Dead Souls is the most famous novel by Russian author Nikolai Gogol. It tells the story of the ambitious guy Pavel Ivanovich Chichikov, who had the idea for a great scam.Background explanation: In feudal Russia, the great landowners had to pay a tax according to the number of serfs ("souls") they owned. Said serfs were counted in special revisions, which happened not that often - less than once per decade, even. If during the time between two revisions some of these souls happened to die, bad luck, their owners'd still have to pay the tax as if they were alive. OTOH, they could mortgage the estate, with souls included, to the Russian state. Now Chichikov adds two and two and gets the idea: If he buys up a lot of dead souls - which the squires probably want to get rid off - and mortgages them to the state, he'll acquire a big fortune without hard work or risk. Well, that's the theory. In practice, the buying part alone becomes pretty hard due to the eccentricity of said squires.Sadly, the book isn't finished, due to Creator Breakdown. What survives is the complete first volume of what was to be a trilogy, plus the beginning and end of the second. Many people have never even read the surviving parts of the second volume.
Believing Their Own Lies: Must be the case with Nozdryov, who tells a lot of bullshit, even in court. You'll have to read it to see how much he BSs.
Big Eater: Several characters, including Chichikov. Michail Sobakevich and Peter Petrovitch Pietukh (the latter is from the second volume) are probably take the cake and eat it in one sitting.
Blatant Lies: When Tyentyetnikov inquires why the harvest was so bad, the serfs claim it was the lack of rain. But even the Wide-Eyed Idealist Tyentyetnikov can't help but notice that apparently the rain happened to fall exclusively on the fields of the serfs, but not on his ones.
But Not Too Foreign: Kostanshoglo is described being not a pure Russian, although he thinks of himself as Russian and doesn't speak foreign languages. Speculation: He may have a Turkish ancestor, since many Turkish names end in -oglu.
Crazy Bird Lady: Khlobuyev's rich old aunt, who owns hundreds of canaries. Of course, she is very rich, so this doesn't make her crazy, only eccentric. But quite eccentric.
Creator Breakdown: Originally, the book was supposed to have three parts (like Dante's Divine Comedy, standing for Inferno, Purgatory and Paradise respectively). But then Gogol went through a religious crisis, mixed with paranoid schizophrenia, destroyed the third book and also parts of the second. Until his death, he wouldn't restore them. He also stated that he felt Chichikov and other characters couldn't be redeemed.
The Ditz: Mrs Korobochka the widow, who hesitates selling her "dead souls" and even suggests that "you could still need them".
Double Entendre: Sobakevich says that he doesn't eat oysters because he knows what they look like. And by that, he means a certain part of the female anatomy. (He isn't kidding. Oysters were considered aphrodisiaka for this very reason.)
Do You Want to Haggle?: Sobakevitch initially demands one hundred roubles per dead soul. He even starts arguing what great workers his souls were when alive. Way better than anything this Plyushkin guy may sell.
Epileptic Trees: In-universe, concerning Chichikov's plans and nature. Some even think that he is Napoleon in disguise.
Extreme Omnivore: Plyushkin is so cheap, he's willing to eat moldy bread and drink alcohol in which insects have died. He even offers this food to Chichikov.
Food Porn: The descriptions of the several-courses meals the squires eat.
Foreign Cuss Word: The city people go so far to avoid saying "this glass stinks" and will instead say "this glass doesn't behave well" or so. They don't mind using stronger words in Gratuitous French, however.
Foreshadowing: In the first chapter the author mentions that Chichikov is able to talk about custom officials "as if he had been one of them". Much later we'll learn that this has indeed been the case - and that he tried a big smuggle operation, which almost would've made him a rich man.
Heel Face Turn: It was in the author's plans to redeem Chichikov (and, according to one Gogol's letter, Plyushkin too) in the third volume. Alas, it never happened.
Hypocrite: Chichikov is able to talk about virtue in such a wonderful way that it makes you cry, but isn't exactly virtuous himself.
I Have a Family: Chichikov claims this (and is lying - again), to get a lesser punishment after one of his schemes is discovered. When he tries this at the end of the book, they don't believe him anymore.
Insane Troll Logic: At one point, the narrator muses about it. Like with people who don't believe in God but are certain that they'll have to die soon when the bridge of their nose is itching.
Karma Houdini: Chichikov fakes the testament of Khlobuyev's rich aunt, is even thrown into prison, but the influential Murayov liberates him with a complicated scheme, and Chichikov can leave the town - although Murayov also told him to change his ways. A somewhat Bittersweet Ending.
Large Ham: It's just a book, but Sobakevich, Kostanshoglo, Nozdryov and the general in the second book would probably fit.
Loan Shark: One appears in Kostanshoglo's village.
Lost Him in a Card Game: Nozdryov suggests that they play cards for his dead souls. Chichikov declines, being savvy enough to know that Nozdryov cheats. Then he suggests they play checkers instead. Chichikov agrees, but things end awry since Nozdryov cheats again and gets very angry when Chichikov points this out.
Narrative Profanity Filter: Plyushkin was given a derogatory nickname for his cheapness by the nearby-living peasants. The nickname starts with 'patched' and is obviously of an unprintable nature, and the narrator tells us about how it fits Plyushkin perfectly - but doesn't reveal what it actually is.
To be precise: Chichikov is taught by his father that you can't rely on other people, not even those whom you call friends, and that little Pavel should rather rely on his money - and acquire a lot of it. (Because his father didn't.)
Stern Teacher: At Tyentyetnikov's school. Sadly, this great teacher passed away before Tyentyetnikov would do his courses, which is blamed for his incompetence in life.
Take That: One guy does this to Chichikov, since he takes the "dead souls" literally and pedantically points out that souls (in the usual sense) can't die but are immortal.
Teacher's Pet: Chichikov became this when he had a Sadist Teacher who'd give the best grades to, well, teacher's pets and bad grades to smart kids who were even a little bit unruly - or showed too much smartness.
Ungrateful Bastard: Chichikov to the aforementioned teacher. Even though those good grades and references gave him a head start in life, when the teacher is fired from school and sinks into poverty, and all those "unruly" students he'd been giving shit immediately chip in together to help him, Chichikov cannot spare but a single coin he gets rightfully thrown back into his face.