Useful Notes / Post-War British Politics

"So though I'm a working man,
I can ruin the government's plan!
Though I'm not too hard,
The sight of my card,
Makes me some kind of Superman.

Oh you don't get me I'm part of the union,
You don't get me I'm part of the union,
You don't get me I'm part of the union,
Till the day I die, till the day I die!"

The Strawbs, "Part of the Union"

British politics since the end of World War II in Europe. Useful for understanding post-war history, relevant literature and hopefully, providing you with a good laugh.

We begin on 8 May 1945, Victory in Europe Day (V.E. Day). Germany has signed the documents of surrender, ending World War II in Europe (Japan will keep fighting until August 1945). There's a massive party. Once the hangovers have cleared up, everyone realises that (a) the National Governmentnote  that has led Britain through the war isn't needed any more and (b) there hasn't actually been an election since 1935note . A general election is called for June, and the leader of the caretaker government until then is...

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     "Thanks for beating Hitler, now get out" — Churchill (May-June 1945) 

Winston Churchill (May-June 1945) [Conservative]

These being the days before opinion polls were actually done properly, and emerging victorious from a war in which he had been the figure that practically everyone in Britain had rallied around, everyone expected Winston Churchill to win.

Boy, did they get the shock of their lives. The British showed their gratitude to Churchill by kicking him out of office (he didn't help his case by claiming that Labour would need a Gestapo to run the new socialist state). It turns out that while Churchill turned out to be just what was needed to fight the war, people were a lot more wary of him as a peacetime leader. And so, not for the last time in British post-war politics, what everyone assumed was going to happen and what actually did happen turned out to be two very, very different things. Labour won in a landslide, forming its first majority government. In came...

    "The Man in the Empty Taxi" — Attlee (1945-51) 

Clement Attlee (1945-1951) [Labour].

As Prime Ministers go, Atlee wasn't all that charismatic (hence the title- one of Churchill's many memorable criticism of the man), but it didn't really matter back then. His government was responsible for the National Health Service, British Railways and very much other nationalisation. He created what became known as "the post-war consensus" of high public spending and national ownership. Britain also began the steps to becoming one of the Five Nukes under Attlee.

The period had somewhat of an argument going on between the right and left of Labour. It wouldn't be the end of it.

The beginning of decolonisation and the end of the British Empire began here as well, in large part because war-ravaged Britain simply couldn't afford the upkeep. Although it was a long and lengthy process, the death knell was well and truly rung by India, previously the jewel of the Empire, achieving independence in 1947.

Labour won again in 1950, but narrowly. Attlee went to the country again in 1951. Due to the vagaries of FPTP, Labour just won the popular vote, but the Conservatives got a majority of seats. This led to the return of...

     "The Old Bulldog's Back" — Churchill (1951-55) 

Winston Churchill (1951-1955) [Conservative]

So Winston came back. He didn't really do that much due to his ill-health. What he did do generally wasn't very well-received or popular, leading to the common view that he was a better wartime leader than a peacetime leader. During this term, King George VI died, and Queen Elizabeth II came to the throne. Churchill stepped down in 1955, leading to...

     "Crashing Into The Suez Canal" — Eden (1955-57) 

Sir Anthony Eden (1955-1957) [Conservative]

Churchill's wartime Foreign Secretary, as Prime Minister Eden is remembered for primarily one thing — Suez. Quite simply, the British, French and Israeli governments came up with the Protocols of Sèvres, an agreement in which Israel would invade Egypt and then Britain and France would come in on the grounds of separating the two parties. In reality, they all wanted to kick out Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, who'd nationalised the Suez Canal.

It went wrong. Very, very wrong. The Americans were very unhappy, the invasion was roundly condemned by the United Nations, and the USSR threatened to intervene. When it came out (because the Israelis didn't destroy their copies of the Protocols) that Eden knew what was going on, he had to leave. In came...

     "Supermac and his Moustache" — Macmillan (1957-63) 

Harold Macmillan (1957-1963) [Conservative]

Harold's first name was actually Maurice. Dubbed "Supermac" by the press as an insult, it became an endearing part of the man, who became rather popular.

Mac won the 1959 election in a landslide and later declared "You've never had it so good".

Macmillian also played a not-insignificant role in the career of comedian and satirist Peter Cook, whose impressions of him became a key part of Beyond the Fringe. They were one of the first examples of political impersonation in comedy and became legendarily scandalous. Reportedly, at one performance when Macmillan himself was in the theatre Cook went off-script and began attacking him directly.

He's also famous for the Profumo scandal which, although not involving him directly, arguably dealt a pretty fatal blow to the Conservative government. In 1963, John Profumo, Secretary of State for War, had an affair with Christine Keeler, a showgirl. She was also sleeping with Captain Yevgeny Ivanov, a naval attaché in the Soviet Embassy — and a spy (like all attachés in the Soviet Embassy). While no secrets ended up in the Soviet Union (despite the efforts of Ivanov and Stephen Ward, the latter of whom was actually working for MI-5), Profumo had to resign. Ward ended up being charged with living off immoral earnings and killed himself on the last day of his trial. Ivanov's wife left him.

Shortly afterwards, Macmillan resigned on health grounds. The Conservative Party at the time chose its leaders via something called "the magic circle", in which the bigwigs had a chat and chose a person. The two front-runners were Rab Butler and Quintin Hogg. After a lot of public argument (involving, among other things, Supermac actively blocking Rab Butler's succession), a compromise candidate was found...

     "Alec Douglas-Who?" — Douglas-Home (1963-4) 

Alec Douglas-Home, (1963-64) [Conservative]

You've probably never heard of this guy. Don't worry, most British people haven't either. Douglas-Home (pronounced Hume) spent just under a year as Prime Minister. A Lord when he was appointed (as the Earl of Home), he forfeited his Peerage to stand in a by-election (by this point, governing from the House of Lords was seen as awkward). Had a head like a skull and was really just biding time for the Tories until the election had to be called. The Tories narrowly lost and we got...

     "Yes, I Like My Pipe" — Wilson (1964-70) 

Harold Wilson (1964-1970) [Labour]

Wilson was the first media PM. He was famous for smoking a pipe during his television appearances (remember, this was before the smoking ban). There's a Viking named after him in Astérix.

Under Wilson, The '60s fully kicked into gear and The Vietnam War entered its next phase. Wilson, rather wisely, kept Britain out of the war militarily, although offered occasional rhetorical support. The Troubles started in Northern Ireland and England won The World Cup. Wise to the popular mood, he had The Beatles honoured (although John Lennon eventually returned his medals due to UK "support" for the Vietnam War). He is alleged to have said, when asked why Britain did not publicly condemn U.S. action in Vietnam, that "you do not kick your creditors in the balls" (the UK was still heavily in debt from WW2, and indeed did not pay off the last of the war loans until 2006). He also began the process of sending British troops into Northern Ireland to try and resolve The Troubles, which ended up working about as well as you'd expect.

In 1966, Wilson and Labour won in a landslide. In 1970, it looked like they were going to win again, so Wilson went to the country. Then three things happened. First, England were knocked out of the World Cup. Second, there was a unexpectedly bad balance of payments report. Third, there was a guy called Enoch Powell. How racist Powell was is a matter for debate. A former member of the Conservative Shadow Cabinet, he'd been very publicly sacked after the "Rivers of Blood" speech claiming that uncontrolled immigration would lead to Britain being changed dramatically (the far-right today claims he was right) and quoting a letter from a woman who was apparently the only white woman in her street, who would face prosecution under the new Race Relations Act for refusing to let rooms in her house to West Indian immigrants. His views on immigration (then primarily from The Commonwealth) probably brought a lot of voters to the Conservative side in 1970.
  • Racism in the media and elections was considerably more prevalent than it is today. Remember, it took about 20 years longer for "blacking-up" to cycle out of UK fiction, and Peter Griffiths had actually won the Smethwick constituency in 1964 with the unofficial campaign slogan "If you want a nigger for a neighbour, vote Liberal or Labour".

It's also been suggested that pirate radio may have influenced the vote. Wilson's Government had outlawed offshore broadcasting in 1967, but a new station called Radio North Sea International began broadcasting in February 1970. Its signal was jammed by order of the Government, and in protest it began encouraging its listeners to vote Conservative in the upcoming election, the first in which the voting age had been lowered to 18.

In any event, the Conservatives won a surprise victory, and into Downing Street went...

     "A Sailor In Whitehall" — Heath (1970-1974) 

Edward "Ted" Heath (1970-1974) [Conservative]

Ted Heath had become leader of his party after Douglas-Home had brought about the election of a leader after the 1964 defeat. He was responsible for Britain's entry into the European Economic Community (now The European Union), and had Douglas-Home as his Foreign Secretary. Overall, though, Heath's time was marked by turbulence. The Troubles entered a bloody period following the "Bloody Sunday" massacre in 1972, the suspension of the Northern Ireland parliament and direct rule from Britain. Economically, things weren't so good either; unemployment and inflation were rising, and several miner's strikes, coupled with the 1973 oil crisis, led to the institution of the Three-Day Week, during which electricity could only be commercially consumed on three days of the week in order to preserve coal stocks.

Due to the fact that he was a prominent public figure who never married and was the most recent bachelor to become Prime Ministernote , rumours about Heath's private life have circulated for years, mostly revolving around the possibility that he was a closeted homosexual. While many of these rumours, if true, are harmless enough, they began taking a much darker tone around August 2015, after police announced that they were investigating claims of Heath's involvement in child sexual abuse cases as part of various investigations launched following the Jimmy Savile scandal. At time of writing, no concrete evidence to tie Heath into any wrongdoing has been revealed.

Troubled by both the unions and his own party, and finding it increasingly difficult to govern a fractious and divided nation, in 1974 he finally decided to ask the country to decide "who ruled Britain". The answer was "Not you, mate," which led to the return of...

     "MI 5 want to kill me" — Wilson, Act Two (1974-1976) 

Harold Wilson (1974-1976) [Labour]

After Ted Heath's failure to form a government following the 1974 election, Harold Wilson came back into power. He didn't do an awful lot, frankly, though he did deploy the British Army to "sort out" the Troubles. Which worked a treat, obviously. The most interesting thing about this period was the part where the CIA thought he was a KGB spy and MI-5 may well have cooked up a plot to get rid of him and replace him with Lord Mountbatten. He did give the British a referendum on the continued membership of the European Community in which the yes vote prevailed by 2 to 1.

Harold Wilson suddenly announced on 16th March 1976 that he was retiring as Prime Minister (he would remain in Parliament until 1983). It's speculated that one of the reasons was the discovery of the early onset of the Alzheimer's Disease which would take his life along with cancer in 1995. After a short leadership contest, Wilson was replaced in April 1976 by...

     "Never Got Elected" — Callaghan (1976-1979) 

James "Jim" Callaghan (1976-1979) [Labour]

Callaghan's short time in office didn't go terribly well. He strung along the Conservatives by seeming to promise an election; then, in September 1978 announced his decision against it. Adding insult to injury, he proceeded to sing "Waiting at the Church" in the style of music-hall star Marie Lloyd. In the House of Commons. During a debate. It is considered that he thoroughly deserved the "Winter of Discontent" that followed (even if the rest of the nation didn't), a period of economic depression that forced him to actually call an election, via a vote of no-confidence in the Commons.

Callaghan was also responsible for ordering the Trident ballistic missile system from the Americans (the warheads and subs would be British).

Which brings us to possibly one of the most well-known — and certainly one of the most divisive — figures of modern British history...

     "The Iron Lady" — Thatcher (1979-1990) 

Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) [Conservative]

Notorious for her iron control over her cabinet, Margaret Thatcher was Britain's first and, until 2016, only female Prime Minister. She's famous for far more than that, including her radical free-market economic policies (Thatcher was a direct inspiration on Reagan) and reforms as well as her conservative social views. She curbed the trade unions, abolished many of Britain's inefficient nationalised industries (including coal mining and steel) and sold off many of the others, as well as introducing the "Right to Buy", in which the 85% of Brits who lived in state provided housing were given the chance to buy their dwelling for a knock-down price, an offer taken up by tens of millions of people. It has also been argued that, by moving the Conservative Party to the right on immigration, she helped wreck the rising support for far-right movements such as the National Front which had plagued the 1970s.

She brought The '80s to Britain — big business, yuppie culture and the Nouveau Riche flourished under her premiership. In the very end, her own party turned on her in protest at some of her policies and she was forced to resign, though most agreed in November 1990 that she had left the nation and its balance sheet in a much better state than she had found it in May 1979. Her government had overseen a rise in the wealth of the average person, but also high and sustained unemployment; a doubling in the rate of poverty, which by the time Labour came to power would be the highest in Europe and extensive damage to the National Health Service.

Her premiership remains one of the most remembered and discussed in British history. Everyone seems to range from "utter worship" to "sheer frothing rage". Around the world she is seen as a great woman for, along with her great friend Ronald Reagan, having pressured the Communist side in the cold war to the brink of collapse.

As she is (at time of writing) the longest-serving Prime Minister of the post-war era, there were a number of notable events of the Thatcher premiership that make this a particularly interesting time, and which warrant further mention.

     "They may be rocks, but they're British rocks" — The Falklands War (1982) 

A short but controversial military conflict between Britain and Argentina over the Falkland Islands. You can find more detail here, but to quickly sum up:

The Falkland Islands, Islas Malvinas to the Argentines, located in the South Atlantic, had been a subject of dispute between the UK and Argentina for a while (it's a long story partly involving the international equivalent of squatters' rights). Partly in order to save money, the UK planned to withdraw the warship it kept on station as a deterrent to the Argentine junta.

This was, unintentionally, a "come and take it, it's yours" message to them. Needing to divert attention from poor economic performance at home, the junta invaded the place. The (entirely British) local population offered token resistance and then surrendered as they didn't actually stand a chance.

Not many people had heard of the place, but these were British rocks and something had to be done. The British sent a naval task force. While that was on its way, the RAF worked on an operation that became much better known via a recent book called Vulcan 607.

In the BLACK BUCK missions, the ageing Avro Vulcans, using multiple Handley Page Victor tankers (who refuelled each other as well), carried out bombing raids that wouldn't be exceeded in range until the Gulf War. The first of these, which very nearly had to be aborted, rendered Port Stanley airfield largely inoperable, diverted a Mirage fighter squadron to defend the mainland and so cut the Argentines' strike power considerably. A Crowning Moment of Awesome for the Vulcan, in essence.

The war really got started with the sinking of the ARA General Belgrano, an Argentine cruiser by the submarine HMS Conqueror, the only nuclear submarine to have ever sunk a ship in a real war. This was pretty controversial at the time (the ship was outside a declared exclusion zone amd was steaming away from the Falklands when attacked), but the attack was perfectly legal, the Argentines had been informed in advance that any of their ships were now targets, and the cruiser had earlier been actively trying to draw the Task Force into a pincer attack, which had been called off due to bad weather. The fact that 323 deaths occurred and the war was escalated considerably meant many weren't convinced, especially when the log book of HMS Conqueror mysteriously disappeared soon afterwards. Militarily, it also worked — the Argentine Navy retreated to its territorial waters and played not much more part in the war.

The Argentines, however, had another weapon up their sleeves. They only had five of them that could be launched from a plane (the surface versions were on the ships, which were out of the way) to begin with — if they'd had more, things might have been different. The name of the missile would enter the English vocabulary.


This French built anti-shipping missile, launched by French Super Etendard strike fighters, would sink HMS Sheffield on its own and a merchant ship, Atlantic Conveyor (it was aimed at another ship, which decoyed it with chaff — the missile went on and hit the Conveyor). A surface launched version fired from a truck damaged HMS Glamorgan as well.

The Argentines mostly used conventional iron bombs to attack ships and got a few that way. One reason why they didn't get more was the Sea Harrier.

This aircraft, capable of taking off and landing vertically, had the ability, by using its thrusters, to turn very quickly. Due to the RAF's great training, the Argentines' woeful training, the Mirages and Skyhawks operating at the limits of their range and the AIM-9L Sidewinder, 21 Argentine aircraft were shot down by them in air-to-air combat for no losses to the British. Six Sea Harriers were lost to ground fire, but they took out a lot of aircraft on the ground. The Royal Navy's ships got a few too.

  • The Falkland Islands have featured in some media, being the inspiration for the film of Whoops Apocalypse and featuring in a few movies and TV dramas. The Falklands Play wasn't actually made until 2002 (in truncated form), possibly because it was seen as too pro-government. The Argentines have made a few movies on the subject- it had a bigger impact on them- but there's nothing especially famous abroad. About the closest is a joking reference in an episode of The Simpsons, used to date a Krusty rerun.
  • Naturally, this also had an impact on the English-Argentine football relationship — "The Hand of God" was scored against England and Maradona stated it was revenge for the war.
  • The war is also responsible for the most infamous headline in historyThe Sun and "GOTCHA!" on the Belgrano.

     "Hiring taxi drivers to render yourselves unelectable" — Labour's Militant Problem (Between 1980-1991) 

Following Callaghan's defeat, he stood down as Labour leader and was replaced by Michael Foot. Foot wasn't a brilliant leader, but he had an even bigger problem — the rise of Militant. Militant, despite identifying with the "Labour Left", were in fact a Marxist-Leninist entryist group who had infiltrated the Labour Party over a long period with the intention of using it as a springboard to get their members into high office where they could bring about the "socialist revolution". While they'd been doing so since at least the mid-1970s, by the early 1980s they'd infiltrated enough to wield some serious influence within the Labour Party, to the point where they played a massive role in shaping the 1983 election manifesto. This manifesto promised to abolish the House of Lords (with no replacement), eject US missiles from the UK and cancel Trident (ergo, the nuclear disarmament of Britain) and leave the EEC. Then-Shadow Education Secretary Neil Kinnock's comments about soldiers dying in the Falklands to prove Thatcher was tough really didn't help. Gerald Kaufman, a moderate Labour MP (and author of a rather good, if dated, book on how to be a minister) declared it "the longest suicide note in history".

He was right. Labour lost by about 15% of the vote, lost 3 million votes from 1979, got only 27.9% of the vote and almost came third to the Alliance. Disenchanted by the way Labour was going, four high-profile figures, all former Cabinet Ministers, known as the "Gang of Four" (Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Shirley Williams and Bill Rodgers) had resigned very publicly and formed their own party — the Social Democratic Party (SDP). They attracted around 30 sitting members, allied with the Liberals in the Alliance and later merged with them to form the Liberal Democratic Party. (Though not after a very bitter breakup between the "mergerites" and the "Owenites").

Meanwhile, in London, Labour gained control of the Greater London Council. There was then an internal coup in the Labour Group (exactly as the Conservatives had predicted), which meant that a newt breeder by the name of Ken Livingstone become Leader of the Council. Red Ken put the fire in firebrand. Highly left-wing, he put up a statue of Nelson Mandela (who was still in prison and viewed by the Conservatives as a terrorist), declared London a nuclear-free zone, and placed a board showing London's unemployment level on the side of County Hall (opposite the Houses of Parliament on the other side of the river). He did practically everything he could to annoy Thatcher. The Conservatives, after their 1983 landslide, proceeded to abolish the GLC and the other (Labour-controlled) metropolitan councils, and sold off County Hall, which now hosts the London Aquarium, among other things.

Deciding that since they couldn't stop a Government with a majority of 150 seats from passing whatever it felt like passing, Militant decided to start breaking the law, refusing to comply with central government instructions on local rates. The whole thing ended focusing on Liverpool, where the Militant-controlled council, after being told in August 1985 it would no longer be able to pay the wages of its workers due to lack of a central government grant or a budget, proceeded to issue notices to all 30,000 of them that they might lose their jobs in ninety days time, as a means of increasing public pressure. It backfired spectacularly. While not redundancy notices, the difference was irrelevant to the workers and the media.

Kinnock had become leader after the 1983 election and was not happy to see his party almost get electorally killed. After the Liverpool debacle, he famously denounced Militant in that year's Conference speech.
I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises. You start with far fetched resolutions. They are then pickled into a rigid dogma, a code, and you go through the years sticking to that, out-dated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs, and you end in the grotesque chaos of a Labour council - a Labour council! - hiring taxis to scuttle round a city handing out redundancy notices to its own workers.
Militant was not happy, and several Militant members, including a few Liverpool MPs, publicly walked out of the conference hall. But even Labour were turning on them, and eventually proscribed Militant members from joining in 1989. Kinnock's criticism of Militant worked to a degree, but he never saw the premiership after ten years as Labour leader.

Militant eventually dissolved in 1991 after Ted Grant, one of the key figures in Militant, was expelled, leading the remnants reforming as Militant Labour. Most of the remaining Militant figures in the Labour Party were deselected or expelled, and any influence they might have continued to have was decisively ended by both the fall of the Soviet Union, which pretty comprehensively discredited most Marxist-Socialist movements of the kind Militant represented, and the rise of Tony Blair and "New Labour" (more on which later).

     "Tap Dancing Your Way Out Of A Job" — the Miner's Strike 

The 1984 Miners' Strike — and the events both leading up to and stemming from it — is one of the main reasons why Margaret Thatcher is still widely hated, particularly in the North of England.

First, a bit of background; the Conservative Party and the British coal industry were not the best of friends. Coal was a nationalized and subsidized industry up till this point, and the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) was, if not the most powerful union in the country, then certainly one of the most. An earlier strike in 1974 was widely blamed for bringing down Edward Heath's government. Most of the mines, not coincidentally, were based in Labour country — Wales and Oop North. Furthermore, most coal mines ran at a loss, and the government wanted to scrap the unprofitable ones and focus on the ones that were making money. As such, Thatcher appointed Ian MacGregor as head of the National Coal Board (which managed the industry for the government) — MacGregor had previously been in charge of British Steel, and had overseen massive cuts in jobs in the British steel industry. The message seemed pretty clear.

However, the miners themselves didn't like the idea of being turfed out of their jobs, and eventually, as pit closures started to be announced, the head of the NUM, one Arthur Scargill, announced a national strike. This soon proved problematic, largely because a ballot hadn't been held among the union members; attitudes to the strike ranged across the miners from passionate to lukewarm to resistant, and some miners (and related workers) didn't end up going on strike, thus earning a reputation as 'scabs' when they tried to cross the pickets to go to work. The strikes were marred by violence, not just between picketers and strike-breakers, but between strikers and the police, sent by the government to ensure the picketers didn't prevent those who wanted to from crossing the pickets. In order to ensure that local police weren't influenced by their feelings of support for their fellow locals, police units were shipped in from across the country. This created a lot of tension which eventually culminated in plenty of dust-ups between miners and police; in particular, 'The Battle of Orgreave', a particularly violent confrontation between police and picketers. Fatalities started being recorded, including a rather murky incident wherein a taxi driver was killed by a block of concrete dropped by strikers while driving a strike-breaker to a pit; the government blamed the strikers, the strikers blamed forces trying to discredit the strikers, but on the whole public opinion started to cool towards the strike rapidly. However, while the striking miners didn't always conduct themselves like angels, it should be noted that the conduct of the police has come under a lot of retroactive criticism since then, with many of the measures they took to ensure strike-breakers could work and strike protests were quelled being considered unnecessarily provocative and violent.

Speaking of people being 'discredited', however, a lot of conspiracy theories started to be raised about what was going on behind the scenes. As mentioned above, the British far-left had been gaining a lot of power in the eighties, and this included the unions — there were plenty of donations to the NUM coming in from Soviet and Soviet-influenced bodies, and Scargill was variously accused of being a Soviet agent, diverting these funds for his own use, and so forth. This was helped by the fact that the very powerful tabloid media was very much anti-strike and thus used up a lot of ink printing these rumours. Scargill retaliated with accusations that the government was running a smear campaign and that MI5 were running counter-subversive operations, including bugging union leaders phones, infiltrating the union with moles, police intimidation and arrest of strikers on political grounds, soldiers disguised as police sent to break up pickets, and so forth. For what it's worth, a head of MI-5 later came out and admitted that counter-subversive measures were used, but maintained that it was not to the degree Scargill claimed. A real atmosphere of class warfare began to brew.

Ultimately, though, it came down to money — specifically, the miners didn't have enough of it. Since there was no ballot, the strike was considered illegal, meaning that strikers didn't get benefits for missing work, and the union didn't have enough to support them during the strike — a big deal, considering how poor some of these areas were and how much the local economies depended on the mines being active. Gradually, public opinion turned against them, morale plummeted, strikers started going back to work. Just under a year after the strike was called, it was ended, and the miners went back to work.

But not for much longer. Emboldened by their victory, the government started ruthlessly culling the industry, closing pits all over the country — including in areas they'd promised not to, something which caused a lot of betrayed feelings. This spilled into related industries, such as steel and the railways. Local economies were gutted, unemployment in the North skyrocketed, and the region began to languish under a miserable period of poverty that, for some areas, has only recently begun to turn around. When the dust settled, the British coal, steel and manufacturing industries were a shadow of their former selves, Thatcher earned a permanent reputation in the area for being indifferent to both unemployment and the North of England, and even today there's plenty in those areas who will never vote Conservative as a result. In Scotland, the Conservative Party was considered extinct for almost thirty years.

Many people outside the region will probably know the Miners' Strike mainly through the movie / musical Billy Elliot, in which a striker's son discovers his love of dance against the background of the strike. Hence the section name.

     "American Nukes Out!" — CND and the Women of Greenham Common 

Thatcher's first government also coincided with a spike in Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union after a brief cooling-off period in the 1970s, which in turn coincided with Ronald Reagan becoming the President of the United States and, initially at least, something of a Cold War sabre-rattler. Reagan and Thatcher were close allies, and soon became closely associated in the public eye. It was a time of cold war paranoia, fear and tension, and it seemed like nuclear war was going to break out any minute.

Also, after World War II, many old RAF bases were loaned out to the Americans as part of Britain's commitment to NATO, to ensure that the American military had a presence in Europe if necessary. This included being furnished with American nuclear weapons. Among these was RAF Greenham Common, which saw firstly American bombers and then, in the 1980s, cruise missiles armed with nuclear warheads. Greenham Common was the first site in Britain to be issued with them.

These two facts are linked.

As a result in the spike of Cold War tensions and the increased fear and threat of nuclear war, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) — which had been around since the 1950s, but had seen a drop-off in interest and membership since the 1960s (as Vietnam had occupied more attention), began to see it's membership rise again. Between 1979 and 1984, it spiked from 4000 to 10000 — and one of the key points of contention with official government policy was American nuclear missiles being deployed to Britain — this was seen to make Britain a greater target in the event of a potential nuclear strike from the Soviet Union. In fact, the organisation was a key promoter of 'unilateralism', which in this case essentially meant the complete termination of Britain's entry into the NATO defense pact and total abolishing of all nuclear weapons from Britain. As such, the CND began to campaign publicly and prominently, with mass demonstrations in London and other cities about nuclear weapons.

In September 1981, a 'peace camp' — the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp — was established outside RAF Greenham Common as a form of permanent non-violent protest against the weapons housed within. This commonly took the form of blockades to prevent anything from entering / leaving and human chains around the base. Although it had been around for a while by this point, it became particularly notable when on April 1st 1983, 70,000 protestors formed a 14-mile long human chain between Greenham Common, Aldermaston (site of a prominent atomic weapons facility) and Burghfield (site of a weapons factory). Greenham Common began to inspire more peace camps around other military bases, and while most of these other camps were mixed-gender, the all-female nature of the first one meant that the female protestors at least came to be known as 'the Women of Greenham Common'; they were generally associated in the common mind's eye as various combinations of feminists (usually quite hardcore), hippies, lesbians, pagans and various other left-wing female stereotypes. Contrary to popular belief, men were permitted into the camp (or at least certain sections of the camp; the Green Camp didn't permit any men whatsoever), but they were usually discouraged from staying for too long, by various methods (some of them less-than-pleasant).

Naturally, there were plenty of people not very happy at all this — the political establishment for one, the American military for another, and various other conservative-leaning types for a third. There were many incidents of people trying to break into these bases by cutting the wire fences surrounding them, and many more accusations of peace camps being infiltrated by moles sent by the police, American military, MI-5 or 'Special Branch' to try and discredit the movement by stirring up trouble. The Greenham Common protestors were often evicted, but usually set the camp up again soon after. More or less, though, things were peaceful.

Over how effective they ultimately were: most of these camps didn't last very long. The Cold War tensions of the early eighties began to warm when Mikhail Gorbachev took over the Soviet Union in the mid-eighties, which began to loosen the appeal; the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s saw concerns about the nuclear threat diminish, and CND gradually lost influence. It's still around (often protesting the Iraq War and Afghanistan), but isn't as influential as it used to be. The Greenham Common camp, however, lasted until 2000 - nine years after the last nukes had been removed from the base it was located by. There's a memorial there now.

Right, so, where were we? Oh, yes, after some backroom politics Maggie's been kicked out, which brings us to...

     "Good At Cricket, Rubbish At Politics" — Major (1990-1997) 

John Major (1990-1997) [Conservative]

Nicknamed "the Grey Man" for his utter mediocrity, John Major somewhat unbelievably managed to win the 1992 election. It was all downhill from thereon, however, as the Conservative Party soon became enveloped in a myriad sex and financial scandals, mainly remembered for coinciding with his "back to basics" campaign which seemed focused on conservative morality (Sadly, the greatest sex scandal of them all — and affair between Major himself and fellow MP Edwina Currie — went unrevealed until 2002.) Under Major, Britain was involved in the Gulf War (although Thatcher had started the process) and the economic crisis of Black Wednesday.

Despite the popular view, Major was not a total waste of space. For one thing, he did most of the work that lead to the end of The Troubles, ended the institutional Conservative Europhobia (although whether this was his intention, or the effect of pro-europeans, like Michael Heseltine and particularly his chancellor Ken Clarke, exerting power over their fairly ineffectual leader is unclear), and started an economic boom that lasted for over 16 years. Even he probably wasn't that surprised when Britain finally had enough of the Conservatives, however, bringing us to...

    "Controversy, Controversy, Controversy" — Blair (1997-2007) 

Tony Blair (1997-2007) [Labour]

Tony Blair became the leader of the Labour Party in 1994 after the sudden death of previous leader John Smith. In defiance of almost a century's worth of political ideology, he immediately sought to push the party towards the political centre in a post-Soviet environment that made the socialism seen with Militant Labour publicly untenable in what would soon become known, with typical soundbite-friendly media awareness that would characterise Labour (and indeed British) politics at the beginning of the 21st century, as "New Labour". It worked wonders; when the party won a landslide election in 1997, he was perceived as a new start for Britain after eighteen years of Conservative rule. The era of "Cool Britannia" had begun.

By the time he eventually resigned in 2007, however, he was regarded by many as a slimy war criminal who should be on trial at the Hague. Why? Well, the Iraq War, mainly. The cash-for-honours scandal which plagued the last year or two of his premiership didn't help, but it was Iraq and his perceived lies about "Weapons of Mass Destruction" that did it, mostly.

Tony Blair was actually involved in four wars during this period. Two of them, Kosovo and intervention in Sierra Leone, were rather popular and regarded as humanitarian causes. Iraq and Afghanistan... less so. One of the biggest blows to Blair's credibility came when Dr. David Kelly, the man who blew the whistle on the fictitious WMDs that turned out not to be there despite being the main justification for going into Iraq, was found to have committed suicide in suspicious circumstances. Since his body was found in woodland near his home, 'being found in the woods' has come to act as a shorthand for any kind of dodgy, possibly government-involved suspicious death in Britain.

The cash-for-honours scandal further compounded Blair's notoriety in making him the first serving British Prime Minister to be questioned by the police regarding a criminal matter (as a witness, it must be stressed, not as a suspect in any criminal activity — but it nevertheless didn't help his credibility much at the time).

Rather unexpectedly, Blair turned out to be devoutly religious and converted to Roman Catholicism after leaving office. His faith, though with clear precedent in British Christian Socialism, did little to please many of critics on the largely secular left. On the other hand, advising the Pope that the Catholic Church should show more acceptance for homosexual relationships hasn't exactly won him any friends from the religious right either. Later satire of Blair often worked in the image of him as a would-be Messianic leader.

While his foreign policy legacy has been decisively overshadowed by Iraq, domestically Blair's reputation is more contested. His supporters argue him to be something along the lines of a British Lyndon Johnson, arguing that his involvement in an unpopular war overshadowed a genuinely progressive set of reforms that left Britain better. Among other things, he brought in same-sex civil partnerships, kept economic growth going for a nearly a decade and did more than any other Prime Minister to bring peace to Northern Ireland. His government saw the introduction of the Scottish and Welsh Parliaments, a minimum wage, the Freedom of Information act and Human Rights acts, noticeable improvements in education and brought the NHS back to being a first-rate health service. However, his ideas of reforming and "modernising" public services proved to be rather heavily contested, and fueled frequent accusations that he was a sellout and pointlessly hostile to Labour's traditional support base.

In keeping with the latter point, his detractors have a rather different view on Blair's domestic policies. It's argued that most of the groundwork for the treaty in Northern Ireland was in fact set up by John Major but took place at a time which allowed Blair to take the credit. Rather than strengthening commitments to social justice and equality, Blair is accused of establishing the privatization of the NHS as an official Labour policy resulting in decreased quality of care for all, heavily supporting severely decreased civil liberties to the point where Britain teetered on the edge of becoming a real-life Oceania, and massively screwing over students by increasing education fees. And the air of corruption still looms large over Blair's legacy; the cash-for-honours controversy leads to the conclusion that donating to his party would get you a permanent seat in the House of Lords, corruptly allowing anyone to buy a say on democracy regardless of background. For his detractors, all of these things (combined with Iraq and Afghanistan, of course) lead to Blair being considered one of the worst Prime Ministers in Britain's history.

To say that Blair is a controversial figure, then, is an understatement. His well-timed — some would say conveniently-timed — departure from the office in 2007, about a year before the Global Financial Crisis (which he arguably had a very prominent role in creating), meant that his legacy received a temporary shot in the arm, however, and that the brunt of the backlash for his time in office would be borne by his successor...

     "Finally, now I'm Prime Minister! ... Oh no, now I'm Prime Minister!" — Brown (2007-2010) 

Gordon Brown (2007-2010) [Labour]

After thirteen years waiting in the wings and cultivating an increasingly terrible relationship with Tony Blair, Gordon Brown became Prime Minister. However, if anything was learned from John Major and Jim Callaghan, it's that the British aren't fond of Prime Ministers who've not won an election (with one exception on this particular page, but then winning the Second World War goes a long way). Most of his early acts have been reacting to the global stage and undoing everything that had been put in place by Tony Blair. Having a reputation built on a strong economy (he was the Chancellor Of The Exchequer under Blair) isn't such a good thing when said economy starts to collapse around your ears, especially when, at the same time, you have to deal with a bitter reaction to appalling tales of MPs abusing lax rules on claiming expenses for personal gain note .

Brown's lasting legacy is an even greater British distrust of their own politicians and the political system, highly controversial levels of spending resulting in a monstrously huge budget deficit (his own Chief Secretary of the Treasury, on leaving office, left as a note to his successor saying simply "Dear Chief Secretary. There is no money left. Best of luck."). He will perhaps be most fondly remembered for his complete lack of charisma, unsettlingly forced smile and dropping the Idiot Ball by calling a Labour voter a bigot in his car while his mic was still on, shortly after having a conversation with her which to everyone else seemed to have gone fine. On the other hand, Brown's efforts in the early days of the financial crisis, particularly his organization of the emergency G20 summit, did win some praise in the international press. In any case, although the election was close, Labour couldn't scrape together enough seats to form a majority, which brings us to...

     "Call me Dave (and please stop shipping me with Clegg. Or a pig.)."' — Cameron (2010-2016) 

David Cameron (2010-2016) [Coalition (2010-2015) / Conservative (2015-2016)]

After the second hung parliament since World War II, David Cameron of the Conservatives formed a coalition government with Nick Clegg, leader of the Liberal Democrats as deputy prime minister. Gordon Brown resigned as leader of the Labour Party, recommending the Queen ask Cameron to form a government. Cameron's government quickly scrapped controversial legislation such as the fourth runway at Heathrow being built and the biometric ID card scheme. Public opinion remains divided on the coalition, with many Lib Dem voters unhappy (Opinion polls show Lib Dem support had just about halved a few months after the election). Hysterical predictions that the coalition would not last for 6 months proved unfounded. Coalition government being virtually unknown in Westminster Politics (the devolved administrations have more experience with it however), both the Tories and the Lib Dems have had to struggle with the intractable in their own parties. Some Conservatives believed that they would have been better off forming a minority government and a significant proportion of Lib Dems are unhappy with their party propping up a Conservative government. This government saw several threats to its stability, most notable the Scottish independence referendum and the rise of UKIP - a Eurosceptic party led by the charismatic Nigel Farage. The former saw all three major British parties - the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats unite to try to persuade Scotland to stay in the United Kingdom, which they did 55-45. The latter saw some Conservative MPs wanting to leave the European Union as well, and with immigration still being a hot-button issue leading up the the 2015 general election, this led to one of the more interesting elections in modern times.

Before the 2015 election, Cameron promised a referendum on the UK's membership of the EU in an attempt to attract voters from the increasingly popular UKIP and to appease naysayers in his own party. This made many voters in Scotland angry, as during the independence referendum, one of the biggest reasons given to stay part of the UK was continued membership of the EU, which wouldn't have been guaranteed if they'd left. Because of this, support for the SNP, who orchestrated the independence referendum, skyrocketed, decimating the Labour vote in Scotland, and a bacon sandwich led to many losses elsewhere. The fact that the Lib Dems supported a rise in tuition fees meant that they also lost a lot of their student support, despite it being a Tory policy. The result, a Conservative majority - just barely. The new majority government meant that the Conservatives didn't have to compromise on their plans anymore - especially as Labour and the Lib Dems leaders had both resigned and the parties were in the process of electing new ones. So naturally, everything went pear shaped. Rumours of sex acts with a dead pignote  and outrage at several new policies set the tone for Cameron's new term in the lead up to the referendum.

The most important part of Cameron's time in office is also one of the biggest events in recent UK political history, so deserves its own folder.

     "Should I stay or should I go now? - EU need me but I don't need EU" — The EU Referendum (2016) 

As Cameron had promised, a referendum was announced on the UK's membership of the EU. MPs from all parties joined groups campaigning for one side or the other. The Remainers had Cameron, Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne, Home Secretary Theresa May, who seemed to stay out of much of the campaigning, new Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, who didn't seem to enthusiastic about remaining, having been a eurosceptic for most of his career as well as the majority of other MPs. What the Brexiteers lacked in numbers, they made up for with charisma, rhetoric and a slogan on a bus. Nigel Farage, the leader of UKIP, was keen to show his hand, but many other campaigners seemed to ignore him, largely as he wasn't an MP, and despite his claims UKIP was never really that popular a Party. Other key Brexiteers included Boris Johnson, a former ally of Cameron who was expected to campaign to remain, declared rather late that he supported the leave vote. Michael Gove, a member of the cabinet was another prominent Brexiter in the cabinet and was largely seen as Boris's right-hand man. Come referendum day and the Brexit campaign had largely given up hope, saying that they wouldn't give up the fight, especially as it was expected to be close.

The next day however, it was revealed that the leave vote had narrowly won the referendum 52-48. While many were happy with this result, many people were worried about the loss of rights and other problems. Over 4 million so-called "Remoaners" signed a petition for another referendum, saying that the vote was too close to have such a change. A petition somewhat ironically started the week before the referendum by a leave voter worried that the issue would be put to rest. Ironically Farage had earlier said a 52-48% vote would be to close and be unfinished business, though changed his tune after winning.

Farage took much of the credit, and continues to claim that the people knew exactly what they were voting for, despite wildly divergent accounts, Farage said it would mean leaving the single market while the more popular Boris said during the campaign they would be able to stay in.

In the aftermath of the referendum, Cameron resigned as Prime Minister, saying that it was improper of him to lead Brexit negotiations as a Remainer, later that year resigning as an MP altogether. You would expected, then, that the Brexiteers would take this opportunity to shape the country, especially Johnson, who many expected to be the next PM. Instead, Gove unexpectedly announced his candidacy for leader of the Tories, seen by many as stabbing Johnson, who later declined to run, in the back. Due to his many people suspect Boris and Gove supported the Leave Campaign in order to become PM. Other runners included Stephen Crabb, who was quizzed on his past with an anti-LGBT advocacy group; Liam Fox, who was previously at the centre of an expenses scandal, Theresa May, a remainer, and Andrea Leadsom, a backbencher. In the final round, between Leadsom and May, Leadsom withdrew, largely due to the huge amount of backlash she'd received from the press due to her further-right-wing-than-normal views and her profession that she was more suited than May as she was a mother. This meant that the new PM was Theresa May.

Cameron's time in office will likely be remembered for his mistakes in calling for a referendum, and the Piggate scandal rather than what he actually achieved, which includes the legalisation of same-sex marriage in the UK.

     "Strong and Stable or Weak and Wobbly" — May (2016-present) 

Theresa May (2016-present) [Conservative]

Theresa May took up the mantle left by Cameron and started to prepare for the UK to leave the EU. She faced off many challenges at the start of her time in Number 10. People questioned the legitimacy of her election to Prime Minister, as she had won by default after her rival withdrew and she had not won a general election - claims she herself had levied against Brown when he was Prime Minister. She denied calls for a general election or a new referendum, saying the people had spoken and she should just get on with the job.

She delayed triggering Article 50, which starts the process to leave the EU until March 2017, after several challenges trying to delay it. In April, she then called for a general election, breaking her earlier promise that she wouldn't call one. This was possibly because Labour were having problems with a very unpopular leader, Jeremy Corbyn, whose socialist ideals weren't shared by many of his MPs, and she hoped to gain a strong majority to weaken both the very hard-line Brexiters in her own party and the few remainers left by gaining more centre-ground support. Given that some polls suggested that the Conservatives had a 20-point lead over the opposition, almost everyone expected a comfortable-to-landslide Conservative majority.

Boy, was almost everyone in for a shock.

Instead, things started to go off-script. May herself proved to be surprisingly ineffectual as a campaigner; her campaign buzzwords "strong and stable" were widely mocked, her refusal to appear to televised debates made her appear aloof, and accusations of tensions between campaign staff and May's inner circle of advisors became widely circulated. Matters were not helped by what can only be described as an utter fiasco of a manifesto (let us simply say that when one of the centrepieces of your proposed policy becomes widely known as the "dementia tax", something has probably gone badly wrong somewhere), and some brazen attempts at backtracking from said manifesto while equally brazenly trying to pretend they weren't backtracking didn't exactly live up to the "strong and stable" promise. The attempts to bring back fox-hunting did not help either. The Conservatives began to increasingly look arrogant, out of touch and as if they were taking victory for granted instead of trying to earn it (or, depending on what conspiracy theories you tend to believe, as if they were deliberately trying to lose so that the Opposition would have to deal with the difficult fallout from Brexit, allowing the Conservatives to later sweep back into power by criticising them for not getting a good enough deal for Britain). Furthermore, many people were worried about the increasingly hardline approach that the government was proposing to take regarding Brexit; in addition to the almost half of the country that had voted for "Remain" to begin with, even some "Leave" supporters were wary about such proposals as leaving the single market and the customs union entirely. Jeremy Corbyn was also proving to be a much better and more popular campaigner than he'd been given credit for (even by his own party), and his social democratic proposals and pre-New Labour policies proved quite popular with the young (who, it should also be noted, had overwhelmingly voted against Brexit as well).

And as if all that wasn't enough, the final weeks of the campaign were also marred with two terrorist attacks on British soil within a week of each other (one at a concert by Ariana Grande in Manchester, the other at London Bridge), which were themselves the second and third attacks on British soil that yearnote . This brought the issue of security into the campaign, which might have been expected to give an advantage to the sitting government... except that in addition to being Prime Minister, Theresa May had also been Home Secretary (i.e. in charge of British policing and security) since 2010, and had presided over significant cuts to the British police services. This made some question whether she and the Conservatives had in fact made Britain a safer country.

All of the above, fairly or otherwise, worked to erode the Conservative lead in the polls, leading to questions about whether the Conservatives would even win the election outright or whether the country would experience a hung parliament. While a Conservative victory was still widely predicted and assumed, and polls predicting a hung parliament dismissed as outliers, these questions had been unthinkable when the election was announced, thus demonstrating just how much the wheels had come off for the Conservatives. Finally, on June 8 2017, the country delivered its verdict, leading to...

A hung parliament.

Although gaining the most seats in the house, the Conservative Party was unable to gain a parliamentary majority. Although able to form a government due to a political deal with the ten MPs from the Democratic Unionist Partynote , May's gambit had decisively backfired, and although she insisted that she had no intention of resigning, at time of writing both her political future and the ongoing political situation in the United Kingdom continues to look uncertain.