These are what we call the 'YMMV items.' Things that some people find in this work. We call them 'your mileage might vary' because not everyone sees these things in the same way. This starts discussions in the trope lists, a thing we don't want. Please use the discussion page if you'd like to discuss any of these items.
Expy: Pinbacker is reminiscent of Weir from Event Horizon. Both succumb to insanity, hunt the crews of doomed spaceships, believe they are carrying out the will of a higher being, and run around naked, bald, and disfigured (Pinbacker is horrifically burned, while Weir is covered in lacerations).
Fridge Horror: More of Fridge Sadness, really (Fridge Tearjerker?). The friends and families of the crew members could see from Earth that the crew had succeeded, but had no way of knowing that they'd all died in the process. They wouldn't be able to contact them to find out that there was nobody there due to the dead zone around the sun, and they would just be waiting for the ship to come back not knowing that it never will, and would never have any way of knowing what happened on the it.
All the grey dust on Icarus 1 - they mention that most dust comes from human skin (incorrect) but in their case, it may actually be correct - the dust is the burned off skin of the crew, all of whom were fried.
Also, there was Ali G's poignant question to Buzz Aldrin, posed back in 2003:
"Do you think that mankind will ever land...on the sun?"
"Our purpose? To create a star within a star." Cue Inception, starring Cillian Murphy, and its myriad of "X within an X" jokes...
Retroactive Recognition: In actual fact he's so hidden by make-up and freaky camerawork that you're unlikely to recognise him, but Mark Strong's name turning up in the closing credits has retroactively become a "Wait, what!?" moment.
We do see of his video logs at the beginning though, out of the makeup.
Tearjerker: Capa's Freak Out when it looks like all life on Earth might die because he tripped over a doorframe.