuth because of a glitch in the Omnitrix.]]



[[folder:Film - Live-Action]]
* In both the film and the original novel ''Film/ThePrincessBride'' Buttercup believes that the Dread Pirate Roberts killed Westley. Only when he tumbles down the hill shouting [[SomethingOnlyTheyWouldSay "As...you...wish..."]] does she realize that he ''was'' Westley.

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[[folder:Film - Live-Action]]
* In both the film and the original novel ''Film/ThePrincessBride'' Buttercup believes that the Dread Pirate Roberts killed Westley. Only when he tumbles down the hill shouting [[SomethingOnlyTheyWouldSay "As...you...wish..."]] does she realize that he ''was'' ''is'' Westley.



* In the Franchise/SherlockHolmes story "The Man With The Twisted Lip", the titular man is actually the gentleman he was accused of murdering in disguise. A rare example where he was not trying to prove his identity. He didn't want to shame his family with the revelation that he'd been begging as an occupation.
* When Eustace from ''Literature/TheVoyageOfTheDawnTreader'' wanders away and is involuntarily transformed into a dragon, his companions frantically search the island for the missing boy. On first sighting Eustace as a dragon, they initially assume he's the monster that ate Eustace, although he's able to prove his identity with body language.
* In Creator/{{Saki}}'s "The Lost Sanjak", a man swaps clothes with a dead man to ditch his identity after an affair; unfortunately, by leaving his own clothes on the corpse, he becomes a suspect in his own murder [[spoiler: and ends up hanging for it!]]



* In the Literature/FatherBrown short story "The Mistake of the Machine", a man in ragged clothes is accused of murdering Lord Falconroy, because he set off a lie detector when Falconroy's name was mentioned. Being identified as a conman who operated ten years previously seems to clinch it. It turns out he ''is'' Falconroy dressed up for a "slum dinner", and had just been about to say so when he was (it seems correctly) recognised as the conman.

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* ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia'': When Eustace from ''Literature/TheVoyageOfTheDawnTreader'' wanders away and is involuntarily transformed into a dragon, his companions frantically search the island for the missing boy. On first sighting Eustace as a dragon, they initially assume he's the monster that ate Eustace, although he's able to prove his identity with body language.
* In the Literature/FatherBrown ''Literature/FatherBrown'' short story "The Mistake of the Machine", a man in ragged clothes is accused of murdering Lord Falconroy, because he set off a lie detector when Falconroy's name was mentioned. Being identified as a conman who operated ten years previously seems to clinch it. It turns out he ''is'' Falconroy dressed up for a "slum dinner", and had just been about to say so when he was (it seems correctly) recognised as the conman.conman.
* In Creator/{{Saki}}'s "The Lost Sanjak", a man swaps clothes with a dead man to ditch his identity after an affair; unfortunately, by leaving his own clothes on the corpse, he becomes a suspect in his own murder [[spoiler: and ends up hanging for it!]]
* In the ''Franchise/SherlockHolmes'' story "The Man With The Twisted Lip", the titular man is actually the gentleman he was accused of murdering in disguise. A rare example where he was not trying to prove his identity. He didn't want to shame his family with the revelation that he'd been begging as an occupation.



* In the ''Series/AreYouAfraidOfTheDark'' episode "The Tale of the Hunted", while on a hunting trip, Diana gets turned into a wolf. Her father sees her wolf self in her cabin and assumes she killed her. Diana evades the hunting posse until the transformation wears off.



-->'''Buffy''': ''(stabbing Demon!Giles)'' This is for Giles!
-->'''Giles''': ''(in demon language, which only Spike understands)'' For me?

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-->'''Buffy''': ''(stabbing Demon!Giles)'' This is for Giles!
-->'''Giles''':
Giles!\\
'''Giles''':
''(in demon language, which only Spike understands)'' For me?me?
* ''Series/DoctorWho'': In "[[Recap/DoctorWhoS35E2TheWitchsFamiliar The Witch's Familiar]]", Missy convinces Clara to [[DressingAsTheEnemy get into a Dalek exo-suit and pretend to be a Dalek]] with her as a prisoner. Upon finding the Doctor, Missy claims that she's the Dalek that killed Clara, with the Doctor starting to believe her due to the Dalek system preventing Clara from telling the truth. It's only by Clara getting the suit to say "Mercy", [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness something a Dalek would never say]], does the Doctor realize something's amiss and opens the exo-skeleton to find Clara inside, before giving Missy a TranquilFury-filled GetOut for nearly tricking him into killing his best friend.



* In the ''Series/AreYouAfraidOfTheDark'' episode "The Tale of the Hunted", while on a hunting trip, Diana gets turned into a wolf. Her father sees her wolf self in her cabin and assumes she killed her. Diana evades the hunting posse until the transformation wears off.



* In the ''Series/DoctorWho'' episode "[[[Recap/DoctorWhoS35E2TheWitchsFamiliar The Witch's Familiar]]", Missy convinces Clara to [[DressingAsTheEnemy get into a Dalek exo-suit and pretend to be a Dalek]] with her as a prisoner. Upon finding the Doctor, Missy claims that she's the Dalek that killed Clara, with the Doctor starting to believe her due to the Dalek system preventing Clara from telling the truth. It's only by Clara getting the suit to say 'Mercy', [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness something a Dalek would never say]], does the Doctor realize something's amiss and opens the exo-skeleton to find Clara inside, before giving Missy a TranquilFury-filled GetOut for nearly tricking him into killing his best friend.



* ''WesternAnimation/AmericanDragonJakeLong'': When Trixie and Spud chance into photos of Jake turning into his dragon form, Spud assumes the dragon ate Jake. Trixie [[DownplayedTrope quickly points out the correct conclusion]].



* ''WesternAnimation/ShimmerAndShine'': In "The Mysterious Tower", Zac finds a necklace that turns him into a Ziffilon-like monster. Kaz briefly assumes the monster ate Zac.



* ''WesternAnimation/StevenUniverse'' has this as the conclusion to an important murder mystery arc. [[spoiler: Despite what Homeworld records said, Rose Quartz did not kill Pink Diamond. Pink Diamond [[FakingTheDead faked her own death]] and made out her alter ego to be responsible, in order to force the other Diamonds to leave Earth alone.]]



* ''WesternAnimation/ShimmerAndShine'': In "The Mysterious Tower", Zac finds a necklace that turns him into a Ziffilon-like monster. Kaz briefly assumes the monster ate Zac.
* ''WesternAnimation/AmericanDragonJakeLong'': When Trixie and Spud chance into photos of Jake turning into his dragon form. Spud assumes the dragon ate Jake. Trixie [[DownplayedTrope quickly points out the correct conclusion]].
* ''WesternAnimation/StevenUniverse'' has this as the conclusion to an important murder mystery arc. [[spoiler: Despite what Homeworld records said, Rose Quartz did not kill Pink Diamond. Pink Diamond [[FakingTheDead faked her own death]] and made out her alter ego to be responsible, in order to force the other Diamonds to leave Earth alone.]]


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->'''Fry''': Close. (pulls down the hoods to reveal they're both purple-haired cyclopes)

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->'''Fry''': Close. (pulls ''(pulls down the hoods to reveal they're both purple-haired cyclopes) cyclopes)''


* In the ''Series/DoctorWho'' episode "The Witch's Familiar", Missy convinces Clara to [[DressingAsTheEnemy get into a Dalek exo-suit and pretend to be a Dalek]] with her as a prisoner. Upon finding the Doctor, Missy claims that she's the Dalek that killed Clara, with the Doctor starting to believe her due to the Dalek system preventing Clara from telling the truth. It's only by Clara getting the suit to say 'Mercy', [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness something a Dalek would never say]], does the Doctor realize something's amiss and opens the exo-skeleton to find Clara inside, before giving Missy a TranquilFury-filled GetOut for nearly tricking him into killing his best friend.

to:

* In the ''Series/DoctorWho'' episode "The "[[[Recap/DoctorWhoS35E2TheWitchsFamiliar The Witch's Familiar", Familiar]]", Missy convinces Clara to [[DressingAsTheEnemy get into a Dalek exo-suit and pretend to be a Dalek]] with her as a prisoner. Upon finding the Doctor, Missy claims that she's the Dalek that killed Clara, with the Doctor starting to believe her due to the Dalek system preventing Clara from telling the truth. It's only by Clara getting the suit to say 'Mercy', [[OOCIsSeriousBusiness something a Dalek would never say]], does the Doctor realize something's amiss and opens the exo-skeleton to find Clara inside, before giving Missy a TranquilFury-filled GetOut for nearly tricking him into killing his best friend.



* ''WesternAnimation/StevenUniverse'' has this as the conclusion to an important murder mystery arc. [[spoiler: Despite what Homeworld records said, Rose Quartz did not kill Pink Diamond. Pink Diamond faked her own death and made out her alter ego to be responsible, in order to force the other Diamonds to leave Earth alone.]]

to:

* ''WesternAnimation/StevenUniverse'' has this as the conclusion to an important murder mystery arc. [[spoiler: Despite what Homeworld records said, Rose Quartz did not kill Pink Diamond. Pink Diamond [[FakingTheDead faked her own death death]] and made out her alter ego to be responsible, in order to force the other Diamonds to leave Earth alone.]]

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