Awesome Music / Classical

There's a reason these pieces are called "classics".
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    Composers A-F 
  • Charles-Valentin Alkan, a French contemporary of Chopin and Liszt, is renowned for composing some of the most technically taxing pieces ever written for piano. Awesomeness in his works is almost inevitable. (For that matter, it's an awesome moment for any pianist who can get through the average Alkan composition.)
    • The Grande sonate "Les quatre ages" is a four-movement sonata in which each movement is half as fast as the last to depict the advancing years of the work's "protagonist". Although the opening scherzo, "20 Years", sets the bar of awesome high enough as it charges along at breakneck speed with liberal use of hemiolas until a heroic shift to the major mode for the final measures, the gigantic second movement, "30 Years: Quasi-Faust", clears that bar and then some to become the work's high point (the high point within the high point is a fugal section three-quarters of the way through which eventually overlays six countersubjects onto the subject). Even the serene third movement, "40 Years: A Happy Family", and the gloomy finale, "50 Years: Prometheus Bound", which is marked "Extremely Slow" and builds to a deliberate anti-climax in its final measure, are awesome in their way.
    • Though overshadowed by the later minor key études, the Twelve Études in the Major Keys (which place more emphasis on developing technique than their minor key counterparts) still have plenty of awesome moments for performer and listener.
      • The sunny No.1 in A major gets things off to a bright start, all big rolled chords, rising scalar figures, and clever counterpoint.
      • The playful No.4 in C major casts rapid oscillations in the right hand against a staccato melody in the left hand; the build-up to the E-flat major statement of the second theme just after the halfway point is a highlight.
      • The most popular of the major key études is the boisterous, quadruple octave-led No.5 in F major, "Allegro barbaro". Particularly awesome moments include the second episode, where the right hand must stay in the background while leaping back and forth across octaves, and the third episode based around rising and falling scalar figures leading to a final statement of the main theme in the left hand under a frenzied whirlwind in the right hand.
      • No.7 in E-flat major, "L'incendie au village voisin"note  is the most explicit piece of programme music in the set, moving from a pastoral introduction to a first chaotic, then heroic depiction of the fire and the efforts to extinguish it, and finally a triumphant hymn of thanksgiving.
      • No.9 in C-sharp major, "Contrapunctus", is, as the title suggests, an exercise in counterpoint; after a central canon revolving around double thirds, the subtlety with which the main theme of the outer sections returns in the background is especially effective.
      • And the concluding No.12 in E major, "Technique des octaves", is a real tour de force for the soloist in the highly unusual time signature of 10/16; the sinister A minor centre section with its interlaced chords across both hands is just as awesome as the double octaves in the outer sections.
    • The Twelve Études in the Minor Keys are all awesome in their way, but some of the pieces stand out as particularly so.
      • No.1 in A minor, "Comme le vent", is a four-minute (if played at Alkan's prescribed tempo of 160 bars per minute) almost literal whirlwind of brilliance.
      • Nos.4-7 collectively form the Symphony for solo piano, which comprises a sinister sonata allegro in C minor, a sombre funeral march in F minor, an angry minuet in B-flat minor, and an unstoppably furious finale in E-flat minor that has often been described as "a ride through (or into) Hell". While attempts have been made to orchestrate these pieces, they paradoxically lose something in translation; part of the genius of Alkan's piano works is his ability to get orchestral textures out of the instrument.
      • Nos.8-10 form the Concerto for solo piano (another piece that actually loses something when attempts are made to transcribe it for piano and orchestra). The epic-length opening movement (nearly half an hour in most performances and recordings) in G-sharp minor requires a soloist of titanic endurance and skill to get through, and that's just for starters; there's still the haunting slow movement in C-sharp minor and relentless polonaise-like finale in F-sharp minor waiting for performer and listener alike, but the triumphant major key coda at the very end makes it all worth it. Truly outstanding just to hear, even more so to see performed live.
      • No.12 in E minor, "Le festin d'Ésope" ("Aesop's Feast"), is the most popular of the twelve, a massive theme and variations in which many of the variations are intended to evoke images of the sort of animals used in Aesop's fables. An extraordinary piece if the pianist is up to the challenge.
      • And while not as popular as the others, No.2 in D minor ("En rhythme molossique"), No.3 in G minor ("Scherzo diabolico"), and the massive No.11 in B minor ("Overture") all have plenty of awesome moments just the same, such as the coda of No.2 that seems to be trying to muster up the energy to go out in a blaze of major key glory only for the flames (and the major mode) to die out at the last second, the frenzied runs up and down the keyboard in the outer sections of No.3, and the ever shifting emotional landscape of No.11.
    • Alkan wrote five sets of six pieces entitled Recueil de chants;note  the most famous is the concluding barcarolle from the third set, Op.65, but all of them are well worth a listen.
  • Gregorio Allegri's Miserere. When the Pope heard it, he immediately declared that it could only be performed in the Sistine Chapel, and no sheet music ever sold, on pain of excommunication, so that people would pay to hear it. They did. That's right, this song was a tourist attraction.note 
  • "Wayfarin' Stranger," an Appalachian folk hymn. When the piano kicks into high gear... just, WOW. Great choir, too.
  • It only just about counts as Classical, Emilie Autumn's instrumental song Dominant is beyond epic. If the world were ending, this would be the perfect soundtrack. Additionally "Laced" is a great album with Revelry, Tambourin and La Folia particularly beautiful.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach is considered by many to be the greatest composer of all time. You can see why below.
    • Bach is by far the most celebrated composer of organ music, and his library of organ works is packed to overflowing with awesomeness.
      • Easily his most famous organ work is the Toccata and Fugue in D Minor (shown here).note  It is used as the Warcraft 2 menu theme, and less than fifteen seconds of it, as performed on violin, is the core of this theme (typically used as "you underestimated by awesomeness" music) from Bleach.
      • His just-as-famous "Little" Fugue in G minor has been used as the final boss music for Mega Man Legends.
      • The nickname of the "Little" Fugue is used to distinguish it from the Fantasia and "Great" Fugue in G minor, a masterpiece of counterpoint with a memorable fugal subject and two countersubjects constantly rotated among the four voices.
      • Bach composed several other outstanding (if less famous) toccatas and fugues for organ; the "Dorian" Toccata and Fugue in D minor is one of the more famous pieces written in the Dorian mode,note  the Toccata and Fugue in F major features several epic pedal solos and some first-rate two-voice canons in the toccata and a fugue with two subjects, and the Toccata, Adagio, and Fugue in C major includes another spellbinding pedal solo in the toccata and a rather jaunty fugue.
      • Other incredible organ works include the Prelude and Fugue in D major (the climax of the prelude is used to accompany the assassination/christening scenes in The Godfather, while the fugue stands out for its "spinning" subject and harmonic journey far away from and then back to D major), the Prelude and "St. Anne" Fugue in E-flat major (the massive five-voice fugue's three subjects are sometimes said to represent the three parts of the Trinity, and are expertly interwoven with each other), and the Passacaglia and Fugue in C minor (the passacaglia is regarded as perhaps the best example of the form, and the melody of the ground bass making an almost seamless transition into its new role as the fugue subject is a masterstroke).
      • Bach's other organ music, including his prelude-and-fugue and toccata-and-fugue groups and his chorale preludes, are used today as the benchmark upon which all other organ music is compared. In fact, Bach improvised much of his work, including fugues; he just wrote down what he remembered later. Bach could probably have farted a four-part fugue and it would have been brilliant.
    • Along with his organ works, Bach is also revered for his harpsichord/other keyboard works. Some have suggested that these works may have contributed to the keyboard's rise from accompaniment instrument to solo instrument.
      • The Well-Tempered Clavier was the first set of substantial pieces to cover all twenty-four keys. Book I, written in the early 1720s, is the more famous of the two books. Just to give highlights, there's the famous arpeggio-based Prelude and stretto-packed Fugue in C major; the almost-as-famous furious Prelude and spiky Fugue in C minor; the shimmering Prelude and jaunty Fugue in C-sharp major, the first substantial piece ever to use that key; the three-subject, five-voice Fugue in C-sharp minor; the majestic French Overture-like Fugue in D major; the restless Prelude and inversion-laden Fugue in D minor; the prelude-and-double-fugue-in-one Prelude in E-flat major; the haunting Prelude in E-flat minor and stretto/augmentation/inversion-stuffed Fugue in D-sharp minor;note  the boisterous Prelude and inversion-loaded Fugue in G major; the haunting Prelude and four-voice stretto-boasting Fugue in G minor; the concerto-like Prelude and gavotte-like Fugue in A-flat major; the strident Prelude and highly ambitious Fugue full of double stretti and inversions in A minor; the haunting Fugue in B-flat minor that climaxes with a five-voice stretto; and the sonata-like Prelude and highly chromatic Fugue in B minor.
      • As if one Well-Tempered Clavier wasn't enough, Book II followed about twenty years after the first, and while it may not be as famous as its predecessor, it's just as rich in masterpieces of melody and counterpoint, if not more so. Highlights of this volume include the Fugue in E minor with its very long and elegant subject; the winding and twisting Prelude and gigue-like Fugue in F major; the haunting, parallel interval-led Prelude and angular Fugue in F minor; the vast three-subject Fugue in F-sharp minor; the upbeat Prelude and stately two-subject Fugue in B major; and the Invention-like Prelude coupled with a Fugue with a subject distinguished by octave hops in B minor.
      • The Art of Fugue (Die Kunst der Fuge) was one of Bach's last works. It consists of 14 fugues and 4 canons. The last fugue, Contrapunctus XIV, was never finished due to Bach's deteriorating eyesight. The Art of Fugue is considered by some to be the pinnacle of Bach's contrapuntal style. One must listen to the work to fully appreciate its awesomeness.
      • Bach's Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor (BWV 903) is perhaps his most freestyle work, almost unhindered by the forms of the time, and taking maximum advantage of the then-new system of well temperament that finally made it possible to include chromatic scales in keyboard works without half the steps of the scale sounding horrendously out of tune.
      • Bach's keyboard toccatas and fugues are incredibly varied in tone and form. Many are just as wild as the harpsichord solo from the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (see corresponding entry). Check out a compilation here.
      • Bach was also a master of the French-style dance suite. Try the six English Suitesnote  (No.2 in A minor is perhaps the most popular, especially its spiky opening Prelude), the six French Suitesnote  (the most popular by far is No.5 in G major; the Menuet from No.3 in B minor may be recognisable as Music C from the Game Boy verison of Tetris), the six Partitas for harpsichord (No.1 in B-flat major and No.2 in C minor are the most frequently performed, but the crown for awesome goes jointly to the extroverted No.4 in D major and the grandiose No.6 in E minor), and the Overture in the French Style.
      • The Italian Concerto shows that Bach was just as adept at writing in the virtuosic, extroverted Italian style as in the stately, ornamental French style, its orchestral textures conveying the sense that it is a reduction for solo keyboard of a concerto for violin and strings. From a first movement that captures the listener's attention immediately with its brash opening measures, through a solemn slow movement, and culminating in a lively finale, it is deservedly one of Bach's most popular keyboard works.
      • The "Goldberg" Variations represent one of the greatest achievements for keyboard not just by Bach, but by any composer. A set of thirty variations bookended by the Aria on which they are based and organised into ten groups of three, the third of each group of three except the last is a two-voice canon over ever widening intervals, the second of each group of three except the first and last is a fluid arabesque, and the other variations include a lively Gigue, a four-voice Fughetta, a stately French Overture, a bright Alla breve, a sombre Adagio, and a Quodlibet on two folk melodies... all without losing sight of the structure of the theme. Truly one of Bach's masterworks.
    • Bach is also known for his stringed instrument works, many of which are well-known to even people unfamiliar with the rest of his work.
      • The Brandenburg Concertos are incredible. No.2 in F major, a real tour de force for the solo trumpet, is so awesome its first movement was sent into space as the opening track on the Voyager record. The first movement of No.5 in D major, especially the end, is harpsichord on... some kind of illegal drug.
      • The four Orchestral Suites rank alongside the Brandenburg Concertos as early masterpieces for what constituted a full orchestra in Bach's day. The most famous movements are the concluding Badinerie from Suite No.2 in B minor, an incredible moment in the spotlight for any flautist up to the task, and the Air from Suite No.3 in D major, better known as "Air on the G string" and a contender for the title of "most instantly recognisable piece Bach composed".
      • Bach also wrote some outstanding concerti for one or more solo instruments, strings, and basso continuo. The violin concerti in A minor and E major and the Double Concerto in D minor all feature dazzling passages for the soloists (the slow movement of the Double Concerto is especially charming). Of the harpsichord concerti,note  No.1 in D minor is perhaps the most spectacular, though No.2 in E major is also packed with displays of awesome by the soloist. And Bach didn't limit himself to a single soloist; the Concerto for two harpsichords in C minor is well worth a listen.
      • His works for unaccompanied solo stringed instruments are just as awesome. The Suite No.1 in G major for cello opens with an immediately recognisable and justly famous Prelude. The Partita No.2 in D minor for violin ends with a titanic Chaconne which taxes the violinist's skill to its limit and has inspired several even more difficult arrangements (Ferruccio Busoni's arrangement for piano being one of the most famous). And the Partita No.3 in E major for violin features another outstanding Prelude and a charming Gavotte en Rondeau.
    • Bach's vocal works, both religious and secular, are beloved by those who know about them. Many of Bach's cantatas are of very high quality despite the fact that there are literally hundreds of them. In fact, they are considered the finest examples of the genre. His motets are no less amazing.
      • Cantata highlights include Christ lag in Todesbanden (BWV 4), Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis (BWV 21), Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott (BWV 80), Herr, gehe nicht ins Gericht mit deinem Knecht (BWV 105), Gottes Zeit ist allerbeste Zeit (BWV 106), Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott (BWV 127), Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (BWV 140)note , Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben (BWV 147)note , and Schweigt stille, plaudert nicht (BWV 211, nicknamed the "Coffee" Cantata).
      • Bach set the accounts of the Passion from all four Gospels to music,note  but only two have survived to the present day. The earlier and smaller scale of the two is the St. John Passion, which presents the story of John's account of Christ's betrayal, arrest, trial, crucifixion, death, and burial with a rich tapestry of solo arias, verses from hymns, and chorale settings with an orchestra including lute and viola da gamba, all of which lends the right amount of gravitas for one of the Gospels' gloomiest passages, which ultimately ends on a note of optimism as though anticipating the Resurrection.
      • The later of Bach's surviving Passions is the St. Matthew Passion, which ranks as one of his most celebrated choral achievements. Scored for double orchestra, double choir, and children's choir as well as featured vocal soloists, it is nearly three hours of brilliant yet heart-rending music, with such arias as the devastating "Erbarme dich" (with the solo violin's undulating line sometimes said to represent Judas' thirty pieces of silver falling to the ground) and "Aus Liebe will mein Heiland sterben", the viol solo-accompanied "Geduld! Wenn mich falsche Zungen stechen" and "Komm, süßes Kreuz",note  the almost buoyant "Ich will dir mein Herze schenken" and "Sehet, Jesus hat die Hand", and the angsty "Buß und Reu" and "Blute nur, du liebes Herz!", as well as turba passages for chorus that leap and dive around each other to represent the chatter of the disciples and the abuse of the crowd at Jesus' trial, recitatives that place a "halo" of sustained string notes around Jesus' words (except His last), and expertly harmonised chorales, all bookended by the outstanding choruses "Kommt, ihr Töchter, helft mir klagen" (featuring a cantus firmus on the hymn "O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig" from the children's choir) and "Wir setzen uns mit Tränen nieder".
      • Though long overshadowed by Handel's Christmas oratorio (the Messiah), Bach's Christmas Oratorio is every bit as stirring and glorious as the Passions are devastating.note  Not so much a single oratorio as six cantatas intended for performance between Christmas and Epiphany, it sets the tone immediately with the celebratory opening cantata, "Jauchzet, frohlocket, auf, preiset die Tage", the orchestra featuring trumpets and timpani as well as strings and winds. The gentle "Und es waren Hirten in derselben Gegend", which opens with a serenely pastoral sinfonia which is then quoted in the concluding chorale, "Wir singen dir in deinem Heer", pares the orchestra back to strings and winds only. The trumpets and timpani return for the extroverted "Herrscher des Himmels, erhöre das Lallen". The mood switches to reverent for "Fallt mit Danken, fallt mit Loben", the only cantata to feature horns. The buoyant "Ehre sei dir, Gott, gesungen" scales down the orchestra further to oboes d'amore and strings. Finally, the trumpets and timpani return to finish the oratorio with pure triumph for "Herr, wen die stolzen Feinde schnauben", which ends with a jaw-droppingly virtuosic trumpet fanfare to decorate the chorale "Nun seid ihr wohl gerochen".
      • Bach's setting of the Latin Magnificat, in both the D major and the earlier E-flat major versions, is a triumph that will make any listener's spirit rejoice.
      • By far Bach's most ambitious setting of the Latin Mass is the B minor Mass. It is a veritable parade of some of his best counterpoint (especially the opening five-voice fugue for the words "Kyrie eleison" and the duets for "Domine Deus" and "Et in unum Dominum") and virtuoso vocal solo writing (such as the soprano aria "Laudamus te" and the bass aria "Et in Spiritum Sanctum").note 
    • We'll leave you with this: When someone suggested putting nothing but Bach on the Voyager Golden Record, Carl Sagan replied, "No, that would just be showing off."note 
  • Russian composer Mily Balakirev was the "leader" of a quintet of composers known as the "Big Five" or "Mighty Handful", whose work celebrated musical traditions, especially folk dances, from all over Russia. Although he is one of the least well-known members of the group today,note  his works are still worth a listen, none more so than "Islamey", an "Oriental Fantasy" inspired by the traditional folk music of the Caucasus region. The exotic nature of its melodic and rhythmic language, derived from the Lezginka (a traditional dance of the Lezgin people in Kabardino-Balkaria) in the outer sections and a Tatar love song in the D major interlude, is matched only by the piece's brutal technical difficulty, which Balakirev admitted was beyond even his capabilities!note  Maurice Ravel was known to be a fan of the piece; he once told a friend that his goal in writing his own ferociously difficult suite Gaspard de la Nuit (see corresponding entry) was to compose something more technically demanding than "Islamey".
  • Samuel Barber's Adagio for Strings may not fit the colloquial definition of "awesome", but it is one of the most emotionally powerful works ever written, whether in its original version as the slow movement of his String Quartet in B minor, its string orchestra arrangement, or especially the "Agnus Dei" choral arrangement. When "awesome" is taken to mean "inspiring awe", it fits the Adagio for Strings perfectly.
  • Béla Bartók is sometimes named alongside the more famous "three Bs" (Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms) to complete a quartet of great composers of every era from Baroque to early 20th century - and with good reason.
    • With the possible exception of the Ravel quartet (see corresponding entry), Bartók's six string quartets are collectively regarded as the greatest 20th century quartets, and provide a compact picture of his development as a composer, particularly his lifelong fascination with Hungarian folk melodies.
      • No.1 in A minor moves without break across three movements from solemnity to life-affirming energy, hurtling full tilt toward the open fifth chords in its final measure.
      • The fast, flighty movement is in the middle of No.2 in A minor rather than at the end, making it an early example of the "arch" structure Bartók went on to use extensively in his longform compositions.note 
      • No.3 in C-sharp major is in one tightly constructed movement that expertly presents and develops its melodic ideas, and also provides an early example of another Bartók hallmark: a slow "night music" passage characterised by dissonantly ethereal accompaniments to nature-like noises and isolated melodies. Like the first quartet, No.3 gallops full speed toward a final chord that is all fourths and fifths.
      • The harmonically forward-looking No.4 in C major sees the "arch" structure more fully developed into five movements, with a slow "night music" central movement framed by two thematically linked scherzi and two thematically linked outer movements; the two scherzi, one played entirely with mutes and the other entirely pizzicato (in some passages, Bartók specifies that the strings should be plucked with enough force to strike the fingerboard as they rebound), are highlights.
      • The intensely virtuosic No.5 in B-flat major was written several years after No.4, and is another "arch" quartet in five movements with an "alla bulgarese" scherzo at its centre and two slow "night music" movements either side of it, while the first and last movements are arches within arches as they present melodic ideas and then re-visit them in reverse order (sometimes inverting them in the process). The finale ties up the quartet neatly by finding new ideas in the first movement material, and the deliberately banal "mistuned" scalar passage just before the end is a great example of Bartók's viciously satirical side.
      • And finally, No.6 in D major finds Bartók still experimenting with form; each of the four movements opens with the same melodic idea, marked "Mesto" ("Sadly"), and each time the introduction is longer and features more contrapuntal voices until, in the finale, it becomes the entire movement, bringing us back to earth with a crash after the sonata allegro, march, and burlesque of the first three movements.note 
    • Bartók's three piano concerti are among the best the first half of the twentieth century has to offer.
      • The jagged, percussive No. 1 in Enote  is perhaps the least popular of the three due to its less accessible melodic and harmonic structure, but its huge technical demands on both the soloist and the orchestra make it exhilarating to hear, and the eerie second movement (another piece of "night music") for piano, woodwinds, and percussion shows Bartók's mastery of almost melodic, rather than purely rhythmic, use of drums, cymbals, and gongs.
      • The brash, upbeat No. 2 in G major is even more technically demanding than No. 1,note  but is thus even more exhilarating to listeners (the simpler melodic language also makes it more accessible), and once again shows Bartók's skill with orchestration. The energetic first movement features just woodwinds, brass, and percussion accompanying the piano, while the "night music" second movement places two ethereal chorale-like slow passages with muted strings and timpani either side of a frantic virtuoso whirlwind that also brings in the woodwinds and brass (making the concerto another example of Bartók's "arch" works), and the third movement finally brings the entire orchestra together with the soloist for a brilliant summary of all that has gone before.
      • Perhaps the most popular of the three, the sunny, optimistic No. 3 in E major may be the least technically difficultnote , but it is also the most accessible to listeners. A lyrical first movement with numerous memorable melodies is followed by an almost hymnlike second movement marked Adagio religioso (another "night music" movement with a brilliantly fast episode at its core, making the concerto another "arch" composition), which leads without a break into a bright finale with a triumphant coda.
    • The Concerto for Orchestra is one of 20th century classical music's masterworks, in which Bartók's flair for orchestration is on full display as each section gets time in the spotlight (hence the apparently contradictory title), and his command of the "arch" structure reaches its zenith. The expansive first movement introduces themes which recur throughout the work. The second movement scherzo, subtitled "Presentation of Couples" (or sometimes "Game of Pairs"), sees the woodwind instruments pair off to play parallel melodies, with different pairs separated by different intervalsnote  and side drum accompaniment throughout. The slow, haunting third movement, subtitled "Elegy", is the apex of Bartók's "night music". The grotesquely comic fourth movement, subtitled "Intermezzo interrupted", is another shining example of Bartók's penchant for musical satirenote  and features a passage in which the timpanist must play ten different tones on just four drums in under 20 seconds. Finally, the triumphant finale brings the entire orchestra together in a whirlwind of folk melodies and counterpoint; the opening brass call is one of his more familiar melodies.
    • The Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta is another showcase for Bartók's gift for orchestration, particularly for percussion, as well as his mastery of counterpoint, with the fugal subject of the first movement providing the germ for many of the melodic and countermelodic ideas in the other three movements.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven is regularly named as one of the greatest composers of all time, and often as the greatest. The reasons why are numerous:
    • The fourth movement of Beethoven's Symphony No.9 in D minor is one of many Standard Snippets popular throughout fiction, but it is one that truly conveys majesty. Not only through fiction, after all, it is the anthem of the European Union. It speaks volumes that this song managed to be chosen as the EU anthem even after having been used as a patriotic song by the Nazis. It's that good.note 
      • It has been said of the 9th Symphony that Beethoven, in his final symphonic work, showed a desire to reach beyond the music itself and draw upon something divine. To cap this off, on the night of the Symphony's premiere, the performance received five standing ovations. What's so special about this? The Emperor of Austria received three when attending performances and it was custom for no one to outdo this. Yes, that's right, Beethoven became greater than an Emperor for his music. (And the first three movements are awesome as well - so much so that Beethoven quotes each of them briefly at the beginning of the finale.) Of particular note is the performance led by Leonard Bernstein at the Brandenburg Gate just after the opening of the Berlin Wall. He made just one slight change to the lyrics, replacing the word Freuden (Joy) with Freiheit (Freedom). (Beethoven, for all this Mad Artist tendencies, would almost certainly have cried with Freude had he been there.)
      • Ode to Joy is already mind-blowingly awesome - but it becomes even more so when sung by a chorus of ten thousand. Yes, it actually happened.
    • Several of Beethoven's other symphonies are regarded as timeless classics of the form:
      • Beethoven's personal favourite of his symphonies was No.3 in E-flat major, the Eroica. With its stirring first movement, solemn funeral march of a slow movement, lightning fast scherzo third movement, and expansive set of variations in the finale, it's not hard to see why he was proud of it.note 
      • The first movement of his Symphony No.5 in C minor has perhaps the most recognisable opening to any classical piece, ever, and the movement is full of other seemingly minor but then-revolutionary touches, such as a surprise oboe cadenza at the beginning of the recapitulation and an extended coda on new material. The other three movements also deserve mention here, not least as they continue Beethoven's experiments with form; although the third movement leading straight into the fourth and the quote of the main theme from the third movement in the middle of the finale may seem like small details, at the time no major symphony had used either device.note 
      • Symphony No.6 in F major, the Pastoral, reflects Beethoven's love of the countryside of central Europe, and is one of his most beautiful and serene works (apart from the boisterous third movement scherzo and the savage fourth movement). The last three movements - depicting a merry gathering of country folk for food, drink, and song that is interrupted by a violent thunderstorm, which gradually subsides and inspires a song of thanksgiving - are played without breaks, making it the second major symphony (after No.5) to use this device - and both symphonies premiered in the same concert in 1808 (albeit in reverse numerical order).note 
      • Symphony No.7 in A major brims with energy and vivacity from start to finish, so much so that Richard Wagner called it the apotheosis of the dance. Each of the symphony's four movements is noted for its composition highlights, some with dotted rhythms and extreme changes in dynamics (reaching fortississimo in the last movement's coda), giving the whole a ferocious, frantic and very active atmosphere. The second movement stands out remarkably, providing the very definition of "allegretto" with an insistent theme that sticks with the listener long afterward. In fact, it proved so popular that it was encored in the symphony's premiere, and sometimes performed on its own.
      • And while the remaining symphonies - No.1 in C major, No.2 in D major, No.4 in B-flat major, and No.8 in F major - may not enjoy the same popularity as the other five, they are all awesome in their own way. Highlights include the surprise I-IV cadence that opens No.1, the abrupt musical somersault that opens and recurs throughout the finale of No.2, the charming slow movement of No.4, and the coda that takes up almost half of the finale of No.8.
    • Beethoven was also a master of works for soloist and orchestra:
      • The piece known as Beethoven's Piano Concerto No.1 in C major was actually the second to be composed, and though it owes a debt of influence to some of Mozart's later concerti, there are stamps of originality all over it as well, from the rousing opening movement to the dignified Largo and the buoyant finale.
      • Beethoven's actual first piano concerto was published as Piano Concerto No.2 in B-flat major, and while it is even more overtly influenced by Haydn and Mozart, it is still packed with catchy melodies and chances for the soloist to show off a bit.
      • Piano Concerto No.3 in C minor was inspired by Mozart's Piano Concerto No.24 in the same key, and lays the foundation for the sort of tragedy-to-triumph journey found in his Symphony No.5, also in C minor. The opening measures of the finale, which smooth over the transition from the E major of the slow movement to the C minor of the (first part of the) finale, are a particularly bold move.
      • Beethoven's Piano Concerto No.4 in G major has one of most hauntingly beautiful slow movements ever, and frames it with a sweeping opening movement (which makes the then-audacious move of opening with a passage for unaccompanied piano) and a rambunctious finale.
      • The most famous of Beethoven's piano concerti, and with good reason, is No.5 in E-flat major (Emperor), which goes from a vast first movement (like No.4 before it, this concerto introduces the piano almost immediately after a single chord from the orchestra) to an absolutely gorgeous slow movement which leads - without break - straight into a brilliant finale.
      • The technically demanding yet melodically memorable Violin Concerto in D major is one of the highlights of the violinist's repertoire, packed with ingenious moments from the four soft timpani beats that open the first movement to the victorious final measures of the third movement.
      • And why stop at one featured soloist? Beethoven gave moments in the spotlight to solo piano, violin, and cello in his Triple Concerto in C major, which ranks as one of the great concerti for multiple soloists, and finds Beethoven starting to get more adventurous with form and harmonic development; it was his first composition for soloist and orchestra to go straight from the slow movement to the finale without stopping (a gesture he repeated in the violin concerto and the Emperor concerto).
    • Beethoven's symphonies are often coupled in boxed sets with his concert overtures, some of which were written as part of incidental music for plays and others of which were rotated in and out of the opening spot in his opera Fidelio, but all of which stand very well on their own.
      • The ballet The Creatures of Prometheus opens with an overture that begins with the same I-IV cadence as Beethoven's Symphony No.1, letting us know that when composing a ballet, as in any other musical form, Beethoven was not afraid to push boundaries of melody and harmony. The five minutes that follow are pure delight.
      • The stark overture to Heinrich Joseph von Collin's tragedy Coriolannote  sets the tone aptly for the serious drama that follows, with a marvellous interplay between a grim minor key theme representing Coriolan and a more tender major key theme representing his mother and her pleas that he abandon his plans to march his army against Rome; though the music shows Coriolan giving in to his mother's pleas, it is too late to turn back his army, and the minor mode prevails as the hero commits suicide.
      • The composer's only opera was originally called Leonore, and its overture went through three different versions. Though much changed between each version (especially the first and second), each version is as rousing and captivating as the overture to a comic opera should be. When Beethoven revised the opera yet again and re-titled it after its main character's male alter ego, Fidelio, he wrote a completely new overture that dispenses with the slow introduction of the three Leonore overtures and charges in at full speed - for a few measures, anyway, then it slows dramatically - for one of the master's most exhilarating theatrical works.
      • Of Beethoven's incidental music for Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's play Egmont, the most frequently performed movement is the overture - just so magnificently gorgeous and evocative, moving from minor key gloom to major key triumph just in time for the coda. It was especially powerfully used during the memorial for the Israeli athletes who were killed at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.
      • The incidental music to August von Kotzebue's play The Ruins of Athens includes several gems, such as an overture that moves from a solemn introduction to a joyful main section, a duet that is both sad and beautiful and features a harmonic-minor key, and a buoyant Turkish March that has become one of Beethoven's most familiar melodies and has been arranged for many combinations of instruments. When the play and incidental music were heavily revised as The Consecration of the House over a decade later, a new overture was composed that shows how much Beethoven could do with a single theme and still not run out of ideas.
    • Beethoven's thirty-two sonatas for piano include many timeless masterpieces in a genre Beethoven helped to re-define. Just to name a few:
      • The composer hit the ground running with his first three piano sonatas, dedicated to his teacher, Joseph Haydn (despite their creative differences). Highlights include the take-no-prisoners fury of the finale of No.1 in F minor, the string quartet-inspired texture (with imitated pizzicato cello) of the slow movement of No.2 in A major, and the ambitious opening movement, complete with a climactic "solo cadenza", of No.3 in C major.
      • No.8 in C minor (Pathetique)note  is the piece with which Beethoven first found a truly original voice as a composer, and has been indelibly carved on the public consciousness since it was first performed in 1798. It is packed with compositional approaches that may seem mundane now but were highly novel at the time, such as the stormy first movement returning to the slow introduction at the beginning of the development and the coda. The awesome continues through the Standard Snippet-led slow movement and agitated rondo finale (the main theme of which recalls a theme from the first movement).
      • No.13 in E-flat major may not be as famous as the sonata it was published alongside (the Moonlight), but it is a fine early example of Beethoven's experiments with form; though there are nominally four movements, they are played without break to create the sense of a Baroque fantasia in one movement (hence the subtitle "Quasi una fantasia"). The easy-going opening rondo (interrupted by a boisterous Allegro passage in C major) is followed by a troubled scherzo and a placid Adagio that breaks off halfway through to lead into the jubilant finale... only to re-appear just before the coda to tie the whole thing together.
      • No.14 in C-sharp minor (Moonlight) stands as one of his greatest achievements for piano, from its immediately recognisable slow opening movement to the almost non-stop storm of virtuosity in the finale. Though not quite as experimental with form as No.13, it shares with that sonata the trait of making the finale, not the opening movement, the main focal point of the work, an idea Beethoven used more frequently in later compositions (Symphony No.9 being the most famous example).
      • No.17 in D minor (Tempest) frames a beautiful slow movement with a spiky sonata allegro punctuated at key moments by a Largo arpeggio figure and a restless finale in which the two hands wind and tumble around each other in expertly written counterpoint.
      • No.21 in C major (Waldstein) is packed with virtuosic flourishes (especially in the finale) and memorable melodies. (And its awesomeness was actually deliberately dialled back slightly by Beethoven when he decided to set the original second movement aside as a separate piece, the Andante favori in F major.note )
      • No.23 in F minor (Appassionata) has perhaps single-handedly created an association between the key of F minor and dark, deeply passionate music, with an opening movement that is among the most highly emotional works Beethoven composed. It is followed by a dignified theme and variations that leads straight into a finale of such relentless energy (in which it is the recapitulation, not the exposition, that is intended to be repeated) that even the audience will be exhausted by the end.
      • No.26 in E-flat major (Les adieux)note  is a compact yet effective three-movement story of Beethoven's sorrow at the departure of his friend and patron, Archduke Rudolph of Austria, and his joy at his return, starting with a sonata allegro dominated by the descending three-note motif from its slow introduction, and continuing through a solemn slow movement and an ebullient finale, the latter two played without a break.
      • No.28 in A major may live in the shadow of the Hammerklavier, but it is still four movements of awesome, including a heavily contrapuntal sonata allegro that shies away from resolving into its home key for as long as possible, a boisterous march-like scherzo, and a slow movement that looks back to the very opening of the piece just before diving immediately into an even more elaborately contrapuntal finale that marks the beginning of Beethoven's exploration of fugues and fugato passages in his piano sonatas.
      • No.29 in B-flat major (Hammerklavier) is both the longest and the most technically difficult piece Beethoven ever wrote for piano. A real rollercoaster for both performer and listener, it features an expansive opening sonata allegro, a brilliant scherzo, a mammoth F-sharp minor Adagionote , and a concluding epic three-voice fugue that uses almost every fugal device in the book, including multiple countersubjects, augmentation, inversion, retrograde, stretto, and more.
      • His last three sonatas are the awesome icing on an already awesome cake, all defying the structural conventions of piano sonatas at the time while being packed with beautiful melodies and labyrinthine counterpoint. No.30 in E major follows an alternately fast and slow sonata allegro with a furious Prestissimo and a delightful theme and variations more than twice as long as the first two movements combined. No.31 in A-flat major opens with a conventional sonata allegro and an angry scherzo, and follows with a finale longer than the first two movements combined which alternates a slow arioso with a masterful fugue. No.32 in C minor is in just two movements, a tense sonata allegro and a longer, lyrical set of variations on a charming Arietta.
    • Though perhaps not as beloved as his piano sonatas, Beethoven's ten violin sonatas likewise include several landmark works of the form:
      • No.5 in F major (Spring), was Beethoven's first violin sonata in four movements (although the third movement scherzo is just over one minute long even with repeats), and its gentle, pastoral atmosphere looks ahead to his Sixth Symphony (with which it shares its home key). The first two movements are packed end to end with charming melodies, while the last two movements end the sonata on a more energetic note.
      • No.9 in A major (Kreutzer)note  frames a vast yet delightful theme and variations with a first movement in which an affable major key introduction gives way to a stormy, minor key sonata allegro, and a vivacious finale in which the piano and violin race alongside each other to the triumphant final measures.
    • Beethoven's first-rate contributions to chamber music started early with the six-movement Septet in E-flat major, a piece in the tradition of the Divertimenti of Haydn and Mozart that, as was so often true with Beethoven, pushed back the boundaries of what the form could do. Highlights include a charming, clarinet solo-led slow movement, a lyrical set of variations, and a horn-led scherzo. Schubert liked the work so much, he took inspiration from it for his own Octet in F major (scored for the same combination of instruments plus an extra violin).
    • Beethoven's last five string quartets are perhaps the supreme achievements of his final years. They show that his genius and his zeal for experimenting with form remained undimmed to the very end of his life; only two follow the "traditional" four-movement structure codifed by Haydn and Mozart (and used by Beethoven in his first eleven quartets), and even they do not quite go as expected.
      • Though No.12 in E-flat major follows the traditional "sonata allegro-slow-scherzo-finale" outline, the first movement is repeatedly interrupted by the tempo and melody from its slow introduction, while the theme and variations in the slow movement show what a master Beethoven was at taking a simple melody and pushing it to its limits through variation.
      • No.13 in B-flat major has an extra scherzo and an extra slow movement for a total of six. All six movements are outstanding, though at the premiere, the most enthusiastically received were the slyly humorous fourth movement Tedesca (in the coda, the main theme is scrambled so that the second four measures are played in reverse order, followed by the first four in the correct order) and the heart-rendingly beautiful fifth movement Cavatina (which was sent into space as the concluding track on the Voyager Golden Record). Which annoyed Beethoven, who was proudest of the titanic concluding Große fuge, perhaps his greatest contrapuntal masterpiece; the eight-note motif played in the introduction to the fugue proper ingeniously lays the groundwork for everything that follows.note 
      • Beethoven's love of opera is on full display in the seven-movements-in-one structure (imitative of operatic act finales) of No.14 in C-sharp minor - a solemn fugue, a short and dancelike sonata allegro, a brief recitative, an expansive theme and variations, a frenzied scherzo, another transitory recitative, and a finale that ties up the whole quartet in a neat package make for one of his masterpieces.
      • No.15 in A minor brackets its slow movement with a minuet and a march for a total of five movements. The slow movement in question, the almost impossibly serene Heiliger Dankgesang ("Holy song of thanksgiving"), is one of the most gorgeous pieces Beethoven ever composed.
      • The last quartet, No.16 in F major, was the last large-scale piece Beethoven composed, and while it is in the traditional four movements, the finale, subtitled "Der schwer gefaßte Entschluß" ("The difficult decision") and dominated by contrasting "Muß es sein? — Es muß sein" ("Must it be? — It must be") motifs, shows the master still experimenting with structure and yet still writing melodically memorable music.
  • Awesome selection from 20th century classical music is Luciano Berio's Sinfonia, particularly the 3rd movement, which consists of a movement from a Mahler symphony with all manner of musical quotations layered, as well as more literal quotations from the works of Claude Levi-Strauss and others. A particularly mind-blowing moment is near the end, when half the vocalists shout "Stop!," while the other half shout "Keep going!"
  • Although the name "the three Bs" is generally taken to mean Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms, when the phrase was originally coined in the mid-19th century (when Brahms was still a teenager) by the German composer and music critic Peter Cornelius, the "third B" was the French composer Hector Berlioz, one of the leading early Romantic composers and a master of awesome music.
    • Like many other composers on this page, he wrote a particularly awesome version of the "Dies irae" for his Requiem Mass.
    • By far Berlioz' most famous piece is the Symphonie Fantastique, one of the defining pieces of the Romantic era. It is one of the first major pieces of orchestral programme music to make significant use of a Leitmotif (or idée fixe to use the French term) in all five movements, and each movement is filled with other awesome moments, especially the last two, the weighty "March to the Scaffold" and the savage "Witches' Sabbath" (which uses the "Dies irae" theme prominently).
  • Even its fans would acknowledge that 20th century classical music is an acquired taste, but here is one 20th century piece made from purest awesome: Leonard Bernstein's 1st Movement of the Chichester Psalms.
  • Georges Bizet may have died young, but he left plenty of awesome music behind to secure his place in history.
    • His masterpiece, Carmen, is one of the most well-known operas in popular culture, and one of the most oft-performed operas in the world. Try the Big Chorus Number "Les Voici" (a.k.a. "Entry of the Toreadors") from Act IV, or the Habanera, or the Seguidilla, or the Toreador Song, which is possibly one of the most famous operatic songs for a man of all time! And there are all kinds of other gems sprinkled throughout the opera, from beginning (the famous Prelude to Act I combines instrumental versions of "Les voici" and the Toreador Song) to end.
    • "Au fond du temple saint" from The Pearl Fishers. One of the most famous duets in opera, and the best known piece from the whole opera.
    • His "L'Arlésienne" suites show that Bizet's talents extended beyond the operatic stage; the concluding Farandole from the second suite is a particular standout.
  • French composer Léon Boëllmann was a master organist whose most familiar composition is the Suite gothique. The concluding Toccata is in turn the most familiar movement from the suite, blending vicious technical demands with a haunting atmosphere that lives up to the "Gothic" moniker.
  • The Polovtsian Dances from Aleksandr Borodin's opera Prince Igor starts with a slow section that was ripped off as "Strangers in Paradise" for the 1953 Broadway musical Kismet, but then continues to a fast, bombastic, and very "O Fortuna"-ish section that has been used in a lot of movie trailers.
  • The ecstatic last episode of John Borstlap's symphonic poem Psyche.
  • Johannes Brahms was named alongside Bach and Beethoven by the German conductor Hans von Bülow as one of "the three Bs", three composers who helped to define western classical music whose names happened to begin with B. It's not hard to see why von Bülow felt Brahms was worthy to be ranked alongside Bach and Beethoven:
    • Brahms' four symphonies are all regarded as among the sublime achievements of the late Romantic symphony.
      • It took Brahms somewhere between fourteen and twenty-one years to go from the first sketches to the first performance of his Symphony No.1 in C minor. It was worth the wait; Hans von Bülow sometimes referred to the symphony as "Beethoven's Tenth", deeming it the first worthy successor to the symphonic tradition Beethoven had established half a century earlier. Indeed, part of the reason for the symphony's long gestation was because Brahms wanted to compose a symphony worthy of Beethoven, and it follows a similar "tragedy to triumph" journey to Beethoven's fifth and ninth symphonies.note  With this work, Brahms single-handedly revived the symphony as a musical work, which had previously been viewed as somewhat passe.
      • Once Brahms got the hang of writing a symphony, No.2 in D major took just a single summer to compose, and No.3 in F major followed a few years later. Both are masterfully assembled and packed end to end with gorgeous melodies; No.2, despite being the only Brahms symphony in which all four movements are in major keys, hides an inner sadness that makes it especially potent, while No.3 deftly weaves between major and minor modes throughout the first and last movements (settling into major just in time for the coda in both), and the plaintive third movement is one of Brahms' most intensely emotional pieces.
      • The final movement of Symphony No.4 in E minor is a great deal of awesome. He's got the whole powerful and tragic thing running on all four cylinders - and unlike most symphonies in minor keys (including his own C minor symphony), he doesn't shift into the major mode for the ending. The first three movements have plenty of awesome moments of their own.note 
    • Though (and perhaps because) Brahms' two piano concerti are both very demanding of the soloist, they are each fifty minutes of pure awesome.
      • The orchestral introduction to No.1 in D minor is a musical adventure all on its own, and contains the germ of almost every melodic idea in the entire piece; the drama that unfolds in the first and third movements brackets a more serene slow movement, and the whole is never less than spellbinding.
      • Paradoxically, despite being considered one of the most (and often the most) technically difficult piano concerti in the standard repertoire, No.2 in B-flat major is more low-key, and the piano plays a decidedly supporting role for large stretches, but it is packed with moments of outstanding beauty, and it takes a lot of technical acrobatics and emotional sensitivitynote  to pull off a successful performance. As with the earlier concerto, the first movement is a sweeping musical journey on its own, and includes some of the loveliest melodies Brahms ever composed; the procession of glorious music continues through the ferocious scherzo, the idyllic cello solo-led slow movement, and the jaunty (if lightweight) finale.
    • Brahms' violin concerto is one of the greatest of the late Romantic era, framing an impossibly gorgeous slow movement (led by an extended oboe solo) with an epic-length first movement and a lively, dance-like finale.
    • One of the greatest pieces of choral music ever written, Ein deutsches Requiem. As opposed to the usual Latin Requiem text, he used quotations of the Luther Bible, starting with the Gospel of Matthew: "Blessed are those that mourn, for they shall be comforted. Those that sow with tears shall reap with joy". Just beautiful enough to be a Tear Jerker all by itself.
    • Brahms is one of the 19th century's most revered composers of chamber music, writing classic examples of many different forms. When he paired the piano with string instruments, the results were almost invariably awesome.
      • Of the two cello sonatas, No.1 in E minor starts with a brooding, introspective movement that fuses an opening sonata allegro with a traditional slow movement, then moves on to a dignified minuet and trio and an angsty finale that defies any motion toward a major resolution; No.2 in F major frames an impassioned slow movement and sinister scherzo with two bright, sunny movements that provide many opportunities for the cellist and pianist to strut their stuff.
      • Brahms waited until quite late in life to try his hand at violin sonatas, and created three gems. No.1 in G major offers one of the composer's loveliest slow movements and a finale that moves from minor key anguish to major key serenity. No.2 in A major gives the pianist and violinist equal shares of the spotlight; the second movement fusion of slow movement and scherzo is a masterstroke. And No.3 in D minor continues to give plenty of shining moments to both performers; the first movement moves from torment to tranquility, but after a songlike slow movement and troubled scherzo, the stormclouds return and remain firmly in place throughout the finale.
      • And what happens when Brahms writes for piano with both cello and violin? Three awesome piano trios, that's what. No.1 in B major is one of his earliest works, and stands out for a finale that is anchored throughout in B minor, not B major. No.2 in C major transcends its small ensemble to become a work of almost symphonic grandeur, particularly in the outer movements. And while No.3 in C minor is a more compact work than its predecessor, it is no less powerful.
      • Add a viola to the violin, cello, and piano, and you get three outstanding piano quartets. The most famous is No.1 in G minor, which boasts a gypsy-inspired "alla zingarese" rondo finale. The highly Schubertian No.2 in A major is Brahms' longest chamber work, taking nearly 50 minutes to perform and packed end to end with charming melodies. And No.3 in C minor is the most concise and tightly constructed of the three; the ingenious first movement that blends sonata allegro with theme and variations is a standout.
      • But why stop at four musicians? Add a second violinist and you get the Piano Quintet in F minor, viewed by many musicologists as one of the greatest, and possibly the greatest, piano quintet ever composed. A masterclass of interplay between the piano and string quartet, full of darkly passionate melodies, and boasting highly advanced harmonic language in its outer movements, it remains one of his most enduring chamber works.
    • And Brahms was just as adept at writing for string ensembles without a piano.
      • Like the symphony, the string quartet struggled for much of the 19th century as composers wondered what could possibly be done with the form that Beethoven hadn't already done. Brahms laboured long and hard over Quartet No.1 in C minor and Quartet No.2 in A minor, but the wait was worth it; No.1 boasts almost orchestral dimensions in its outer movements and a more intimate atmosphere for the affable slow movement and haunted scherzo, while No.2 is an altogether more lyrical affair. Quartet No.3 in B-flat major is the lightest of the three, and is particularly striking for giving extended time in the spotlight to the viola in its third movement (despite being dedicated to cellist Theodor Wilhelm Engelmann; Brahms wryly suggested that Engelmann might want to change instruments!).
      • But throw in a second viola, and you get two of the greatest string quintets by any composer since Schubert. Brahms was rightly proud of Quintet No.1 in F major, which moves from a pastoral first movement to a second movement based on dance movement fragments he had composed years earlier to a finale bursting with vivacity. Quintet No.2 in G major was planned as a swan song before Brahms' retirement; the Hungarian-influenced finale would have been a brilliant final gesture for any composer.
      • And why stop at five? Add a second cello and you get two gems in the crown of the string sextet canon. Sextet No.1 in B-flat major is the more popular of the two, with thematic links across the first and last movements as they frame a solemn theme and variations and a genial scherzo and trio. Sextet No.2 in G major hits the ground running with a highly exotic introduction to its first movement, and the harmonic progressions are some of Brahms' most fascinating.
    • Brahms also contributed some masterpieces to chamber music for wind instruments.
      • The Trio in E-flat major replaces the cello in the traditional piano trio with French horn, and ranks as one of the latter instrument's greatest chamber music showcases. Along with the German Requiem, the trio is one of the pieces Brahms composed to express his grief over his mother's death; though three of its four movements end in the major mode, the shadows are never far away, especially in the second theme of the first movement, the trio of the second movement, and throughout the third movement.
      • Brahms came out of retirement as a composer after befriending the clarinetist Richard Mühlfeld, for whom he composed the Trio in A minor for clarinet, cello, and piano, the Quintet in B minor for clarinet and strings, and two sonatas in F minor and E-flat major (which were also arranged for viola and piano). Brahms was still getting the hang of writing chamber works for clarinet in the trio, but the outer movements are still gems; the quintet is a triumph from start to finish, with special mention going to the theme and variations in the finale; and the finales of the two sonatas, an ebullient rondo in the F minor and an introspective but ultimately joyful set of variations in the E-flat major, make them just as good a farewell to Brahms' chamber music career as the second string quintet was intended to be.
  • English composer Havergal Brian remained almost completely obscure until fairly late in his life; of his 32 symphonies, 21 were written after his 80th birthday, and seven after his 90th birthday. Many of his symphonies are rather ambitious in scale, but none more so than No.1 in D minor, the "Gothic", named in the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest symphony ever performed, and the one calling for the largest orchestra. Although, at an hour and fifty minutes, it can easily overwhelm the listener, and the sheer orchestral forces involvednote  mean performances and recordings are few and far between,note  it is a truly staggering work to both see and hear performed.
  • Benjamin Britten is widely considered the greatest British composer in the 20th Century, and not without cause:
    • Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra, where each instrument of the orchestra plays a variation on a theme (namely, the Rondeau from Henry Purcell's incidental music to the play Abdelazer) in turn, is not just a great introduction to orchestral music, but a great piece of music in itself.note 
    • Simple Symphony for string orchestra is based on tunes Britten wrote as a child.
    • The War Requiem combines the Requiem mass with Wilfred Owen's poems from World War I to make an extremely moving work. It was first performed at the consecration of the new Coventry Cathedral, which was built after the original fourteenth-century structure was destroyed in a World War II bombing raid.
  • Max Bruch's Violin Concerto No.1 in G minor is regularly named alongside the violin concerti of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Brahms as one of the four great German Romantic violin concerti, and it's not hard to see why; between a first movement packed with dazzling solo cadenza passages that serves as the introduction to a slow movement of astonishing beauty and a major-key finale of unbridled exuberance, it's an utter delight for musicians and audiences alike.
  • Richard Wagner sometimes named Anton Bruckner as the "third B" alongside Bach and Beethoven; while the idea never caught on, Bruckner certainly left his fair share of awesome music for future listeners.
  • David Brunner's All I Was Doing Was Breathing is seriously sexy. How? (1) According to the composer, it's written for "SSAA chorus with soprano soloist, cello, tabla, Tibetan finger cymbals, brass bowls, jangle stick, elephant bells and ankle bells". (2) The lyrics are by Mirabai, a 16th century Hindu mystic who spent her life writing passionate poetry to Krishna. (3) The last section (4:10 to the end), which builds and builds to an ecstatic climax only to drop to a solemn ending.
  • The Piano Concerto in C by Ferruccio Busoni is an absolutely monumental work in five epic-length movements, taking well over an hour to perform and taxing the soloist's skill and endurance to its very limit (even though the piano mostly provides decorative filigree over melodies introduced by the orchestra, the solo part requires fingers, hands, and arms of cast iron to perform). Busoni intended the work to encompass everything he admired about architecture and nature; as the engraving on the cover of the score illustrates, the grandeur of the odd-numbered movements pays homage to different ancient architectural styles (Greco-Roman for the opening Introito e Prologo, Egyptian for the mammoth central Pezzo serioso, and Assyrian for the concluding Cantico), while the finger-destroying frenzies of the even-numbered movements have more natural inspiration (the bird and flowers represent the multi-faceted scherzo of the Pezzo giocoso, while the cypress trees represent the wild tarantella of the All'Italiana). The moment in the finale (in which the pianist finally gets to rest for a bit after having played almost continuously since about four and a half minutes into the first movement) when the full-voiced men's choir enters with a passage from Danish playwright Adam Oehlenschläger's Aladdin and His Magic Lamp is truly heart-stopping. If you have a soloist, orchestra, and choir who are up to the challenge, it is a thing of wonder to see performed live.
  • Dietrich Buxtehude was one of the most widely admired Germannote  organists and composers of the middle Baroque era; Johann Sebastian Bach famously walked 280 miles from his home in Eisenach to see Buxtehude perform in Lübeck in 1705-06, and George Frederic Handel and Georg Philipp Telemann were also fans.
    • One of his most awesome compositions is a setting of the Gregorian chant Te Deum laudamus, which takes the melody of the first phrase and several later phrases in the chant and uses them as the basis for an elaborate contrapuntal masterpiece that builds to a spectacularly triumphant climax in its final measures.
    • Buxtehude's organ preludes were a huge influence on Bach, with their extensive use of contrapuntal devices including augmentation, diminution, and inversion to develop a melody that seems simple at first but is ripe with possibility. For example, try the Prelude in C major, BuxWV 137, which opens with a pedal solo before leading to a series of explorations of various fugal subjects and ending with an exuberant chaconne and coda.
  • John Cage is certainly a polarising composer, but his fans find plenty of awesome in his music.
    • His prepared piano music. Regardless of how you feel about his later music, these earlier pieces are texturally fascinating, melodically innovative (and hummable!) and rhythmically exciting. For example, try listening to Totem ancestor.
    • His 4'33" is definitely Awesome Music and arguably the greatest Mind Screw in music history.
  • The Prelude (Marche en Rondeau) from Marc-Antoine Charpentier's Te Deum, written near the end of the 17th century and one of the most enduring trumpet fanfares of the middle Baroque era. It is often known as "the Eurovision theme" as it was adopted as the ident of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU)/Union européenne de radio-télévision (UER) and has played at the start of every Eurovision Song Contest. Also it's used as a first part of theme music for Jeux sans frontières (Games without Frontiers or Games Without Borders), a Europe-wide television game show.
  • Frédéric Chopin is considered one of the undisputed masters of compositions for solo piano, and rightly so.
    • Though Chopin ordered the manuscript for the Fantaisie-Impromptu burned at his death, the executors of his estate fortunately defied him and had it published anyway, leaving us with one of his most blinding works.
    • Chopin's waltzes might be a bit difficult to dance to, but they include some of the most fascinating pieces he composed. The Grande valse brillante in E-flat major is an exhilarating five-minute ride away from and back to the home key. Of the three "Valses brillantes", No.1 in A-flat major is perhaps the most masterfully assembled, but the heart-rending No.2 in A minor and the wild ride of No.3 in F major are also real winners. And while the first of the Op.64 triptych is the instantly recognisable "Minute" waltz, No.2 in C-sharp minor is another classic (both waltzes are too often played far too fast; a more moderately paced rendition allows performer and listener alike to absorb the works' many subtleties).
    • The posthumous nocturne in C-sharp minor is somewhat light on the technical demands (Chopin wrote it for his sister Ludwika as a technical study to prepare her for his F minor piano concerto, from which it features several direct quotes), but it makes up for it with expressive challenges that define "heartbreakingly beautiful". It was memorably used in The Pianist as the piece Wladyslaw Szpilman plays on live radio as the first bombs of World War II fall on Warsaw, and the piece with which he opens his first broadcast after the Nazis have been driven out of the city.
    • Variations on 'Là ci darem la mano' from Mozart's Don Giovanni. The guy wrote it when he was only SEVENTEEN.
    • Chopin's two piano concerti in E minor and F minor rank among the greatest in the standard repertoire. Although the orchestra has little to do in either concerto, the pianist's technique really takes flight in both, from their emotionally expansive opening movements to their heart-rendingly beautiful slow movements to their energetic finales.
    • The two sets of 12 études, Op.10 and Op.25, stand as some of the first pieces written as technical studies which are also suitable for concert performances. Highlights include the heart-rending Op.10 No.3 in E major (sometimes called "Tristesse"), the spiky Op.10 No.5 in G-flat major (known as the "Black Key" as the right hand plays only on the black keys), the stormy Op.10 No.12 in C minor ("Revolutionary"), and the even stormier Op.25 No.11 in A minor ("Winter Wind").
    • With the four Scherzi, Chopin explored what could be done with the basic structure of a fast piece with a slow, contrasting centre section. From the bittersweet melody framed on either side by furious storms of No.1 in B minor, to the alternating clouds and sunshine of the fast sections encircling a "trio" that almost sounds like a new piece has started in No.2 in B-flat minor, to the thundering quadruple octaves, shimmering slower section, and last-second triumph of No.3 in C-sharp minor, to the by turns enigmatic, lively, solemn, and ultimately joyful No.4 in E major, they add up to forty minutes of awesome.
    • The polonaises are an integral part of Chopin's musical love letters to his native Poland (to which he was unable to return after leaving as a young man) and include some of his most spellbinding works. The boisterous No.3 in A major and the sombre and ultimately fiery No.4 in C minor were published as a pair and respectively summarise the triumph and sorrow Chopin could express in his music. No.5 in F-sharp minor is a parallel octave-led wild ride, the tempo of which doubles for a mazurka centre section. By far the most famous is No.6 in A-flat major ("Heroic"), which radiates splendour and bravado from every measure. And the epic-length Polonaise-Fantaisie shows Chopin at the height of his creative and expressive powers.
    • Chopin was not the first composer to write a set of short preludes for piano in all 24 major and minor keys,note  but his 24 Preludes, Op.28 were among the first to be intended for standalone concert performance, and have loomed large over all such sets that have been written since. Though some of them are vignettes that last between 30 and 60 seconds (such as the jittery No.1 in C major, the sparkling No.10 in C-sharp minor, the genial No.11 in B major, and the troubled No.14 in E-flat minor), while others (such as the four most famous of the set: the doleful No.4 in E minor, the gentle No.7 in A major, the reflective No.15 in D-flat major AKA the "Raindrop", and the solemn No.20 in C minor) are light on the technical demands, many are dazzling in their awesomeness. Highlights include No.5 in D major with its uneven and unpredictable melody and rhythms, No.8 in F-sharp minor with its perpetual motion right-hand whirlwind, the repeated note-driven frenzy of No.12 in G-sharp minor, the furious ride through Hell of No.16 in B-flat minor, No.19 in E-flat major with its fluid yet brutally difficult perpetual motion triplets in both hands, and the violent, storm-tossed No.24 in D minor which gallops full speed toward its emphatic final three notes (the lowest D on the keyboard, played thrice).
    • Chopin was more at home writing short-form pieces than long-form ones like sonatas and concerti, but he still left a significant mark on the piano sonata canon.
      • Sonata No.2 in B-flat minor is the source of the famous Funeral March (very often played separately from the other three movements), and while "awesome" is a curious word to use for that piece, the first movement is an exhilarating journey from fire and brimstone to celebration, and the finale (said to represent the wind blowing across the graveyard after the third movement funeral), though the shortest movement by far, is still a remarkable test of the pianist's endurance.
      • Sonata No.3 in B minor is a masterpiece of Chopin's last years; the first movement is a veritable cornucopia of melodies ranging from the fierce to the charming, the second movement scherzo frames a songlike centre section with two flighty displays of perpetual motion, the slow third movement is almost heart-stopping in its serenity, and the frenzied finale goes out in a blaze of major key glory (the only one of Chopin's three piano sonatas do so).
  • English Baroque composer Jeremiah Clarke is little known today, but has the curious distinction of having written two enduring marches which were both, for many years, attributed to the more famous Henry Purcell (see corresponding entry).
    • The Prince of Denmark March, better known by its colloquial name of "The Trumpet Voluntary". The sheer majesty of the opening fanfare has made it popular as an alternative to the Bridal March from Lohengrin as a wedding processional (it was played, for example, during the 1981 wedding of the Prince and Princess of Wales), and its transcription for organ (with optional trumpet) has an even greater sense of pomp and ceremony.
    • Just as bright and majestic is the March from The Island Princess, colloquially known as "Trumpet Tune in D". (The Island Princess was a collaboration between Clarke and Henry Purcell's younger brother Daniel, which may have led to the misattribution.) It sounds especially powerful when arranged for pipe organ.
  • Technically, it's Classical and something else, but Classical Crossover and Classical Fusion definitely deserve mention. Just start with "Explosive" from Bond and go from there.
  • Aaron Copland is one of the most highly regarded American composers of the 20th century, and there are plenty of reasons why.
    • In his Symphony No.3, the introduction of the main theme in the fourth movement. It's audibly a variation on the themes of the prior three movements - except it is also Copland's famous "Fanfare for the Common Man". It's like an Overly Preprepared Gag, except instead of a joke it has pure musical triumph. (ELP's rendition of "Fanfare for the Common Man" is pretty awesome too.)
    • A Copland medley with "Fanfare for the Common Man" and "Simple Gifts" has been a staple of the WVU marching band for a long time now.
    • Copland's Rodeo - especially the Hoedown - is often cited as uplifting souls and generating tears.
  • "La Folia" by Arcangelo Corelli. There's also an orchestral version, "Concerto Grosso La Follia" by Geminiani.
  • François Couperin is perhaps the most well-known French Baroque composer, and with good reason; his solo keyboard and chamber works are positively overflowing with inventive and beautiful pieces.
    • "Les barricades mystérieuses" from the 6th keyboard "ordre" in B-flat is one of Couperin's most fascinating compositions, an ingeniously constructed rondeau of ever-shifting melodic and harmonic textures, with a title that has been a source of speculation since its composition. It has inspired arrangements and/or original compositions in genres including jazz, rock, and electronic music.
    • Perhaps his most spectacular keyboard work is "Le Tic-Toc-Choc" from the 18th "ordre" in F, in which the performer's hands are intended to play on two different manuals as they are in the same range for most of the piece. However, when played on a piano with just one keyboard and the hands almost on top of each other, it becomes even more amazing to see and hear.
  • Henry Cowell's Three Irish Legends Suite. While modern pieces that rely heavily on dissonant clusters for their effects, they're ALL amazing pieces of work.
  • Claude Debussy's more well-known works are more beautiful than awesome, but he wrote plenty of works in the latter category as well.
    • Clair de lune from the Suite bergamasque is one of the most recognizable classical pieces of all time (here is an especially charming arrangement for violin and piano). The other movements from the suite - the flamboyant Prelude, the skittish Menuet, and the flighty Passepied - may be less familiar but are still well worth a listen.
    • La Mer, a suite of three orchestral sketches, is one of Debussy's most captivating works for orchestra. The tense third sketch, "Dialogue du vent et de la mer" ("Dialogue of the wind and the sea"), is a highlight.
    • Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun is perhaps Debussy's most familiar orchestral composition, reeling the listener in from the enigmatic opening flute solo through to the serene conclusion.
    • L'isle Joyeuse is a delightful musical portrait from beginning to end.
    • Pour le piano frames a haunting Sarabande with a tense Prelude rich in parallel fifths and block chords and a Toccata of seemingly boundless energy and exhilaration.
    • Though Debussy may have resented being labelled an Impressionist composer, his two sets of Images for solo piano paint extremely vivid, if slightly abstract, musical portraits in the same vein as the works of Manet, Monet, and co. The crown for awesome goes to Mouvement, the third "image" in the first suite, a harmonically adventurous musical depiction of incessant motion.
  • Gaetano Donizetti has proven one of the more enduring operatic composers of the early Romantic era:
    • Lucia's Mad Scene from Lucia di Lammermoor is a glorious moment in the spotlight for any singer playing the title character.
    • "Una furtiva lagrima" from L'Elisir d'amore. One of the most famous tenor arias.
  • Guillaume Dufay was one of the most highly regarded composers of the early Renaissance, codifying many practices of polyphonic writing for the next few centuries. One of his finest works is the motet "Nuper rosarum flores", written in honour of the consecration of Florence Cathedral in 1436 by Pope Eugene IV. Such an extraordinary building needs an extraordinary piece of music to celebrate it, and Dufay delivers; across four stanzas, Dufay weaves two-voice counterpoint in the countertenor and tenor voices through 14 measures, then follows this with 14 measures in which the counterpoint lies over a two-voice canon on the Gregorian chant "Terribilis est locus iste" ("Aweful is this place"),note  said to be inspired by the two layers of Filippo Brunelleschi's celebrated dome for the cathedral. Moreover, the four stanzas, though all 28 measures long, feature different numbers of beats per measure; the first has 6, the second 4, the third 2, and the fourth 3, claimed to be an homage to the cathedral's dimensions.note  All building up to a final radiant "Amen" as the major/minor ambiguity that pervades throughout finally resolves into major.
  • Paul Dukas was so intensely self-critical that he would never agree with someone who described any of his music as awesome (or even worth preserving, to the point that we're lucky any of his music survived his personal purges); his audiences have always been willing to agree to disagree with him.
    • By far Dukas' most well-known and beloved composition is his musical interpretation of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's poem L'apprenti sorcier ("The Sorcerer's Apprentice"), a piece that was a hit with audiences even before being immortalised forty years later in the third segment of Disney's Fantasia with Mickey Mouse in the title role. From the haunting opening measures, to the immediately hummable theme as the apprentice brings the broom to life, to the orchestral frenzy as he is then forced to splinter the broom with an axe - only to create hundreds of brooms that cause the music's energy to build even higher, to the outburst of the final measures, it sticks in the memory even without the animated accompaniment.
    • The Piano Sonata in E-flat minor is a 45-minute musical epic, from its expansive opening movement to its ultimately triumphant final measures. The third movement, a wild ride of a scherzo with a contrasting slow trio section, is a particular highlight.
  • Antonín Dvořàk picked up the Czech nationalism trend established by Bedrich Smetana (see corresponding entry) and carried it to new levels of awesome.
    • His Symphony No. 9 (From the New World). All four movements are concentrated awesome. John Williams is a big fan of this work; the third movement Molto vivace was helpful in writing the score to Star Wars, while the concluding Allegro con fuoco was blatantly plagiarised into the Jaws theme, but is ten times more awesome. The latter also takes up the final half of episode 126 of One Piece (where Luffy finally defeats Sir Crocodile), and was remixed into one of Rhapsody of Fire's most epic songs, Wizard's Last Rhymes.
    • Dvořák's most proudly Czech nationalist compositions are the two sets of Slavonic Dances, Op.46 and Op.72, all of which are based on rhythms from traditional Slavic dances but feature melodies entirely Dvořák's own. Highlights from Op.46 include No.1 in C major and No.8 in G minor, adrenaline-charged furiants that will leave any listener gasping for breath; No.2 in E minor, a solemn dumka, and No.3 in A-flat major, a boisterous polka. Meanwhile, Op.72 includes such delights as No.1 in B major, an almost deliriously happy odzemek; No.2 in E minor, a heartfelt starodávný ("ancient one"); No.3 in F major, an extroverted skočná; and No.7 in C major, a rambunctious kolo.
    • Dvořák also composed many works inspired by Slavic folklore, such as the opera Rusalka, the story of the doomed love between a female water sprite and a human prince (the "Song to the Moon" from Act I is a particular highlight), and The Water-Goblin, an elaborately-constructed musical version of a folk poem telling the story of the similarly doomed attraction between the title demon (who is also the father of the title character in Rusalka) and a human girl who strays too near the lake in which he lives.
    • The Cello Concerto in B minor. The whole thing, especially the first movement, is an awesome moment for concertos in general.
  • Edward Elgar is perhaps England's most popular composer, and has plenty of awesome music to back up that title.
    • The theme from the Enigma Variations forms the basis of "Clubbed to Death" as featured in The Matrix.note  Nimrod, a movement from the Variations, is achingly beautiful and has been used in many moving moments in film and TV, as well as being played by British military bands at services on Remembrance Day.
    • Elgar's Cello Concerto also forms a solid block of awesomeness, but particularly the first movement as played by Jacqueline du Pre: a quiet beginning, rising to incredible heights, and back down again.
    • The Violin Concerto may be overshadowed by the Cello Concerto, but it is still 55 minutes of awesome. All three movements are positively overflowing with melodic goodness, and the violinist's extended time in the spotlight in the second half of the finale is an awesome moment for any soloist up to the challenge.
    • Elgar's First Symphony also deserves a mention. Its opening is superb. It begins with muted timpani, and then branches into a glorious, stately theme, played pianissimo at first, but it starts increasing in volume, and then it gets taken up by the full orchestra, played fortissimo. The effect is glorious.
    • Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance Marches rank as some of the most stirring music ever composed by an Englishman. No.1 in D major is by far the most famous, having become a staple of graduation ceremonies across the pond (a tradition which began when Yale University presented Elgar with an honorary doctorate in 1905), a fixture of the Last Night of the Proms (in its vocal arrangement as "Land of Hope and Glory"), and a regular chorus in the stands at sporting events in Elgar's homeland. Almost as awesome is No.4 in G major, which, like No.1, alternates an uptempo march with a hymn-like melody that swells with majesty when it returns near the end.
  • Though French composer Gabriel Fauré has long been overshadowed by two of the next generation of French composers, Debussy and Ravel, he wrote many pieces of outstandingly beautiful music that are well worth hearing.
    • Fauré started early. When he was nineteen and still in college, he received a homework assignment to write a song for SATB choir and piano or organ. The resulting song, "Cantique de Jean Racine", is probably the only homework assignment to have its own Wikipedia article. It is sweet, deceptively simple, and beautiful beyond words—even the volunteer children's choir they have singing the song on The Other Wiki can't much ruin it.
    • Fauré's Requiem deliberately departs from the usual trend for Requiem masses by sticking the "Dies Irae" passage in ridiculously awesome fashion in the 6th movement "Libera Me" instead of devoting an entire fire-and-brimstone movement to it. Both this and the 7th movement, "In Paradisum", were used to poignant effect in the final episode of British Detective Series Inspector Morse. In performances and recordings, the Requiem is frequently paired with the "Cantique de Jean Racine" to create a programme of some of the loveliest sacred music ever composed.
  • César Franck's Le Chasseur Maudit, which tells how the titular "accursed hunter" is punished by God for hunting on the Sabbath. There are four sections, all of them epic. The hunter ignores the church bells and heads to the forest (section 1, a noble slow introduction). He relentlessly pursues his prey (section 2, containing the main "chase" theme). He reaches the heart of the forest (section 3, a slow interlude superficially reminiscent of section 1 but much more mysterious). Something stirs in the trees (a creepy transition that ends with a terrifying blast from the horns), and suddenly the hunter is himself being chased (section 4, which cleverly repeats the "chase" theme from section 2 but much faster and with creepier instrumentation). The hunter hears church bells as fate closes in on him. Basically, it's awesome.

    Composers G-N 
  • Niels W. Gade was a Danish contemporary and friend of Mendelssohn, who is not nearly as well known outside Denmark,note  but wrote some awesome music just the same.
  • Traditional Georgian Music. For example, the wedding song Lechkhmuri Makruli.
  • George Gershwin wrote in a variety of styles; relevant to this page, he is widely regarded as one of the first American composers to leave a significant mark on classical music.
    • "Rhapsody in Blue". From the first clarinet trill to the last soaring chords... It never quite leaves you alone.
    • His Concerto in F is easily the most popular piano concerto by an American composer, deftly blending classical, blues, ragtime, and jazz styles and featuring a spellbinding repeated note-dominated finale that builds to a triumphant concluding statement of the main theme from the first movement.
    • The tone poem "An American in Paris" is another skilled fusion of diverse genres, punctuated by the din of car horns familiar to anyone who has visited the French capital, and featuring blues interludes as the title character has a moment of homesickness.
  • Reinhold Gliere is a Russian/Soviet composer whose works are relatively unknown to the West, which is a pity, as there is a lot to like about his music.
  • Polish-American composer Leopold Godowsky, though he wrote some phenomenally difficult original music, is perhaps best known for taking 26 of Chopin's 27 étudesnote  (see corresponding entry) and cranking their technical demands Up to Eleven and beyond in a set of 54 studiesnote  which tax almost any pianist's skill to its absolute limit, and any performance of them in appropriately skilled hands is undiluted awesome. While many of the studies "simply" involve re-scoring the Chopin études for left hand alone or reversing the melodic and harmonic roles of the right and left hands, some studies go further:
  • From Charles Gounod's opera Faust, there is the Soldiers' Chorus, which is basically War Is Glorious in musical form. From the same opera, the Church Scene (where Mephistopheles finally reveals his true identity to Marguerite) is terrifying when done well, while the final trio and chorus ("CHRIST EST RESUSITE!"), backed by pipe organ and brass fanfares, is absolutely majestic.
  • Edvard Grieg has more than earned his place as Norway's greatest ever composer.
    • In the Hall of the Mountain King. After the inexorable buildup, when the music finally swells and crashes, you can almost feel every cymbal crashing in your face. For a slightly different taste - but no less awesome by any means - the cover by the band Apocalyptica deserves a standing ovation every time.
    • Grieg's Piano Concerto in A minor is perhaps one of the most familiar concerti ever written, filled with Grieg's hallmark memorable melodies (the second movement is especially lovely). Rachmaninoff liked this piece so much he based his own first piano concerto on it (see corresponding entry).
  • Norwegian composer Eivind Groven's awesome works begin with his piano concerto.
  • Canadian pianist-composer Marc-André Hamelin, one of the foremost interpreters of Leopold Godowsky's Studies After Chopin (see corresponding entry), decided to answer the question of how Godowsky's planned but unwritten study combining Chopin's three A minor études might have sounded by writing such an etude himself. Rather than following the structure of one etude and working the other two into it,note  Hamelin shifts back and forth between the overall structures of the three études so that each dominates at different times while the other two follow in its path,note  and the results are pure awesome from start to finish.
  • George Frederic Handel was born in the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach, and wrote music that is every bit as awesome.
    • Handel's name is synonymous with the oratorio, the concert performance sibling of the opera, the text for which can be either religious or secular.
    • The Water Music is one of the most memorable compositions Handel wrote in his capacity as composer by royal appointment to Elector George of Hannover after he was crowned King George I of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714; it was originally composed for a boating party on the River Thames in 1717. By far the most famous movement is the merry "Alla hornpipe" from the suite for trumpets in D major (a seldom-performed version also appears in the suite for horns in F major), but there are plenty of other highlights, from dignified minuets in all three suites, to the graceful Air from the F major suite, to the lyrical Country Dance in the G major suite. King George liked the piece so much, he asked for it to be repeated in its entirety at least three times on its first performance.
    • When George I died, his son and successor brought out some of the best in Handel.
      • Zadok the Priest doubles as Awesome Music of Crowning - it was written for the coronation of King George II of Great Britain, Ireland, and Hannover in 1727, and has been played at every coronation of a British monarch since.note  Particularly spellbinding moments include the extended orchestral opening built almost entirely of repeated ascending arpeggii over block chords that practically explodes with jubilation as the choir bellows the opening words, "Zadok! The priest! And Nathan! The prophet! Annointed! Solomon! King!" and the prominent use of melisma in both the choir and the orchestra in the "Amen, alleluia" sections of the concluding "God save the King!" segment; the two appearances of the bass voice melisma are the longest and most awesome of the bunch.
      • Te Deum for the Victory of Dettingen, written to commemorate King George II's victory over the French in 1743note , is an underrated piece of brilliance.
      • And when the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed in 1748, ending the War of Austrian Succession in which George II had fought the French at Dettingen, the treaty was celebrated with a fireworks display, accompanied by the Music for the Royal Fireworks, which ranks just behind the Water Music among Handel's orchestral works. Featuring an enlarged orchestra with horns, trumpets, and drums, it is every bit as stirring and jubilant as the occasion demanded.
  • Joseph Haydn stands alongside Mozart and Beethoven as one of the three greatest composers of the Classical era, and left plenty of awesome music to cement his reputation.
    • The Creation. The oratorio begins with a musical representation of chaos, followed by a bass recitative, and then the choir singing, pianissimo: "Und Gott spracht: Es werde Licht" (And God said: Let there be light), "und es ward" — and then a sudden fortissimo — "LICHT!" Words can't describe it properly — listen to it here.
    • There are also Haydn's masses, including his Creation Mass, which is very unusual, in that is contains probably the sweetest rendition of the Agnus Dei you will ever hear. Apparently, Haydn wanted to make the Lyrical Dissonance trope Older Than Steam.
    • Haydn is often referred to as the "Father of the Symphony", having written over a hundred (the precise number is debated) to elevate the symphony to one of the most important musical forms of the next two centuries. Awesomeness isn't hard to find in the full collection.
      • The triptych of No.6 in D major (Le matin), No.7 in C major (Le midi), and No.8 in G major (Le soir) all show Haydn's mastery of writing for every section of the orchestra within the same piece, blending the "concerto grosso" form with the emerging form of the symphony by featuring solos for each of the major string and wind instruments. Particularly noteworthy are the trios from the symphonies' third movement minuets, all three of which give a rare moment in the spotlight to a solo double bass.note 
      • No.22 in E-flat major (Philosopher) stands out for a woodwind section solely comprising two English horns instead of the usual oboes, their dialogue with the two French horns (particularly in the first movement, which is anchored by a genial walking bassline) creating a texture unique among Classical-era symphonies.note 
      • No.26 in D minor (Lamentatione) is believed to have been written for Easter Week in 1768 or 1769, and cleverly uses the melody from a Gregorian chant about the Passion in both the first and second movements.
      • By far the most famous movement of No.45 in F-sharp minor (Farewell)note  is the last, in which the sections of the orchestra fall silent one by one (in the original performance - and most performances since - they more than fell silent, they left the stage to drop an unsubtle hint to their employer, Prince Esterházy, that they needed a holiday!) until only two violinists are left. But the three and a half movements that precede the exodus that gives the symphony its name are fine examples of Haydn's "Sturm und Drang" period, especially the angry first movement and the first half of the finale.
      • Although No.46 in B majornote  is not often performed or recorded, it stands out for a moment in the finale in which the music screeches to a stop and then picks up the theme from the third movement minuet before doubling back to the finale's main theme. Such an interruption was almost unprecedented, but against all reason, it works.note 
      • Haydn's sense of humour pervades many of his compositions, and a fine example of this shows up in the third movement of No.47 in G major (Palindrome) - as its nickname suggests, the second half of both the minuet and the trio is simply the first half played in reverse! It takes a composer of Haydn's expertise to make a device like this work, and rise above mere novelty.
      • Symphonies 82-87 are nicknamed the "Paris" symphonies, as Haydn was staying in the French capital when he composed them. The cream of the crop includes No.82 in C major (The Bear), with a finale distinguished by an imitation bagpipe drone; No.83 in G minor (The Hen), the dotted rhythms in the first movement of which reminded contemporary listeners of the uneven gait of a hen; and the dignified No.85 in B-flat major (The Queen), a personal favourite of then-Queen Marie Antoinette.
      • No.88 in G major is perhaps Haydn's most popular symphony never to have gained a nickname, featuring a first movement that keeps finding new things to do with just one theme, a slow movement that features trumpets and timpani (ordinarily very unusual instruments for Classical-era slow movements), a minuet with surprising yet effective use of parallel fifths (intervals usually avoided by Haydn's contemporaries), and a perpetual motion rondo packed to overflowing with joy and merriment.
      • No.94 in G major (Surprise) is unquestionably Haydn's most famous symphony, mostly because of the sudden BANG! about 30 seconds into the theme and variations in the second movement, specifically calculated to shock contemporary audiences (Haydn denied he wanted to wake them up; he just wanted to give them something they'd never heard before). But the first movement is even more ingeniously constructed on a harmonic level, and the last two movements round things off with a joyful flourish; the timpani used for surprise value in the slow movement really shine in the finale.
      • No.96 in D major (Miracle) is somewhat overshadowed by the anecdote that the audience at its premiere had rushed the stage to applaud the end of the finale, and so managed to get out of the way of a chandelier that fell onto the seats they had occupied seconds earlier (this event actually happened at the premiere of No.102 in B-flat major). A shame, as the symphony itself is a fine example of Haydn's increasingly adventurous exploration of melodic and harmonic development within a traditional four-movement symphony.
      • By the time Haydn composed No.100 in G major (Military), orchestras were starting to include such "Turkish" percussion instruments as cymbals and triangles, which Haydn uses in the second movement (which also features imitation bugle calls in the trumpets and a drumroll in the timpani, giving the symphony its nickname) and the finale to memorable effect.
      • No.101 in D major (Clock) is another fine example of Haydn's musical sense of humour, with a second movement featuring pizzicato strings imitating a ticking clock and a third movement minuet that is very long by Classical-era standards and includes a trio section wryly imitating an unskilled village band.
      • No.103 in E-flat major (Drumroll) gets its nickname from the extended timpani roll that opens the first movement, a device never before used to open a Classical-era symphony. The second movement is also a fine example of Haydn's "double variations" musical form, which alternates between presenting variations on two different themes (often in contrasting keys, as in this case).
      • No.104 in D major is known as the London, a nickname also applied collectively to Nos.93-104, as Haydn was visiting the English capital city when he composed them. The final symphony of the dozen is one of the most popular, and with good reason; from the stark, minor key introduction followed by a buoyant sonata allegro in the first movement, to an ever modulating second movement, to a stately minuet and trio in the third movement, and finally to a fourth movement as vivacious as any finale the master ever composed, it is a work of art from start to finish.
    • As if being regarded as the father of the symphony isn't enough, Haydn is also often viewed as the father of the string quartet, another musical form he elevated to such great heights that almost every major composer for a century and a half after his death composed at least one string quartet. Just to give a sample, there's the wryly humorous Op.33 No.2 in E-flat major (Joke) with a finale that features multiple false endings, the buoyant Op.64 No.5 in D major (Lark) with its imitation birdsong in the first movement, and Op.76 No.3 in C major (Emperor), the second movement of which has been immortalised as "Das Deutschlandlied", Germany's national anthem.
    • Haydn revolutionised the piano sonata as well as the symphony and the string quartet,note  and perhaps the finest examples of his skill with the form can be found in the last three sonatas in C major, D major (striking despite its brevity), and E-flat major, the last particularly noteworthy for being by far the longest and most harmonically adventurous of Haydn's piano sonatas, with a first movement that moves surprisingly far away from its home key during the development, a tranquil slow movement in the very contrasting key of E major (interrupted by a minor key centre section), and an effervescent finale.
  • Michael Haydn has never enjoyed the same reputation as his older brother Joseph, but his Requiem Mass is well worth a listen. Mozart liked it so much, he took inspiration from it when writing his own Requiem Mass.
  • Samuel R. Hazo's Ride is an energetic piece with an epic alto sax solo at 1:04. Sevens, the piece that starts out alternating between 11/16 and 7/16 time and in the key of G-flat. Arabesque, starting out with three epic flute solos and then getting much more epic as it goes on. Finally, Fantasy on a Japanese Folk Song, a beautiful piece.
  • Hildegard of Bingen's "O Ecclesia" and "Alleluia, O Virga Mediatrix" are two of the most beautiful Gregorian chants ever written.
  • Gustav Holst is one of the more popular British composers of the 20th century, and with good reason.
    • By far Holst's most familiar work is The Planets, a suite of seven pieces dedicated to each of the seven planets besides Earthnote , many of them outstanding classics.
      • The opening "Mars, the Bringer of War" was a major inspiration behind much of the Star Wars soundtrack. This is the music we will play when we go to war against the stars. (Or, if you're #21 and #24, something to make you feel all badass.)
      • "Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity" is the suite's most famous movement; some would say that the string solo practically qualifies as a Heartwarming Moment. Holst recomposed that part to create "I Vow To Thee My Country", one of England's many unofficial anthems. At the time he was assigned to set the words to music, he was overworked to the limit and relieved beyond belief to discover that they fit this part of Jupiter.
      • "Uranus, the Magician". Starts out bombastic, gets quiet, then epic, then quiet again, then finally revs up to Fucking MEGA EPIC for the finale.
      • "Neptune the Mystic". Pure mystery, with a gorgeous Ethereal Choir. It's also the first piece in music to be written with an intentional fadeout ending, even in a live performance setting. Holst nailed it. (Holst specified that the chorus is to be placed in an offstage room, and at the end, while the chorus is repeating the last bar over and over, the door to the room is to be closed slowly...)
    • Holst's symphonic tone poem Egdon Heath, written to evoke the setting of Thomas Hardy's The Return of the Native, is both harmonically and emotionally mysterious. Holst actually considered it his best work, but it never became popular.
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel studied under Mozart as a boy and later under Haydn, but as a composer he is largely overshadowed by his teachers and by his contemporaries and friends Beethoven and Schubert. Which is a shame, as his music is well worth a listen.
    • By far Hummel's most famous work is his Trumpet Concerto in E majornote , one of the most frequently performed and recorded trumpet concerti. The second movement's journey from a solemn A minor to a triumphant A major and the buoyant finale which follows it without a break are especially delightful.
    • Among Hummel's five piano concerti, the most frequently performed and recorded, with good reason, are No.2 in A minor and No.3 in B minor. Highlights include the Larghetto from the A minor concerto (which leads straight into the stark finale) and the timpani figure which opens the B minor concerto in a similar gesture to Beethoven's violin concerto. Chopin was known to be a fan of both works, and they influenced his own piano concerti (see corresponding entry).
    • Hummel wrote at least nine piano sonatas, the most awesome of which is No.5 in F-sharp minor (its early fans included Robert Schumann). The lively finale, in which the minor mode persists to the very end, is particularly exhilarating to hear and play.
  • Leoš Janáček's String Quartet No. 2, called "Intimate Letters" by the composer. He wrote it for Kamila Stösslová, a married woman 40 years his junior who may have never loved him back. The third movement has been interpreted as a lullaby for the son she never bore him.
  • Aram Khachaturian stands with Sergei Prokofiev and Dmitri Shostakovich as one of the three titans of Soviet music. There are plenty of reasons why:
    • The Sabre Dance from Gayane is one of the most instantly recognisable tracks in all of classical music. Or, boosting the awesome quotient, Vanessa Mae's remix. And to further up the awesome quotient, there's dancers too.
    • Listen to his "Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia" (known to fans of vintage British television as the theme to The Onedin Line). Then dry your eyes.
    • Also the violin concerto.
  • "По́люшко-по́ле" (Polyushko-polye, or Song of the Plains) by Lev Knipper, with lyrics by Viktor Gusev. As stirring as Soviet patriotic songs get.
  • Zoltán Kodály's Vainamoinen makes music for women's choir and piano. The choir gets memorable melodies, playful counterpoint, and tricky rhythms. The piano part is beautiful, epic, and fun to play (which can't be said for a lot of choral literature). To elaborate, the piano isn't doubling the melody (which would be boring), but playing either huge rolled chords that span most of the instrument, jumpy staccato figures, or really fast trills. The huge chords are the most fun, though, so Kodály wisely puts them in the introduction and the dramatic ending.
  • Korobeiniki, aka the Tetris theme. Older Than They Think. Most Westerners have only heard it in MIDI format on their Game Boys, but with full orchestra... AWESOME. It also gets an outstanding remix for the Super Smash Bros. Brawl soundtrack.
  • "Elves' Hill" by Friedrich Kuhlau was written in 1828 to celebrate a wedding in the Danish Royal Family, and the Ouverture has everything needed for such an occasion: tender, lyric folk-songy themes alternate with rousing brass and percussion chords, and the whole thing leads up to a finale where the manliness of the already manly royal anthem "King Christian" is taken Up to Eleven.
  • "Vesti la giubba" from Pagliacci by Ruggero Leoncavallo is one of the most recognisable tenor arias ever composed, and was used to great effect in The Untouchables. Enrico Caruso, widely regarded as the greatest tenor of the first half of the 20th century, made it a staple of his repertoire, the emotion of a man who has just discovered his wife loves another and now has to put on a literal clown's face to perform a Commedia dell'Arte version of that very scenario coming through in every note.
  • Franz Liszt is widely regarded as one of the greatest piano virtuosi of all time, even to this day. As he also composed extensively (and arranged many other composers' works for piano) with an eye to showcasing his skill at the piano, awesomeness in his compositions is a natural result. The only tragedy is that Liszt himself retired from performing before the advent of recorded music, so we have only contemporary accounts to tell us how these colossi of the piano's repertoire sounded in the hands of the man who wrote them to perform himself.
    • The cornerstone of Liszt's output is the set of nineteen Hungarian Rhapsodies, in which he gave free rein to his lifelong fascination with the music of Romany gypsies. By far the most famous is No.2 in C-sharp minor/F-sharp major, the lively Friska section that forms the second half being a Standard Snippet popular with American animation studios (particularly for cartoons of recitals going awry, such as The Cat Concerto from MGM, Rabbit Rhapsody from Warner Bros., and Who Framed Roger Rabbit). Other highlights include No.6 in D-flat major/B-flat major with its synthesis of four disparate ideas (which were originally written as four separate pieces in the set of twenty-two Magyar dalok and Magyar rapszódiáknote , which include early versions of Hungarian Rhapsodies Nos.3-15) and its thundering quadruple octave coda, No.9 in E-flat major ("Carnival in Pest"), in which Liszt's flair for theme-and-variation development is in full flow, and No.11 in A minor/F-sharp major, in which Liszt, by cannily moving between relative and parallel minors and majors, ends up on entirely the opposite side of the circle of fifths from where he began.
    • Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody No.15 in A minor, the "Rakoczy March", is a technically demanding piece even by Liszt's usual standards. In the hands of Russian virtuoso Vladimir Horowitz, however, it becomes almost an entirely new piece... and reaches entirely new levels of awesome in the process.
    • Liebestraum No.3 in A-flat major is one of Liszt's most emotionally powerful works for piano, and another Standard Snippet.
    • The Transcendental Études are twelve packets of concentrated awesome in musical form.
      • The vivacious No.1 in C major ("Preludio"), though only 50-60 seconds long, grabs the listener by the collar as if to say "Incoming awesome! Get ready!" as it gallops up and down the register to a joyous final measure.
      • The jagged No.2 in A minornote  stumbles and tumbles its way through twists and turns, and though barely two minutes long, it is a severe test of any pianist's endurance.
      • The dramatic No.4 in D minor ("Mazeppa") is a musical rendition of the story of Ivan Mazepa,note  a Ukrainian nobleman who survived an attempted "execution" by being stripped naked and tied to a charging horse to conquer his torturers on the battlefield, and, after a series of flourishes in the introduction, goes through multiple percussive parallel third renditions of the horse's galloping, getting faster and faster, until the horse drops dead and Mazeppa rises triumphant for a major key coda.
      • The sparkling No.5 in B-flat major ("Feux-follets") is one of the most difficult of the set, the musical depiction of the capricious movements of the will-o'-the-wisp rendered with parallel voices in ever changing intervals that must be delivered with featherlight touch.
      • The grandiose No.6 in G minor ("Vision") moves from minor key solemnity in its opening measures to unbridled major key energy about halfway through, and somehow Liszt finds a way to keep topping himself with each canter up and down the piano.
      • The martial No.7 in E-flat major ("Eroica") follows in the footsteps of Beethoven, Liszt's teacher's teacher, in making the key of E-flat one of heroism, the energy building to a gargantuan quadruple octave rendition of the main melodic idea.
      • The literal wild ride of No.8 in C minor ("Wilde jagd") is a hectic journey of uneven rhythms and block chords, and it's a wonder the pianist doesn't drop lifeless to the floor when the wild hunt's quarry does the same (in a surprising blaze of major key glory) at the end.
      • The tumultuous No.10 in F minornote  starts with fast interlocking chords in both hands and just gets more awesome - and difficult - from there.
      • The set closes with the restless No.12 in B-flat minor ("Chasse-neige"), a musical snowstorm simultaneously requiring hands of iron and feather, over which a melancholy melody rises.
      • And this was the third version of the etudes published by Liszt; the first and least ambitious, "Études en douze exercices", was his first published composition as a teenager, while the second, Douze grandes études, is even more difficult than the final version. They are rarely played or recorded, but must be heard to be believed.
    • Niccolo Paganini (see corresponding entry) is widely regarded as one of the greatest violin virtuosi of all time. It's only natural that Liszt, one of the greatest piano virtuosi of all time, should turn his attention to adapting some of Paganini's music for piano, with awesome results. Liszt adapted five of Paganini's 24 Caprices for solo violin and the finale of one of his violin concerti for piano as the "Grandes Études de Paganini"; most famous is No.3, La Campanella, adapted from the finale to Paganini's Violin Concerto No.2 in B minor, but No.6 in A minor, adapted from Caprice No.24 in A minor, is also well worth a listen.note 
    • Liszt's contributions to the étude are rounded out by two sets of concert études and a "grand development étude", every one packed with awesome. The earlier set of concert études comprises "Il Lamento", characterised by its ambitious scale and ever changing key; "La Leggierezza", a fluid piece full of long chromatic runs and double third runs; and the most famous of the set, "Un sospiro", an acrobatic work requiring frequent crossing of hands. The later set includes the shimmering "Walderauschen" and the skipping, tripping "Gnomenreigen", both of which seem to require at least eight fingers per hand to play properly. And the "Grande étude de perfectionnement", "Ab irato", goes from a brutal, parallel octave and crossed hand dominated minor key section to a major key coda involving long, light runs up and down the piano's register, all in just over two minutes.
    • The Grand Galop Chromatique is one of the most lively and humorous works to centre around chromatic scales ever composed, and is a real delight to both see and hear performed. It becomes especially awesome for both senses in the hands of Hungarian virtuoso Gyorgy Cziffra.
    • The first Mephisto Waltz shocked contemporary audiences when it was first performed... which is really what a musical depiction of Mephistopheles ought to do. The savagery of the piece is still a treat for both performers and listeners to this day.
    • Funérailles, by far the most famous piece from Liszt's three sets of "Harmonies poétiques et religieuses", is a deeply personal work composed by Liszt as an elegy for the squashing of the 1848 revolution in Hungary by the Austrian Habsburgs and as a farewell to his friend Frédéric Chopin, who passed away in 1849. Where the third Liebestraum is one of his most beautiful compositions, "Funérailles" is one of his most heart-rending.
    • Liszt's Sonata in B minor, dedicated to Robert Schumann,note  stands as one of the greatest piano sonatas since Beethoven, and is all the more remarkable when one notes how almost the entire 30-minute work, in one movement but with outlines of a traditional four-movement structure built into it, is spun from material stated in the opening 30 seconds, yet it never seems to run out of ideas.
    • To say Liszt was only a composer for solo piano is to do him a disservice, as his two piano concerti in E-flat major and A major and the violent Totentanz (based on the "Dies irae" plainchant) show that he was also quite at home writing for piano and orchestra, all three containing plenty of virtuoso moments for the soloists but some fascinating orchestral writing as well. Highlights of all three pieces include the build-up to their spectacular codas - triumphant in the case of the two concerti, grim yet no less fiery in the case of "Totentanz".
    • And Liszt didn't need a piano to compose awesome music; perhaps his most celebrated orchestral works are the thirteen "symphonic poems" (a musical form he invented to tell the sort of musical tale that could not fit into a standard concert overture). The most famous is "Les préludes", but his homages to Greek mythology, "Orpheus" and "Prometheus", and to William Shakespeare, "Hamlet", are also spellbinding in their awesomeness.
    • Liszt was also a master of arranging other composers' orchestral works for solo piano without losing any of the awesome. His arrangement of Berlioz' Symphonie fantastique helped to popularise the symphony in Berlioz' lifetime, while his arrangements of all nine of Beethoven's symphonies must be heard to be believed.note 
  • Medieval Latin Chanting time. From the Llibre Vermell de Montserrat: Cuncti simun concantentes - AVE MARIA!
  • Russian composer Sergey Lyapunov was a keen fan of Liszt's Transcendental Études (see corresponding entry), and thought it a shame that the Hungarian composer never realised his plan to complete a full set of 24 pieces in all the major and minor keys. So Lyapunov decided to complete the circle with his 12 Transcendental Études, Op.11, which hold their own very well against their more famous predecessors.
    • The spooky No.2 in D-sharp minor ("Ronde des fantômes") is a perpetual motion whirlwind that darts in and out, until, with a final flourish, the ghosts that have been dancing for the last three minutes vanish into thin air, leaving us wondering if we imagined the whole thing.
    • The majestic No.3 in B major ("Carillon") casts the sound of tolling bells against the melody of a Russian Orthodox hymn, building to a spectacular climax uniting both ideas that sounds as though it is written for at least three hands, and a coda in which the lowest B on the piano thunders like a giant bell under a clangor in the upper voices that gets louder and louder until a final release.
    • The turbulent No.4 in G-sharp minor ("Térek") is another furious perpetual motion etude, the melody and accompaniment both winding and twirling like the rushing river for which the piece is named, the energy only ebbing for two short passages marked "quasi flauto" and "quasi piccolo".note 
    • The violent No.6 in C-sharp minor ("Tempête") is a captivating musical depiction of a thunderstorm that seems to be unleashing the very forces of Hell itself in a coda in which the minor key gloom remains firmly in place to the bitter end.
    • The expansive No.8 in F-sharp minor ("Chant épique") starts by alternating a preview of the main melody with harplike figures to set the stage for an epic tale of adventure, drama, and romance (represented by a more easy-going interlude, the melody from which returns in boisterous fashion for the coda).
    • The whirlwind No.9 in D major ("Harpes éoliennes") is a successor to "Chasse-neige" from the Liszt set, with incredibly light and rapid oscillations representing the strings of Aeolian harps being set in motion by equally light and rapid wind-like figures, cast against a songlike melody.
    • The tempestuous No.10 in B minor ("Lesghinka") is the most frequently performed of the set, and was conceived as a tribute to Lyapunov's teacher, Mily Balakirev, and especially to the older composer's "Islamey" (see corresponding entry), which uses the Lezginka dance as a basis for its outer sections. The exotic melodies and rhythms carry performer and listener alike on a remarkable journey that ends with a last gasp shift to an exuberant B major.
    • The playful yet fiendishly difficult No.11 in G major ("Ronde des sylphes") is Lyapunov's answer to Liszt's "Feux-follets", the sprites in the title skipping and tripping up and down, back and forth, and, like the will-o'-the-wisp, disappearing as quickly as they appeared.
    • The giant No.12 in E minor ("Elégie en mémoire de François Liszt") is a tribute to the man who inspired it all, and a fitting coda to both sets of études, combining parallel octave thunder straight out of the Hungarian's own library with soaring and swooping melodies, building to a coda that, far from mourning that Liszt is dead, celebrates that he lived.
  • Gustav Mahler was not a very prolific composer (his "day job" was conducting; he composed in his leisure time), his entire output comprising nine symphonies (plus a half-finished tenth), seven song cycles for voice and piano or orchestra, and one and a half movements of a piano quartet, but the music he did write is packed with awesome.
    • His 1st Symphony, sometimes nicknamed the Titan, starts out calmly, though a bit unusually. The first movement, filled with bird calls and bugle fanfares, develops into an elaboration of Mahler's existing Lied "Ging heut' Morgen über's Feld". The second is based on a Ländler, the boisterous country ancestor to the waltz, while the third movement combines a minor-key version of the children's song "Frere Jacques" with Jewish klezmer music. Then there is the fourth movement, which follows the quiet ending of the third with a sudden CRASH-SCREECH-BOOM! and doesn't look back. Alternating between frantic and serene, the music finally makes up its mind in a massive brass fanfare (abruptly changing keys in the process) and carries on that way to the ending, with a brief resting interlude for strings along the way. The very ending brings all seven (or eight, or nine) horns into play, along with at least five trumpets and four trombones, and an instruction Mahler wrote in the score for the horns to stand up at a particular point to get out as much sound as possible. Audiences at the premiere were completely baffled by the piece, but thankfully the listener at home can judge for themselves.
    • Symphony No.2, commonly known as the Resurrection symphony, was the most popular (along with No.8) in Mahler's lifetime, and remains one of his most popular works today. Mahler believed that a symphony should contain the universe, and the Resurrection is his first significant attempt to answer such philosophical questions as the existence of an afterlife. The vast darkness of the first movement was intended to represent the funeral of the hero who had been celebrated in the previous symphony. It is followednote  by an idyllic slow movement, a sarcastic scherzo movement, and a haunting mezzo-soprano aria, "Urlicht". As is typical of Mahler, each of the early movementsnote  introduces themes which re-appear in the finale to create a sense of musical unity.note  The finale opens with a full orchestral ROAR lifted from the climax of the scherzo, and the music that follows, a depiction of the summons to the Last Judgement and the dead rising from their graves in response, is by turns mysterious and turbulent, with occasional brass calls from offstage. After building to a shrieking re-statement of the opening, as though the world itself is torn apart, the music fades into near silence for a passage titled "Der grosse Appell" ("The great appeal") in which birdcall-like flutes onstage answer the very distant-sounding offstage players. Finally, the choir makes its hushed, heart-stopping entrance with the words "Aufersteh'n, ja aufersteh'n wirst du, mein Staub, nach kurzer Ruh'!", set to a melody first hinted at in the opening movement.note  The final 7-8 minutes are where things really take off, with a duet between the soprano and mezzo-soprano soloists recalling both "Urlicht" and the first half of the finale building to an ultimately triumphant coda featuring an organ as well as the full orchestra. The organist is literally instructed to "pull out all the stops", and the moment when it plays its first chords, with the full choir belting out "Aufersteh'n, ja aufersteh'n wirst du, mein Herz, in einem Nu!", is one of the most transcendent moments in classical music.
    • Any live (professional) performance of the mammoth Symphony No.8, The Symphony of a Thousand, is almost guaranteed to be an awesome experience for both performers and audience, with a score calling for eight vocal soloists (three soprano, two alto, one each tenor, baritone, bass), two full choirs, a children's choir, and a massively augmented orchestra.note  The nickname "Symphony of a Thousand" was intentional hyperbole on the part of music critics, but most performances involve at least five hundred musicians. Though it is in just two movements, the second movement is nearly an hour long and is a full setting of the final scene of Goethe's Faust, as various angels discuss what to do with the now deceased title character's soul, and it combines slow movement, scherzo, and finale into a vast epic which answers the musical questions posed by the first movement, a setting of the Latin hymn "Veni, creator spiritus". Particular highlights in a live performance include the very opening bars of the first movement (where the Resurrection waits until near the end to introduce the organ, the Symphony of a Thousand introduces the organ in the first measure), the full choir bellowing "Accende, accende lumen sensibus!" and the ensuing double fugue, the Pater Ecstaticus' first solo in the second movement ("Ewiger Wonnebrand"), and the buildup to the triumphant orchestral coda in the symphony's final minutes. Mahler himself knew he'd written something quite remarkable (it was the first symphony to feature choral passages throughout rather than in just a few movements), and in a letter to conductor Willem Mengelberg, he wrote, "Try to imagine the whole universe beginning to ring and resound. There are no longer human voices, but planets and suns revolving."
  • Mexican music is underappreciated so here's Danzon no.2 by Arturo Márquez.
  • Pietro Mascagni may only be known today for his one-act opera Cavalleria Rusticana (a case of First Installment Wins, as it was his first opera), but it packs an incredible amount of awesome into its short runtime.
    • It takes a tenor of Olympian fortitude to get through the "Siciliana" serenade without rushing through it or cracking. It requires blasting off from a standing start, at top volume, at the very top of the tenor range, from backstage or sometimes under the stage. And it occurs in the middle of the overture to the opera.
    • The rich vocal harmonies of "Regina coeli" (the "Easter hymn") are an utter delight for the ears.
    • The soprano aria "Voi lo sapete" is a real tour de force for the singer playing the role of Santuzza, as she explains the opera's tangled romantic plot to her former lover's mother.
  • William Mathias's Salvator Mundi, a 7-part Christmas cycle for women's choir, piano, and percussion. Particularly recommended are the creepy Mirabile Mysterium, the beautiful Lullay, and the joyous Welcome, Yule.
  • Nikolai Medtner lives in the shadow of his compatriot and friend Rachmaninoff; both composers were talented pianists who continued to write in the Romantic idiom when it was widely seen as outdated, and both lived their final years in voluntary exile from post-Revolutionary Russia (Rachmaninoff in Beverly Hills, Medtner in London). Medtner's music is generally less accessible than Rachmaninoff's, but there is still much awesome to be found in it.
    • Among his three piano concerti, the most spectacular are No.2 in C minor,note  with its sweeping, technically brutal opening movement and its charming second movement which leads straight into the sprightly finale, and No.3 in E minor, a "concerto-ballade" whose first half is based on a poem about the love of water spirits for a drowned knight and whose second half is an expansion of the story by Medtner showing the knight's eventual redemption, the music vast in scope and ingenious in construction from start to finish.
    • The last of his three violin sonatas, No.3 in E minor ("Sonata epica"), is every bit as epic as its subtitle suggests. The massive first movement is almost an entire musical journey on its own, by turns mysterious, agitated, jaunty, triumphant, sombre, anguished, with many chances for the violinist to show off technical brilliance and emotional sensitivity, and it contains many musical ideas which recur in the later movements. The tense scherzo, heart-rending slow movement, and tragedy-to-triumph journey of the finale round off 40 very exhilarating minutes.
  • Felix Mendelssohn is rightly regarded as one of the greatest composers of the early Romantic Era.
    • The incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream is a masterpiece from start to finish. The Overture was originally written when Mendelssohn was just 17, and includes themes for the fairies, the royal court of Athens, the four lovers, and the tradesmen (including a "braying" motif for when Bottom is given a donkey's head). Fifteen years later, he wove the content of the overture into a full set of musical cues for Shakespeare's play, of which the two most famous are the flighty Scherzo between Acts I and II and the Wedding March between Acts IV and V, awesomeness of epic proportions (especially in its original version for full orchestra). There's a reason it has become a standard wedding recessional in many countries.
    • His Violin Concerto in E minor is concentrated awesome from start to finish. The surprise transition between movements in which the dramatic final chord of the first movement dissipates, only for a single bassoon to hold its note and lead straight into the second movement, is a particular highlight.
    • His "Hebrides" Overture (AKA "Fingal's Cave") is a brilliant piece of thematic music, perfectly portraying the turbulent seas and mysterious caves of its namesake island group on the Atlantic coast of Scotland. The opening few phrases came into Mendelssohn's head almost as soon as he saw the colourful basalt pillars of Fingal's Cave, so powerful were their effect on him, and this power comes through in every note in the music itself.
  • "To this we've come" from The Consul by Gian Carlo Menotti. Passionate, desperate, and incredibly powerful.
  • Further awesomeness from the 20th century: Olivier Messiaen's Turangalîla Symphonie, 5th Movement.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may not have a name beginning with B, but he is still routinely named alongside Bach and Beethoven as one of the three greatest classical composers ever.
    • The Krönungsmesse (link to the Kyrie) is Awesome Music of Crowning.
    • He wrote a song titled "Leck mich im Arsch" which, in German, means "Kiss my ass". We need a Funny Music section for that.
    • Mozart composed his first symphony when he was eight years old; much more awesomeness followed from there.
      • No.25 in G minor, used to memorable effect in the film version of Amadeus, hits the ground running with its furious syncopated opening measures, leading straight into one of the more captivating uses of the "Mannheim rocket" (a rising arpeggio) and, eventually, to an equally frenzied second subject. If that wasn't enough, the symphony also has an affable slow movement, a stately minuet, and a dark finale that preserves the minor tonality to the very end.
      • No.29 in A major was also used in Amadeus, its graceful falling octave opening gesture returning in style in the finale, providing a sense of unity to a charming symphony that almost has the intimacy of chamber music.
      • No.31 in D major, nicknamed the Paris symphony, is a work of Mozart's early twenties from when he was job hunting in the French capital. He took advantage of the large orchestra available to him to compose his first symphony to feature clarinets, as well as flutes, oboes, bassoons, horns, trumpets, timpani, and an enlarged string section. His father Leopold found it a noisy symphony, but it is a glorious showcase of Mozart's gift for melody and orchestration.
      • No.35 in D major is nicknamed the Haffner after the Salzburg family who commissioned it for the ennoblement of one of their members, and grew out of a serenade Mozart originally planned for the occasion. It grabs the listener straight away with a fiery opening theme that repeatedly jumps back and forth across two octaves, and the energy remains at fever pitch for most of the first movement. After a respite in the slow movement, it's back to adrenaline with a particularly extroverted minuet and a finale bursting with life and merriment.
      • No.36 in C major, the Linz, was written in just four days when Mozart, on a journey from Salzburg to Vienna with his wife, made a stopover in the town that lends the symphony its nickname and the local count decided to announce a concert featuring the visiting maestro. Even when composing at short notice, Mozart could still craft a piece full of outstanding melodies; the Siciliano-influenced slow movement is a particular highlight.
      • Mozart paid tribute to his considerable fanbase in the Bohemian capital city with No.38 in D major, nicknamed the Prague. Though in just three movements, its first movement has a slow introduction so long and substantial that is almost a movement of its own, and the ensuing sonata allegro (which is reminiscent of several of Mozart's operatic overtures) presents and develops at least six major ideas where most Classical-era symphonies seldom used more than three, and yet it retains a sense of cohesion throughout.
      • No.39 in E-flat major begins with a grand gesture to herald a slow introduction that leads into one of his most inventive and elaborate symphonic first movements. After a genial Andante, the third movement places a delightful clarinet solo-led Ländler in the middle of a forceful minuet, and the playful finale sees the various sections of the orchestra winding scalar passages around each other.
      • Just one month after polishing off Symphony No.39, Mozart put the finishing touches on No.40 in G minor. The restless first movement has survived overexposure as a popular ringtone in the early 2000s and still reels in the listener straight away, and the remaining movements - a lyrical Andante, an angry minuet (unsuitable for dancing!), and a highly chromatic finale - are just as memorable, and show Mozart at the height of his abilities with counterpoint.
      • And within two weeks of completing Symphony No.40, Mozart gave the world No.41 in C major, known as the Jupiter. Once again, Mozart grabs the listener's attention straight away with the boisterous opening measure, and keeps it throughout a deightful sonata allegro, one of his most beautiful slow movements, a minuet that cleverly foreshadows one of the main themes of the finale, and the finale itself, a masterpiece of counterpoint in which, in the coda, Mozart rotates the five main themes of the movement around the five string instruments (first and second violins, violas, cellos, basses). Together with No.39 and No.40, it represents the apex of the Classical-era symphony.
    • Mozart was a prolific composer of piano concerti, credited with either 23 or 27 (his first four were arrangements of works by other composers), twelve of them (Nos.14-25) written in the space of just two years, and while they may not have the virtuosic fireworks of the piano concerti of the Romantic era, they are packed with memorable and delightful melodies and harmonies.
      • No.9 in E-flat major (Jeunehomme)note  made the then-audacious move of introducing the solo pianist in only the second measure rather than after an extended orchestral ritornello (which instead comes after the piano's first flourishes). The concerto also manages to fit a four-movement structure into just three movements with a minuet interlude in the sparkling finale. Truly one of Mozart's early gems.
      • No.10 in E-flat major is scored for two pianos and orchestra, and the ingenious back-and-forth between the two soloists makes for one of the most exhilarating Mozart pieces both to hear and to play, from the quadruple octave trill with which the pianos make their dramatic entrance through a charming slow movement and a buoyant finale.
      • No.17 in G major is packed with delightful melodies from start to finish; the theme to the third movement set of variations is so catchy that Mozart's pet starling started singing it after listening to the composer playing it while writing the concerto.
      • No.20 in D minor is the first Mozart piano concerto in a minor key, and the first movement is appropriately tense and dramatic, while the fiery third movement eventually gives way to a triumphant, edge-of-the-seat coda.
      • No.21 in C major has at its centre one of the most outstandingly beautiful slow movements Mozart ever composed; it was used to great effect in the 1967 Swedish film Elvira Madigan. The outer movements are just as rewarding to hear.
      • Although No.22 in E-flat major is somewhat overshadowed by the two pairs of concerti just before and after it, it still follows the lead of No.9 by packing four movements of awesome into just three movements with another minuet interlude in the finale, and the extroverted opening movement is an utter delight.
      • No.23 in A major features a heart-rending slow movement in F-sharp minornote  bracketed by a charming opening movement and a finale overflowing with life and energy.
      • No.24 in C minor is the second and last Mozart piano concerto in a minor key, and while the first movement is once again overshadowed by the darkness of the tonality, this time the clouds do not break for the end of the theme and variations in the finale, for a conclusion that really sticks in the memory.
      • No.27 in B-flat major sees the composer experimenting with style and form in a way he had not previously attempted, and it provides a tantalising glimpse of the sort of artistic direction he might have taken had he not died so young.
    • And Mozart didn't stop with the piano when it came to writing concerti.
      • Of his five violin concerti, No.5 in A major, the "Turkish", is rightly the most famous for both its gorgeous melodies and technical difficulty for the soloist, although the ever-shifting tempi of the finale of No.4 in D major make for a memorable conclusion.
      • The Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major is a compelling musical argument for the adage that "two heads are better than one", with the solo violin and viola winding outstandingly beautiful melodies around each other in a masterpiece of counterpoint. The moment in the first movement when the two soloists almost seem to float in over the orchestra to make their initial entrance, one of the few passages in which they are playing in unison, is especially charming.
      • Mozart's four concerti for French horn are still cornerstones of the instrument's repertoire. By far the most famous is No.4 in E-flat major, especially its boisterous finale, but there's a lot to like about the other three as well (there are early hints of the famous finale of No.4 in the the finales of No.2 in E-flat major and No.3 in E-flat major).
      • Each of the major woodwind instruments - flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon - gets a concerto from the master, every one a winner. The clarinet concerto, written near the end of Mozart's life, is perhaps the most famous of the four, with a wealth of melodic brilliance in all three movements.
    • Mozart's chamber music may not quite enjoy the popularity of his more large scale works, but there are some real winners in there.
      • Of the Quintet for Piano and Woodwinds in E-flat, Mozart wrote to his father, "I myself consider it to be the best thing that I have written in my life." The quintet's wealth of charming melodies and clever counterpoint make it easy to see why the composer was so proud of it; the passage in the introduction to the first movement in which the bassoon, horn, clarinet, and oboe take turns playing descending scalar figures over florid accompaniment in the piano is a highlight.
      • The Divertimento for String Trio in E-flat, a surprisingly happy piece given the misfortune that dogged Mozart's life at the time, is one of his masterpieces, framing alternating slow movements (one a theme and variations) and minuets (one with two trios instead of the standard one) with two lively movements in the home key; all six movements are utter delights, and the counterpoint is so dense that it's easy to forget there are just three musicians.note 
    • Mozart's piano sonatas include many fine examples of the form, and were an inspiration to many late Classical and early Romantic composers.
      • The extroverted No.6 in D major (Dürnitz) moves through a lively sonata allegro and a polonaise-inspired slow movement to a finale which explores the limits of what can be done with a theme and variations in a piano sonata as it runs the theme through twelve variations.
      • The anguished No.8 in A minor was composed shortly after Mozart's mother died, and frames a heartfelt Andante with two movements that are all fire and brimstone, especially the compact rondo finale.
      • The genial No.11 in A major opens with one of Mozart's finest theme and variations movements, moves on to a stately minuet and trio, and finishes with the Standard Snippet-led Rondo alla Turca, deservedly one of the composer's most popular works and regularly used in films, television series, and video games.
      • The jagged No.14 in C minor (nearly always preceded in performances and recordings by the Fantasy in the same key) has a first movement that blasts off up a C minor arpeggio and just gets better from there, followed by one of the composer's loveliest slow movements for piano solo (with a theme that, like many other aspects of the C minor sonata, seems to predict Beethoven's Pathetique sonata in the same key, composed fifteen years later) and a stormy rondo finale.
    • Mozart is one of the five most frequently performed operatic composers (along with Gioachino Rossini, Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner, and Giacomo Puccini). As a bonus, he is the only one of the five who composed operas with libretti in Italian and German.
      • The Marriage of Figaro was a huge success from the first performances, and with such moments as an overture that practically buzzes with giddy anticipation and Cherubino's aria "Voi che sapete", it's not hard to see why audiences have always loved it.
      • Mozart's own favourite among his operas - and, according to his wife Constanze, his favourite among all his compositions - was Don Giovanni, also one of his darkest operas. The overture sets the tone for the opera, with a heavy minor key introduction that gives way to major key merriment. Vocal highlights include the love duet "Là ci darem la mano", which gives a sense of why so many women have fallen for Don Giovanni's charms.
      • The light-hearted Così Fan Tutte starts with another of Mozart's classic overtures, and the quartet "Alla bella Despinetta" shows Mozart's flair for vocal counterpoint.
      • Beethoven considered Mozart's masterpiece to be his final opera, The Magic Flute.note  It includes yet another first rate overture that really takes off once the introduction gives way to the fugato statement of the main theme, and the Queen of the Night's aria "Der Hölle Rache" is one of the most dazzling arias ever composed, requiring pitch perfect command of the very top of the soprano vocal register as it reaches F6 ("high F") several times.note 
    • Among Mozart's various serenades and divertimenti, the best known is the Serenade for Strings in G major nicknamed Eine kleine Nachtmusik. Flanking an easy-going Romanze and a stately minuet are two movements of pure joy and merriment; the first movement in particular opens with one of classical music's most instantly recognisable melodies and just gets better from there, while the finale may be familiar to BBC Radio 4 listeners as the theme to the long-running quiz show Brain of Britain.
    • The Requiem Mass was the last piece Mozart began composing; left unfinished at his deathnote , it is still packed with awesome in every measure. The "Dies irae" is a shining example, and "Confutatis, maledictis" will leave you breathless. (This was the one that Mozart was doing additive composition on with Salieri near the end of Amadeus.)
      • Mozart's Requiem is also notable for being one of the first headbang-able pieces of music ever written. Seriously. Mozart invented heavy metal. And Punk, according to some pundits.
      • The Requiem was also used to great effect in X2: X-Men United during Nightcrawler's attack on the White House, and in World at War, when you, as the Russian, sack Berlin.
  • Modest Mussorgsky may only be remembered for two pieces, but what pieces they are:
    • "Night on Bald Mountain", used for a memorable (if nightmare-inducing) segment of the original Fantasia. There's also the even rarer original version that included the operatic vocals and it actually sounds even better.
    • Pictures at an Exhibition sounds a bit thin in the original version for solo piano, but then Maurice Ravel came along and scored it for orchestra and found all manner of subtleties of colour and texture in the suite widely viewed as Mussorgsky's masterpiece. Particularly amazing bits are the instantly hummable (if deliberately rhythmically uneven) "Promenade" theme that re-appears throughout the suite,note  the alternately frantic and sinister "Gnomus", the hauntingly nostalgic "The Old Castle" (Ravel gave the melody in his version to an alto saxophone, a rarity in orchestral music at the time), the plodding "Bydlo" (Ravel gives the ox-cart driver's song to a solo tuba, also a rarity at the time), the frenzied and otherworldly "Hut on Fowl's Legs", and the majestic conclusion that is "The Great Gate of Kiev", especially the moment when the "Promenade" theme enters about halfway through.
  • Conlon Nancarrow was a modern composer who liked to write pieces that no human could possibly play. These pieces might be impossibly fast or precise, contrapuntal lines at different tempi (and strange tempo ratios), and some very thick counterpoint. Obviously, if nobody could play these pieces, there could be a problem in finding performers. His solution? He wrote them for player piano, a piano that plays itself. The results are startling and rather spectacular. He did this partially as an extension of the harmonic theories of Henry Cowell, previously mentioned on this page.
  • Carl Nielsen is the most widely known composer to come out of Denmark, and while he may not enjoy the same fame as his counterparts in Norway and Finland, Edvard Grieg and Jean Sibelius, he still wrote a great deal of awesome music.
    • The second movement of his Symphony No.3, Espansiva, is a balsamic Pastorale, with a soprano and a baritone vocalizing softly in the background. Sublime.
    • Symphony No.4, Inextinguishable, more than lives up to its subtitle (referring to the composer's appraisal of the human spirit as, well, inextinguishable), especially in the finale when Nielsen calls for the thunder of Dramatic Timpani from both sides of the stage, the timpanists almost duelling with each other.
    • The second movement of his Symphony No.6, Semplice, is delightfully weird: a small group of wind and percussion instruments goofs around and bumps into each other, finds a melody snippet or two, gets heckled by a yawning trombone, and then fizzle out.
    • His Clarinet Concerto from 1928 features a battle between a poetic, wildly mood-swinging clarinet and an aggressive snare drum and is a strong contender to the title "Best clarinet concerto not written by Mozart".
    • "The Fog is Lifting", from the incidental music to Moderen, is a beautiful little piece of nature for flute and harp. It is a Standard Snippet on Danish television for idyllic landscapes, and rightfully so.

    Composers O-Z 
  • Jacques Offenbach is one of the most enduringly popular French composersnote  from the generation between Hector Berlioz and Gabriel Fauré, and he is one of the most influential theatrical composers from 1800 onward.
    • It may be impossible to listen to the Galop (AKA "The Can-Can") from Orpheus in the Underworld without picturing Chorus Girls straight out of a painting by Edgar Degas or Henri De Toulouse-Lautrec, but that's what makes it awesome, with a level of sheer energy that is infectious enough to tempt many listeners into joining the dancers on the stage.
    • Offenbach didn't live to see the premiere of his opera The Tales of Hoffmann, and so he never saw the powerful effect the duet "Belle nuit", more commonly known as Barcarolle, can have on an audience, its gently swaying accompaniment evoking images of Venetian gondoliers making their way down the city's canals even before the melody first appears.
  • Tarik O'Reagan needs a page of her own for her awesome Latin chant revamps. For example, Columba Aspexit.
  • Carl Orff may only be remembered for his song cycle Carmina Burana, but it has still given us enough awesome music to ensure that his memory will endure.
    • The opening "O Fortuna" is one of the most instantly recognisable pieces in all of classical music, and with good reason.
    • "In Taberna Quando Sumus", an Ominous Latin drinking song.
    • Bacce bene venies as well. Istud vinum bonum vinum vinum generosum... Redit vinum curialem probum animosum!
    • Also Tempus est iocundum, which might just be the happiest song ever written.
      "O, o, o,
      Totus floreo!
      Iam amore virginali totus ardeo!
      Novus, novus, novus amor est
      Quo pereo, quo pereo, quo pereo!"
  • Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D, another of the most instantly recognisable works in all of classical music. It is sometimes joked that if a classical enthusiast is asked to identify a piece of classical music used in film or television, 90% of the time the answer is either Pachelbel's Canon or Orff's "O Fortuna".
  • Paganini's fiendishly tough caprice #24 as played by Jascha Heifetz. There's a reason why no one is allowed to surpass Paganini in sheer awesomeness of all that he could do with a violin. As for Heifetz, his playing of this piece is something very unique. To make it more awesome, this is likely the most widely viewed classical video on Youtube, and Heifetz himself runs into several millions of views overall which further cements his place as one of the greatest violinists ever.
  • Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina lived during the Renaissance and is considered basically the best composer of the styles contained therein. Specifically he mastered Renaissance polyphony, the art of setting the same melody into multiple voices, letting them start at different times and letting them lock together, in chord and syllable, almost by accident. There is almost nothing under his name that isn't beautiful.
  • Sergei Prokofiev is perhaps the most famous composer from Soviet Russia, and left many awesome pieces for future generations to enjoy.
    • "Dance of the Knights" (AKA "The Montagues and Capulets") from Romeo and Juliet, instantly recognisable to UK listeners as the theme from The Apprentice. The perfect music to accompany any scene of armies on the march.
    • Prokofiev added several gems to the symphonic canon over the course of his career.
      • By far his most popular symphony, partly as it is the shortest, merriest, and most musically accessible, is No.1 in D major, the Classical. With the symphony, he tried to answer the question "What sort of music would Joseph Haydn write if he were alive today?" (meaning 1916), and came up with a meditative slow movement and a wryly humorous gavotte bookended by a sonata allegro and a finale packed to the gills with energy and charming melodies. While the formal and tonal language owes a lot to Haydn (and Mozart), Prokofiev put an individual and memorable spin on said language with more contemporary harmonic progressions.
      • Just behind No.1 in terms of popularity and frequency of performance and recording is No.5 in B-flat major, which consists of a tightly constructed yet leisurely paced sonata allegro, a tense scherzo, a hauntingly nostalgic slow movement that builds to a tense climax before ebbing to where it began, and a lively finale with a surprisingly dark coda that hints more at B-flat minor than B-flat major. Prokofiev was one of the few major composers who was particularly skilled at weaving a piano into orchestral pieces so that it functions not as a featured soloist but as another orchestral instrument, and Symphony No.5 is a fine example of this.
      • Symphony No.6 in E-flat minor is one of Prokofiev's most underrated works. The first movement builds to an especially dark climax; seldom has a major-key resolution sounded so menacing. And although the other two movements both begin and end in major keys, there is no sense of triumph, especially in the shrieking coda of the finale (which comes after a reminiscence of the minor key first movement). It also features particularly adept use of the piano as an orchestral instrument across all three movements.
    • Prokofiev's five piano concerti are all awesome in their own way, but a few stand out.
      • The intensely emotional No.2 in G minor is a masterwork, if also one of the most brutally difficult concerti in the standard repertoirenote . From a first movement dominated by an almost five-minute long solo cadenza of ever-mounting technical ambition that builds to an apocalypse-like restatement of the enigmatic opening measures by the full orchestra, to a blazing perpetual motion scherzo that powers along at almost ten notes a second, to a violent intermezzo heralded by a thundering ground bass in the lower orchestra instruments which returns in epic style for a climax that sounds like the forces of Hell unleashed, to a finale with a lullaby-like main theme bookended by frenzied dance sections in which the soloist gallops and/or hops across three or four octaves and back again, the savage technical demands hardly let up for a moment, and must be seen, not just heard, to be believed. To add to the awesome, Prokofiev wrote it when he was just 22 years old.note 
      • From the serene opening clarinet solo to the almost non-stop fireworks in the coda of the finale, No.3 in C major seizes the listener by the collar and never lets go; the ascending-descending double note scales as the concerto gallops full speed to its triumphant final measures must, again, be not just heard but seen to be believed (especially if the soloist plays them as written rather than "cheating" and playing them as glissandinote ).
    • The Symphony-Concerto in E minor is one of the most blisteringly difficult cello concerti ever written; any cellist who can pull off a successful rendition is almost guaranteed to send your jaw crashing to the floor.
    • Of Prokofiev's nine piano sonatas, the most popular, with good reason, have long been the three "war sonatas", No.6 in A major, No.7 in B-flat major, and No.8 in B-flat major, written during World War II when he wasn't under as many state-mandated stylistic restrictions. Highlights include the harsh descending parallel thirds that recur throughout the first and last movements of No.6, the wild 7/8 ride of the finale of No.7, and the coda of the finale of No.8 which ties up the many disparate ideas that have come before.
  • The works of Giacomo Puccini include many of the most awesome operas ever written.
    • La Bohème. All. Of. It. But ESPECIALLY "O soave fanciulla" and "Quando m'en vo" (a.k.a. Musetta's Waltz). If you hear opera in a movie or TV show and it's not "Flight of the Valkyries", there's a good chance it's this.
    • Tosca has more than earned its place as one of Puccini's most popular operas, and perhaps the highlights are the heartbroken arias "Vissi d'arte" (especially when performed by Greek-American soprano Maria Callas), sung by the title character as she laments having seemingly been abandoned by God in the face of the Trope Namer for Scarpia Ultimatum,note  and "E lucevan le stelle", sung by Cavaradossi as he reflects on his life while facing execution at dawn.
    • Madama Butterfly completes the triptych of some of the most frequently performed operas not just by Puccini, but by any composer. It is certainly not the most racially sensitive opera, but it still contains some truly outstanding music, especially the extended love duet between Butterfly and Pinkerton at the end of Act I, and the celebrated aria "Un bel di vedremo" from Act II, sung as Butterfly waxes romantic about Pinkerton's impending return, not knowing the unpleasant surprises that await her when he does. The orchestra's final cadence as Pinkerton finds Butterfly dead was harmonically unusual for the time, but certainly makes for a memorable conclusion.
    • Turandot was the opera Puccini was composing at his death, and it ranks among his best:
      • "Nessun Dorma" is possibly Puccini's most well-known composition, with Luciano Pavarotti making it one of his signature arias and Franco Corelli also having some thrilling moments with it. The last minute or so is the bit everyone knows:
        Dilegua, o notte! Tramontate, stelle! (Vanish, o night! Set, stars!)
        Tramontate, stelle! All'alba vincero! (Set, stars! At dawn, I will win!)
        VINCERO!
        VINCEROOOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!
      • Turandot also includes one of the most awesome and triumphant endings of all time. Consider the original version, particularly the last minutes — they are truly incomparable.
  • Henry Purcell is widely regarded as England's greatest composer from before 1800, for many reasons:
  • Sergei Rachmaninoff, though regarded as behind the times while he was alive, is now one of the most celebrated and beloved composers of the early 20th century.
    • "Vocalise", Op.34 No.14, is his most well-known vocal work, and has been arranged for almost every conceivable collection of instruments. Its haunting beauty definitely earns it a place on this page.
    • All of five of Rachmaninoff's compositions for piano and orchestra embody awesomeness to varying degrees. He wrote them to perform himself, and as he was one of the greatest piano virtuosi of his day, they are all very difficult to play, but amid the fireworks are some of the most outstanding melodies written for piano and orchestra.
      • Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No.1 in F-sharp minor was his first published composition and was inspired, as mentioned under Grieg's entries, by the Grieg concerto, which was in turn inspired by the Schumann concerto, but for a "copy of a copy" it still manages to be a sharply-defined and brilliant piece, with lots of showy moments for the soloist and orchestra.
      • Piano Concerto No.2 in C minor was the piece with which Rachmaninoff snapped out of a several-year creative funk following the disastrous premiere of his Symphony No.1, and by this point he had settled more thoroughly into the lush, emotionally charged style that dominated most of his output. From the hushed chords for solo piano in the very first measures (which re-appear near the beginning of the finale in the orchestra) to the flying and diving accompaniment to the orchestra's weighty main theme in the first movement, to a second movement whose songlike melody was "adapted" by Eric Carmen into "All by Myself", to a finale that works its way from tragedy to triumph, it remains one of the composer's most popular works.
      • More popular still is Piano Concerto No.3 in D minor, which is regularly named alongside the second concerti of Bartók, Prokofiev, and especially Brahms as a candidate for the most difficult concerto in the standard repertoire.note  The almost vocal opening melody, doubled up across the hands, sounds simple enough, but later in the first movement there are individual measures that include more notes than the first two pages! The fireworks are even flashier in the finale, but the concerto finds time for emotional sensitivity as well, particularly in the second movement and the E-flat major interlude in the third movement.
      • Piano Concerto No.4 in G minor is the shortest and least performed of Rachmaninoff's piano concerti, and one of his most abstract and experimental compositions; though he was not a fan of the music of such composers as Bartók, Stravinsky, and the members of Les Six and the Second Viennese School, he was still aware of it, and while the results of his acknowledgement have divided critics, they are never less than compelling, especially in the second movement.
      • One of the few compositions Rachmaninoff produced after emigrating to the United States after the Bolshevik Revolution was the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, a set of 24 variations on Paganini's Caprice No.24 in A minor (see corresponding entry). Though in one movement, the piece has a four-movement internal structure, opening not with the theme, but the first variation (a stripped-down version of the theme), and including several variations incorporating the "Dies irae" plainchant theme, a diptych of boisterous major key variations on an inversion of the theme, the emotional centre that is Variation 18 (also based on an inversion of the theme), and a coda after the final variation that ties together all the rhapsody's ideas before a comically understated final gesture.
    • Of Rachmaninoff's three symphonies, the most often performed and recorded is No.2 in E minor, and with good reason - from the ever-shifting emotional expanse of the first movement, to the fiery energy of the second, to the serene, clarinet solo-led third, to the unbridled triumph of the finale, the symphony is pure awesome from start to finish.
    • Rachmaninoff, though he did not originally plan to do so, wrote a full set of 24 preludes in the major and minor keys, every one a winner.
      • The first to be composed, the weighty Op.3 No.2 in C-sharp minor, is by far the most famous (though Rachmaninoff grew to detest it). It may be one of the simplest preludes from a structural (and technical) standpoint, but that doesn't detract from its awesomeness. Its three-note opening figure dominates the rest of the work, and the agitated alternating chords that cap off the centre section and the big block chords in both hands when the opening section is repeated at the end are exhilarating to hear and play.
      • The 10 Preludes, Op.23, were part of the same flurry of creativity as the second piano concerto. The brilliant No.2 in B-flat major starts with an alternately soaring and swooping accompanying figure under a syncopated melody, and just gets better from there; the buildup to the return of the opening melody is a particular highlight. The stately No.3 in D minor is the most richly contrapuntal of Rachmaninoff's preludes, the opening five-note figure providing the thread for an elaborate tapestry of melodies weaving around each other. The marchlike No.5 in G minor is the most famous of the set, its crashing chords and descending parallel octaves framing a slower centre section of harmonic tension. And the non-stop whirlwind trifecta of the dizzying No.7 in C minor, the sparkling No.8 in A-flat major, and the troubled No.9 in E-flat minor (noted for its extremely difficult double-note figures in the right hand) will leave any pianist or listener breathless.
      • The 13 Preludes, Op.32, open with the rousing No.1 in C major, a finger-loosener that prepares artist and audience alike for the rollercoaster to come. The uneasy No.2 in B-flat minor doesn't properly resolve into its home key until the final bars; the accelerando into the centre section in which the right hand gallops back and forth over an octave and a half is a high point. The flamboyant No.3 in E major starts with a thundering quadruple-octave figure which provides the foundation for a triumphant climax. The expansive No.4 in E minor goes through a vast spectrum of emotions, alternating gradual journeys up and down the register until building to a furious chordal passage. The intense No.6 in F minor features lightning quick passagework passed across both hands. The frenzied No.8 in A minor opens with a simple three-note figure over a fast accompaniment, and builds on these ideas in ingenious ways. The buoyant No.9 in A major is another masterpiece of counterpoint, sounding at times as though there must be three hands playing at once. The plaintive No.12 in G-sharp minor, the most famous of the set, is both scintillating and heartrending. And the titanic concluding No.13 in D-flat major not only provides still more fast passagework, heavy chords, and dense counterpoint between the melody and accompanying figures, but also ties up the set neatly with many quotes of the three-note figure from the C-sharp minor prelude and a reference to the chords from its final measures, its atmosphere transformed from solemnity to victory.
      • Even the low-key preludes, if less extroverted, are still ingeniously assembled and provide more subtle moments of awesome for the performer. From Op.23, the doleful No.1 in F-sharp minor features long melodic lines that require many moments of crossed hands, building to a powerful climax and then ebbing away again; the serene No.4 in D major weaves first one, then two meandering accompanying figures around the songlike melody at its centre; the tranquil No.6 in E-flat major casts another songlike melody against a wandering accompaniment, then adds a countermelody for the second half; and the gentle No.10 in G-flat major, almost lullaby-like, adds ever more layers of counterpoint as it moves toward a majestic final measure. From Op.32, the ethereal No.5 in G major places an airy melody over a shimmering accompaniment to provide an antithesis to the earlier G minor prelude; the languid No.7 in F major makes excellent use of harmonic suspensions in both the melody and the accompaniment; the devastating No.10 in B minor uses its rich chordal texture to memorably haunting effect, especially in the centre section; and the flighty No.11 in B major hides a sorrow which gives way to inner peace in the final measures.
    • The two sets of Etudes-Tableaux, Op.33 and Op.39, have plenty of awesome pieces, each with a story to tell (though usually a story Rachmaninoff preferred to leave to the imagination of the performer or listener).
      • The first set opens with the martial No.1 in F minor, its alternating fire and ice creating a gloriously dark atmosphere. The florid No.6 in E-flat minor spins its way up and down the piano's register, providing a Moment of Awesome for any pianist who can get through it without stumbling. The flashy No.7 in E-flat major is by far the happiest of the first set (and among the few for which Rachmaninoff disclosed a story: a day at a carnival), ending with an extroverted statement of Rachmaninoff's rhythmic monogram (which also ends the second and third piano concerti). The tempestuous No.9 in C-sharp minor may not be harmonically adventurous, but the storm of chords and double octaves provide a perfect conclusion to the set.
      • The second set, in which all but the last piece quotes the "Dies irae" melody at some point, starts with the unsettled No.1 in C minor, the stormclouds finally unleashing their fury in the final measures. The jittery No.3 in F-sharp minor stumbles and tumbles its way through its uneven rhythms and minor-key gloom. The sober No.4 in B minor is filled with rapid block chords that can vex the performer but fascinate the listener. The grandiose No.5 in E-flat minor is perhaps the most famous of the set, sweeping through a wide emotional landscape before settling into its tranquil conclusion. The sinister No.6 in A minor, sometimes regarded as the most difficult of either set, is a vivid depiction of the meeting of Little Red Riding Hood (with a flighty upper register theme) and the wolf (represented by lower register rumblings). And the triumphant No.9 in D major combines block chords and acrobatic leaps up and down the piano to provide an outstanding and memorable finale.
    • Rachmaninoff's two piano sonatas are seldom performed or recorded (the first one especially), but they rank alongside the very best of his compositions. No.1 in D minornote  frames a slow movement of outstanding serenity with a dramatic opening movement and a non-stop fireworks display of a finale. No.2 in B-flat minor has a similarly fiery first movement, but moves into a beautiful yet solemn slow movement followed by a major-key finale of pure joy.
  • Jean-Philippe Rameau is second only to François Couperin among the most beloved French composers of the Baroque era. His keyboard suite in G minor and Rondeau from "Les Indes Galantes" are among his loveliest works.
  • The works of Maurice Ravel are an embarrassment of riches on the awesome front.
    • Maurice Ravel's Bolero. It's one of a very few pieces of music that, while repetitive, lacks for nothing, and that amazing, soul-inflating, spirit-lifting ending. Also, it's tied to a Moment of Awesome for the Winter Olympics: Torvill and Dean ice-danced to it and earned the sport's only perfect score, to date.
    • Ravel's F major String Quartet is widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest - and most difficult - string quartets ever written. The fourth movement is absolutely spectacular.
    • Le tombeau de Couperin, a six-movement suite in which each movement is dedicated to a friend of Ravel's (in one case, two brothers) who died in the trenches during World War I, stands as one of his masterworks for solo piano, but for pure awesome, the concluding Toccata, a pure adrenaline rush with a triumphant major key coda, takes the crown.
    • Often overlooked is his exquisite and varied Mother Goose Suite (Ma Mère l'Oye), which ends with one of the most beautiful pieces of all time, Le Jardin Féerique.
    • The Piano Concerto in G major brackets one of the most gorgeous slow movements ever composed with two jazz-inspired wild rides to give us one of the early 20th century's masterpieces. His Concerto for the Left Handnote  is another masterwork, the beauty and drama of the music rising high above the "novelty factor" of only being written for one hand.
    • Gaspard de la Nuit, a three-movement suite for solo piano, is one of Ravel's most hauntingly beautiful works. "Gaspard" is derived from the Persian word for "guardian of the royal treasures", so the title of the suite hints at a guardian of the dark and mysterious, reflected in the otherworldly nature of all three pieces, each based on a poem by Aloysius Bertrand. From the rapid repeated three-note chords in the shimmering "Ondine", to the B-flat octave drone imitating a tolling bell as other melodies and countermelodies wind around it in the sinister "Le Gibet", to the double note major second scales and shrieking climaxes in the unpredictable "Scarbo", the suite is as technically formidable for the pianist as it is fascinating for the listener.note 
  • While the entire piece is epic, the Cathedral Chorus (ending) of Alfred Reed's Russian Christmas Music is simply awe-inspiring.
  • The "Dies Irae" part of the Requiem Mass has inspired awesomeness in composers for centuries, as a number of entries on this page attest. "The Ballad of Sweeney Todd" is an example of a popular song inspired by the Dies Irae.
  • Respighi's Pini di Roma - so awesome, it influenced John Williams (and even more awesome when it accompanies humpback whales flying into the Aurora Borealis). Of special note is the final movement, "I pini della Via Appia" (The Pines of Appian Way), which has been described as follows:
    Misty dawn: a legion advances along the Via Appia in the brilliance of the newly-risen sun. Respighi wanted the ground to tremble under the footsteps of his army and he instructs the organ to play bottom B flat on 8', 16' and 32' organ pedal. The score calls for buccine - ancient trumpets that are usually represented by flugelhorns. Trumpets peal and the consular army rises in triumph to the Capitoline Hill.
  • The entirety of Liliane Riboni's "Jeanne d'Arc" album, a Concept Album retelling the story of Joan of Arc, Liliane herself in the role of Joan. For anyone lucky enough to own or track down a copy of this obscure record/CD/cassette, every second is epic. From "Ouverture" which gives us a taste of everything to come, "Lettre Aux Anglais (Un Grand Hahay)", a song that could only be described as 15th century Stadium Rock, the villain song "Pierre Cauchon", and the epic tear jerker finale "Rouén, Seras-Tu Mon Tombeau?", this album has everything that makes a classical album epic.
  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov is one of the more well regarded of the "Mighty Handful" of five Russian nationalist composers of the late 19th century, much of his music transcending Russian borders to have universal appeal.
    • By far Rimsky-Korsakov's most famous composition is "Flight of the Bumblebee", an orchestral interlude from his opera The Tale of Tsar Saltan that is almost synonymous with music that hurtles along at breakneck speed and has been arranged as a solo for almost every instrument in the orchestra (and some outside it).
    • The Russian Easter Festival Overture. Part beautiful, part powerful and energetic, part takes your breath away... It's quite possibly one of the most epic overtures ever written.
    • Also "Story of the Calendar Prince".
  • El Condor Pasa, by the Peruvian composer Daniel Alomia Robles. So epic that Paul Simon inadvertently ripped it off when he was told it was a traditional tune, but the composer's son sued him for it in the friendliest way possible and the misunderstanding was cleared up. The Twelve Girls Band arrangement is arguably the most awesome, especially from 2.56 to the end.
  • Gioachino Rossini is one of the most regularly-performed opera composers.
    • By far Rossini's most popular opera is The Barber of Seville, with especially famous moments including its lively overture (frequently used in animated and live-action films and television, such as the Warner Bros. short The Rabbit Of Seville and the closing credits to The Beatles' film Help!) and "Largo al factotum", the introductory aria of the opera's cheerful protagonist, Figaro; the passage halfway through when he sings his own name over and over is one of the most widely referenced and parodied moments in opera.
    • The overture to The Thieving Magpie is one of Rossini's best, and full of Standard Snippets (most notably the easy-going clarinet theme from the centre section). It was used to great effect for several of the fight scenes in A Clockwork Orange.
    • Rossini's most famous single composition in many countries is the overture to William Tell, even if many people who live in those countries are unable to hear it without imagining The Lone Ranger and Silver galloping across the desert. And there's so much more to the overture than just the "Lone Ranger theme", which is the fourth of four major sections, the others including a solemn opening prominently featuring a solo cello, a terrifying musical storm, and a gentle pastoral (the second most familiar theme from the overture).
  • The second movement of John Rutter's Gloria.
  • Camille Saint-Saëns may be most well-remembered for Carnival of the Animals (a work so different to the rest of his output that he withheld it from publication until after his death), but the awesomeness in his music goes far deeper.
    • Symphony #3, commonly referred to as the "Organ" symphony because it uses that instrument. The most awesome moment is the entrance of the organ in the second half of the second movement, going from near silence in the orchestra to the full organ in an instant. Also marks the shift from C minor to C major. Here are the links for the entire symphony in all its glory.
    • "Mon coeur s'ouvre à ta voix", from his opera Samson et Dalila. Seductive and perfect. Also the wild Bacchanal from Act III.
    • "Danse Macabre". The Grim Reaper rocking out to xylophone (in one of its first prominent appearances in western classical music) and Psycho Strings? Yes please! Play this on Halloween. Loudly.
    • Where Carnival of the Animals itself is concerned, there's Fossils, a gleeful parody of "Danse Macabre", complete with xylophone. And Aquarium, almost the perfect accompaniment for scuba diving or spacewalk scenes. And then there's the vibrant, humorous Finale.
    • Saint-Saëns composed five piano concerti, of which the most popular, with good reason, is No.2 in G minor, moving from an expansive, slow opening movement to a playful scherzo and a frenzied, tarantella-like finale that offers a real showcase for the pianist's skill. No.5 in F major, the "Egyptian", is also a half-hour of awesome from the sweeping grandeur of the first movement to the by turns mysterious and genial slow movement (which uses the overtones produced by the piano strings to remarkable effect in two passages) to the bouncy, virtuosic finale.
  • Erik Satie's "Trois Gymnopédies". Three short, but insanely beautiful pieces. Fittingly, many modern media use them, often the first, to enhance the impact of sad or emotional moments, to great effect; examples include MOTHER 3, The Disappearance of Haruhi Suzumiya, and My Dinner with Andre.
  • Domenico Scarlatti, a contemporary of Bach and Handel, wrote many, many sonatas for the harpsichord (555 if we go by the most widely used catalogue, compiled in 1953 by American harpsichordist Ralph Kirkpatrick), but special mention goes to the whimsically named "Cat's Fugue" in G minor. The story goes that Scarlatti had a pet kitty named Pulcinella that liked to walk across the keyboard. The six unusually spaced out notes that make up the main subject is said to be a phrase the cat unwittingly played one time, which Scarlatti decided to note down and build a fugue on.
  • Franz Schubert may have died tragically young, with many more pieces to write, but he wrote so much incredibly accessible and just plain awesome music that it's hard not to feel anything but gratitude for what we have.
    • Erlkonig. Dark, whimsical, and completely menacing.
    • Though his work as a symphonist lives in the shadow of his contemporary, Beethoven, Schubert made several outstanding contributions to the medium's evolution in the early 1800s.
      • Schubert's first six symphonies were works of his youth, and the first classic among them is No.4 in C minor (Tragic), written when he was just 19. Highlights include the clouds of minor key gloom in the first and last movements parting for their respective major key codas and a minuet that is surprisingly dark given its major key and makes extensive use of hemiolas to fool the listener into thinking it is in 3/2 rather than 3/4.
      • Six months after No.4, Schubert finished work on the genial Symphony No.5 in B-flat major. The slow movement is a particularly outstanding example of Schubert's lifelong fondness for unexpected harmonic progressions through distantly related keys.
      • The Symphony in B minor (Unfinished) is almost more famous for only having two of its planned four movements completed by Schubert's deathnote  than for its musical merits, but it rises far above the novelty of its half-finished state. The first movement boasts a haunting introduction for lower strings only which leads into a songlike main theme for oboe over an insistent violin accompaniment; the pastoral second theme provides a striking contrast while still sounding like a natural follow-up to the first theme. The E major second movement, meanwhile, finds Schubert at his most serene, and is another first class example of his gift for harmonic progressions.
      • The mammoth "Great" C major symphonynote  is the apex of Schubert's orchestral works, packing countless memorable melodies and clever harmonies into nearly an hour of music.
    • Schubert was a master of Lieder, songs for voice and piano. There are so many to choose from to find awesomeness that even listing the cream of the crop could furnish an entire page of examples.
    • The "Trout" Quintet for piano and strings is packed with awesome moments for all of the performers; the wild scherzo and the two slower movements that frame it (including the variations on Schubert's Lied "The Trout" which give the quintet its nickname) are especially delightful.
    • In the last few years of his life, Schubert wrote a truly staggering number of awesome pieces for various chamber groups:
      • The Octet in F major for clarinet, bassoon, horn, and string quintet (with double bass) is six movements of concentrated brilliance that manages to outshine the piece it imitates, Beethoven's Septet in E-flat major for the same instruments, less one violin (see corresponding entry). Highlights include a clarinet solo-led slow movement, a rollicking scherzo and trio, a graceful set of variations on the melody of one of the composer's early Lieder, and a finale with a dark, minor key introduction that soon gives way to a joyful major key sonata allegro.
      • Schubert's two piano trios in B-flat major and E-flat major are among the greatest examples of the form; the second movement from the E-flat major trio was memorably used for the score to Stanley Kubrick's 1975 film Barry Lyndon, and its main theme re-appears in two episodes in the finale to give the work a sense of unity.
      • His last four string quartets very nearly rival Beethoven's last five quartets as supreme examples of the form. No.12 in C minor only ever had its first movement completed, but what a powerful movement it is! No.13 in A minor is inspired by melodies from the composer's early work, including the incidental music to the play Rosamunde (whence the quartet gets its nickname). The dramatic and intense No.14 in D minor (Death and the Maiden) is perhaps the most popular of Schubert's quartets; the coda of the finale, in which a triumphant major resolution is subverted at the last minute, is a particular highlight. And No.15 in G major finds Schubert at the height of his flair for surprising harmonic modulations; the outer movements are especially striking as they hop between the major and minor modes with abandon.
      • The almost hourlong String Quintet in C major is often named the greatest string quintet ever composed, and one of the greatest chamber works ever composed.note  The Adagio contains some of Schubert's loveliest writing, as well as a surprisingly stormy centre section.
    • Schubert's last three piano sonatas are often pointed to as examples of how Schubert was fast catching up with Beethoven as a master of the form, and may have overtaken him had he not died aged 31.note  The agitated No.19 in C minor bookends a charming slow movement and a tense minuet with two storms very much in the mould of Beethoven's Pathetique sonata in the same key. The heroic No.20 in A major is ingeniously tied off with a neat bow when the chord progression in the opening measures of the first movement recurs near the end of the finale. And the easy-going No.21 in B-flat major is perhaps the greatest piano sonata composed between Beethoven's last sonata and Liszt's B minor sonata, with all four movements, especially the epic-length first (over 20 minutes with repeats in most recordings and performances), packed with Schubert's signature songlike melodies and unexpected harmonic shifts.note 
    • The Ave Maria, memorably used as the concluding piece in the original Fantasia, is one of the loveliest vocal pieces ever composed.
  • Robert Schumann is another master of the early Romantic Era, and more than delivers on the awesome front.
    • His Piano Concerto in A minor stands as one of the masterpieces of the genre. From the piano's opening flourish to the triumphant final chords, it is 35 minutes of pure awesome. Edvard Grieg liked it so much, he based his own piano concerto on it (using the same home key, an opening flourish in the piano, and even similar main themes).
    • Schumann's music for solo piano also contains many gems; for example, the Toccata in C, Op.7 is a huge adrenaline rush for both pianist and listener, the three-movement Fantasy in C, Op.17 has many moments of lyricism and drama (the buoyant yet technically demanding coda of the second movement is a particular highlightnote ), and the Arabesque in C, Op.18 contains some of Schumann's most charming melodies.
  • Dmitri Shostakovich, the third titan of Soviet music along with Khachaturian and Prokofiev, has many, many moments of awesome music.
    • The Op. 87 set of 24 Preludes and Fugues for the piano are full of awesome moments for both composer and performer. Particular highlights include No.4 in E minor (one of two in which the fugue is built on two subjects; in the climax, both subjects enter in stretto (overlapping) simultaneously), No.12 in G-sharp minor (the furious first half of the fugue, written in 5/4 time, is especially exhilarating), No.15 in D-flat major (especially the sheer, unending energy of the fugue), No.21 in B-flat major (from a moto perpetuo prelude to a fugue of ever-building energy), and No.24 in D minor (an epic journey from tragedy to triumph).
    • The finale of Symphony #5 is brilliant and exciting, always climbing up by semitones and pushing the tension up further with each step, along with judicious use of Dramatic Timpani. And Symphony #9, written at the behest of Josef Stalin who commissioned it as a celebration of victory in World War II, which completely mocks the idea of a grandiose celebratory symphony in favour of a more "folksy" style.
    • For the lighter (yet still awesome) side of Shostakovich, there's Waltz No.2 from the Suite for Variety Orchestra, along with his Festive Overture Op. 96, which gets bonus points for possibly being a celebration of the death of Joseph Stalin the previous year.
    • Tahiti Trot, Opus 27, if you know the backstory: A conductor friend played a recording of "Tea for Two" to the 22-years-old Shostakovich, and bet him 100 roubles that he could not do a complete orchestration from memory in 1 hour. He did it in 45 minutes.
    • Shostakovich's concerti for various soloists and orchestra include some of his most accessible and awesome works.
      • The Piano Concerto No.1 is scored for an orchestra comprising a solo trumpet and a string section; while the piano gets its fair share of fireworks, the solo trumpet really takes off in the finale, to great effect.
      • Although his Piano Concerto No.2 is by far the less technically demanding of his piano concerti,note  it is one of the few Shostakovich pieces to feature an atmosphere approaching pure joy in the first and especially third movements. The haunting second movement is also six minutes of outstanding beauty.
      • His Violin Concerto No.1 taxes the soloist's skill to its very limit, especially in the turbulent scherzo, the weighty passacaglia, the massive cadenza for unaccompanied violin, and the boisterous finale.
      • The Cello Concerto No.1 includes a gleeful parody of one of Stalin's favourite songs in its sardonic finale. The three movements leading up to it (a tense Allegro dominated by the soloist, an eerie, sparsely-scored slow movement, and a virtuoso cadenza for unaccompanied cello) are also packed with awesome.
    • Shostakovich ranks just behind Ravel and Bartók when it comes to 20th century composers of string quartets. Though most of his fifteen quartets function as a musical personal diary (especially the most frequently performed of them all, No.8 in C minor, which is dominated by his "musical monogram" of "D E-flat C B"note  and includes quotes from multiple previous compositions of his), describing thoughts and exploring musical ideas that Stalin's government would never have allowed to be made public, there's some awesome mixed in with the intensely emotional journeys, particularly in the early quartets.
      • Quartet No.2 in A major goes from a brash opening Overture to a nuanced Recitative and Romance (the first violin gets extended time in the spotlight in the recitatives bracketing the romance) to a spooky Waltz in which the four instruments play with mutes throughout - in spite of which the music manages to build to a hellish fortississimo climax in the middle - to a grim Theme and Variations in which the energy of each variation is turned up further and further to a furious release in the form of a re-iteration of the movement's introduction, another appearance of which closes out the quartet in A minor instead of A major.
      • Though Shostakovich never really stood by the "horrors of war"-inspired "programme" he officially published for the five movements of Quartet No.3 in F major, the shift from an opening movement of outward calm with tension just below the surface (with an especially clever fugato passage on its main theme in the development) to two scherzi, the first tense and the second pure, unrelenting fury, followed by a sombre slow movement and a finale that seems to be trying to pick up the pieces certainly puts one in mind of a terrifying cataclysm and its aftermath.
    • These moments, however, all come with the caveat that many of Shostakovich's ostensible moments of awesome are often alternatively interpreted as hollow triumphs, the music wearing a big fake plastic smile to hide inner grief and torment (much like Shostakovich himself for much of his life). Moments frequently interpreted in this way include the aforementioned finale of Symphony No.5 and the concluding prelude and fugue in D minor from Op.87. This does not detract from their quality, but it does add a rather sinister edge to many supposed triumphant conclusions in his works.
  • Jean Sibelius is Finland's most famous composer, and his music became an integral part of the country's search for its national identity in the early 20th century, but even non-Finns can find plenty to love about his music.
    • Finlandia, one of many tone poems doubling as a love letter to Sibelius' homeland.
    • The Swan of Tuonela guards the realm of the dead in Finnish mythology, and Sibelius' depiction of the singing swan gliding slowly over the dark waters of Tuonela is wonderful.
    • Sibelius is widely held to be one of the 20th century's greatest symphonists, and with good reason; he experimented with form in a way few composers had done since Beethoven, and still managed to fill every page with charming melodies and emotional power.
      • Symphony No.2 in D major puzzled early critics, but audiences loved it, from the first movement in which the main musical ideas initially appear as fragments and only assemble into a coherent whole during the development (an inversion of traditional sonata allegro structure), through the haunting slow movement, the urgent scherzo, and the finale whose grandeur and eventual triumph is now regarded as a musical depiction of Finland's struggle for independence and optimism for the future. It remains one of his most popular symphonies.
      • Symphony No.5 in E-flat major is the main competitor with No.2 for the title of Sibelius' most popular symphony. From an opening movement that fuses sonata allegro and scherzo in a way that defies analysis to this day, to a serene slow movement framed as a set of variations, to the soaring "swan call" finale that ends with six sudden outbursts from the full orchestra, it sticks in the memory long after the final unison E-flat.
      • Symphony No.7 in C major is a formal masterpiece that unfolds over just one movement but packs so many memorable ideas into that frame, and it has quite possibly the greatest (and most enigmatic) ending of any piece of classical music.
    • His Violin Concerto in D minor, opus 47 is a favorite among the virtuosos, and rightfully so - not least as it frequently rates as one of the most technically difficult in the violinist's standard repertoire.
    • Sibelius also had his upbeat moments. The March from the Karelia Suite, Opus 11 is full of jaunty cheer.
  • Bedrich Smetana was the first major Bohemian/Czech nationalist composer, and remains one of the most beloved.
    • Ma vlast (My Country/Homeland) is a set of six symphonic poems, each poem depicting some aspect of the countryside, history, or legends of Bohemia.
      • The second poem, "Vltava" (sometimes referred to by its German title, "Die Moldau"), depicts the river that runs through Bohemia towards its junction with the Elbe; it is Smetana's best-known and most internationally popular orchestral composition, and rightly so.
      • While not as famous as "Vltava", the other poems of Ma vlast are not without awesome, especially the first, "Vysherad", where the harp and song of the bard Lumir recreates the glory and fall of the ancient castle Vysherad of Prague, is goosebump-inducing.
    • Second behind "Vltava" among Smetana's most famous works is his outgoing, energetic overture to the opera The Bartered Bride. From the initial burst from the orchestra introducing the overture's two motifs, to the string sections entering one or two at a time with the second motif as the music builds to the triumphant entrance of a third theme, to a tapestry weaving all three ideas together, and ultimately to an exuberant coda, it is six and a half minutes of exhilaration and delight.
  • Robert W Smith, anyone? The Ascension, Inferno, Paradiso, Into the Storm.
  • Although Dmitri Shostakovich frequently worked his "musical monogram" of "D E-flat C B" into his music, Scottish composer Ronald Stevenson outdid him many times over with his gigantic Passacaglia on DSCH, dedicated to Shostakovich himself.note  Over 70 minutes long, the piece repeats a seven-bar version of the "DSCH" theme throughout as it moves through a huge variety of musical forms including a sonata allegro, a Baroque-style dance suite, several sets of variations on other themes, a percussive tribute "to emergent Africa", and a concluding triple fugue on the DSCH theme, Bach's musical monogram (B-flat A C B-natural), and the "Dies irae" plainchant theme. It is truly a thing of wonder when performed live or recorded.
  • Anything by the Strauss family... Most notably the Radetzky March by Johann Strauss I (which many Austrians wish were the country's national anthem), and the Blue Danube Waltz and Thunder and Lightning by Johann Strauss II.
  • Richard Strauss may not have been related to Johann Strauss father and son, but his music is just as instantly familiar, and just as awesome.
    • The tone poem Also Sprach Zarathustra is Strauss' masterwork. While the score for 2001: A Space Odyssey was still being composed, Stanley Kubrick played this among other pieces to provide atmosphere during filming, and liked the effect so much he made it the centrepiece of the film's official score (along with the "Blue Danube" Waltz by the other Strauss); the opening "Sunrise", one of the musical embodiments of the word "epic", still conjures majestic images of planets and stars.
    • His "Four Last Songs", for soprano and orchestra, written towards the end of his life, when Germany was devastated after World War II, are among the most beautiful and grandest sad music ever written: "At Sunset" (Turn up your speakers!)
  • Igor Stravinsky grabbed classical music by the collar and dragged it - kicking and screaming at first, but eventually more willingly - into the twentieth century.
    • The Rite of Spring shocked its first audiences with its musically violent depiction of a Virgin Sacrifice. It's now regarded as one of the greatest works of its era, and rightly so. Walt Disney liked it so much he made it the only work by a living composer to be incorporated into Fantasia.note 
    • Listen to the finale of The Firebird and weep.
    • The majestic Symphony of Psalms was named by Time magazine as the outstanding classical composition of the twentieth century, its settings of verses from Psalms 38, 40, and 150 carrying the listener on a wave of glorious music to realms usually unreachable by mere mortals.
  • The operettas of librettist W.S. Gilbert and composer Arthur Sullivan may be viewed as lightweight fluff, and when they're not, they're generally parodying heavy-handed drama through exaggeration, but the duo still sprinkled a wealth of outstanding tunes throughout their work.
    • "For he is an Englishman" from H.M.S. Pinafore is one of Gilbert and Sullivan's many affectionate parodies of patriotic songs, but it is by far the most catchy and memorable.
    • The patter song to end all patter songs, "I am the Very Model of a Modern Major General" from The Pirates of Penzance, may be the pair's most well-known composition, and is an awesome moment not just for them but for any singer who can get through it without stumbling. For that matter, the opera also contains two brilliant examples of counterpoint, first "How Beautifully Blue the Sky" and "When the Foeman Bears His Steel", which is also the Trope Namer for Go Ye Heroes, Go and Die.
    • Iolanthe, as well as featuring a beautifully orchestrated overture that spins together six songs from the operetta,note  includes one of the great choral entrances of the Savoy operas in "Loudly Let the Trumpet Bray" (AKA The March of the Peers). Although the onomatopaeic imitations of trumpets and drums help to present the Lords as pompous twits (before their dialogue firmly establishes them as such), it still manages to be one of Gilbert and Sullivan's most stirring collaborations.
    • Koko, the Lord High Executioner in The Mikado, is generally played as an utter buffoon, but his entrance song, "Behold the Lord High Executioner", is one of the operetta's highlights. Another is the song immediately following, "As Someday It May Happen" (AKA the "Little List" song), which Gilbert deliberately wrote in such a way as to allow the cast and crew to tailor the lyrics to skewer whichever contemporary objectionables they saw fit to ridicule, and which many a Koko through the years has used to hilarious effect.
    • Sullivan's overture to The Yeomen of the Guard weaves fragments of six songs and/or instrumental cues from the rest of the operetta to create a triumphant introduction to one of their most popular collaborations.
  • Thomas Tallis, a 16th-century English composer of choral music, wrote a 40-part chorale, called Spem in Alium. It was written for 8 separate five-voiced choirs. The voices in this song will lift up your soul and carry it off to heaven.
  • Speaking about being carried off to heaven, Sir John Tavener's amazing "Song for Athene" was probably unfamiliar to most Americans until it was played the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales.
  • Though Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was considered out of place at a time when his fellow Russian composers were writing staunchly nationalist music, his work has proven more enduringly popular.
    • The "1812 Overture" literally leads the charge for Tchaikovsky: a work that is played with a triumphant Russian chorus, numerous thundering chimes, fireworks, and freaking cannons. To quote Calvin, "And they perform this in crowded concert halls? Gee, I thought classical music was boring!"
      • Perhaps the only piece of music that REQUIRES cannons, carillon, and an organ (or military band) to perform properly. Since there are perhaps only a dozen places where these three instruments can be used, live performances will use at best two out the three, with the third instrument being pre-recorded, or ignoring the organ orchestration altogether. (It's possible to fake the cannons by giving members in the audience...paper bags. Which does greatly diminish the effect, but it's better than nothing. Also, the carillon are very frequently replaced with a set of tubular bells and local church bells.)
      • Being able to play this beast of a musical piece properly is a Moment of Awesome in and of itself, regardless of what type of band you're in. Anyone who has participated in a performance can tell you just how hard it really is.
      • The final minute or so is a Moment of Awesome (to the point that most listeners only know that part of the piece; in the United States in particular, it often accompanies Fourth of July fireworks displays), but one has to hear the whole piece (over fifteen minutes in most performances and recordings) to truly appreciate it for what it is. The rest is just haunting and Gothic awesome. There's a particularly nice section where the Marseillaise is given a grand stirring reprise, rising towards an apparent climax of epic proportions - only to get drowned out by a volley of cannons right at the very moment when it reaches the peak, representing the tide turning against Napoleon's invading armies.note  The more famous volley of cannons in the final minute is accompanied by a triumphant statement of the then-national anthem of Russia, "God Save the Tsar!", in the lower strings and brass.note 
    • Tchaikovsky is also perhaps the most celebrated composer of ballet music:
      • Nutcracker, anyone? A Christmas staple all over Europe and North America for decades, packed with awesome from the buoyant Overture and the rousing March that open Act I to the suite of dances in the middle of Act II, several of which - including the ethereal Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, the flighty Dance of the Reed Flutes, the boisterous Trepak, and the graceful Waltz of the Flowers - have become Standard Snippets.note 
      • Swan Lake is another classic. The overture from Swan Lake was used to terrifying effect in the trailers for Black Swan, using that upswing in the middle to punctuate the ad.
    • Tchaikovsky's concerti include some outstanding classics:
      • The violin concerto. Why only one violin concerto, Piotr Illitch? Why?
      • Piano Concerto No.1 in B-flat minor - and not just the famous first three minutes. The first movement is all kinds of large scale awesome, with many moments of drama and high emotion, while the second movement is an oasis of calm (interrupted in the middle by a virtuosic whirlwind) before the tempestuous yet ultimately triumphant finale. A real tour de force for any pianist.
    • It is sometimes joked that Tchaikovsky composed three symphonies, but made the strange decision to number them 4, 5, and 6, as Nos.4-6 are performed and recorded far more often than Nos.1-3.note  Although the first three symphonies have their moments, and No.6 in B minor (Pathétique) has a few awesome passages in an otherwise tragedy-laden musical swan song for the composer, the crown for awesome among Tchaikovsky's symphonies jointly goes to No.4 in F minor and No.5 in E minor. Both have ambitious opening movements spanning wide ranges of emotions, from pathos to fury to triumph and back to pathos. The F minor follows this with a solemn slow movement and a playful scherzo in which the strings play pizzicato throughout, while the inner movements of the E minor include a beautiful French horn solo-led slow movement and a graceful waltz. Both then turn up the energy to full to go out in a blaze of major-key glory in their finales. Exhilarating stuff from start to finish.
    • Though Tchaikovsky's Fantasy-Overture on Romeo and Juliet is most famous for its "love theme" (a staple of romantic scenes in film and television, especially comically over-sentimental ones), the music has its fiery, dramatic moments as well - Tchaikovsky was well aware that the story was a tragedy as well as a romance.
  • Ophelia's Mad Scene from Hamlet by Ambroise Thomas. Thirteen minutes long, incredibly difficult, and incredibly haunting.
  • Modern classical, but classical still: composer Christopher Tin of the Video Games example Baba Yetu, released an album called "Calling All Dawns." This album can basically be described as more than an hour of Awesome Music. A song cycle depicting day, night, and dawn, it is made up of 12 songs (including an epic reorchestration of Baba Yetu itself). Each song is sung in a different language, each segues smoothly into the next, sometimes with no break, and the album ends on the same sequence of notes with which it began. And it is stirringly, tear-jerkingly beautiful.
    • Special Awesome Music mention goes to "Rassemblons-Nous" (Let Us Gather), which from the title sounds like it would be some type of Kumbaya song, but in French. Instead, it's a techno-backed anthem about giving destiny the finger, building a La Résistance against death itself, and pure, unmitigated AWESOME.
    • "Kia Hora Te Marino" needs a mention too. Sung in Maori, it would make for a great anthem for peace. More or less, it's a powerful ending to an incredible album.
  • Ralph Vaughan Williams has more than earned his place as one of the most beloved English composers.
    • The Lark Ascending. It is often presented in concert or recorded programs along with Fantasia on a theme of Thomas Tallis, which is heart-stirring and emotionally rending without ever being sappy.
    • Fantasia on Christmas Carols, especially once the "Come All You Worthy Gentlemen" part starts at roughly 4:25 (depending on the recording). Near the end, the choir is alternating verses of "Come All You Worthy Gentlemen" and "The Sussex Carol".
    • Vaughan Williams' symphonies: No.7, known as Sinfonia Antarctica (adapted from his score for the 1948 film Scott of the Antarctic), and No.5 in D major, especially the second movement. And his Norfolk suite. It is said that Vaughan Williams more than anyone matched the epic mode of Tolkien.
  • Giuseppe Verdi stands with Wagner and Puccini as one of the three most celebrated operatic composers, having written a number of the most frequently performed operas.
    • The Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves from Nabucco is a good introduction to his music.
    • "La donna è mobile" from Rigoletto is operatic hypocrisy at its catchiest, as The Casanova Duke of Mantua sings about how it is women who are the fickle ones, never giving their affection to the same man for more than a few moments at a time. It gets a memorable Dark Reprise in the opera's final scene when, as the Duke wanders past in the background while singing the aria, Rigoletto comes to the horrible realisation that the body in the sack he is holding is not the Duke's after all...
    • The "Anvil" Chorus from Il Trovatore is another of Verdi's most familiar operatic moments, with a chorus of gypsies hailing the dawn of a new day, punctuated by the metallic clang of hammers on anvils, that is guaranteed to rouse any spirits.
    • "Libiamo ne' lieti calici", the brindisi or "drinking song" from Act I of La Traviata, is pure joy from start to finish (worlds away from the opera's inevitable tragic conclusion), with an instantly recognisable melody that hops back and forth across an interval of a major sixth.
    • La forza del destino opens with a powerful overture that combines one of the most compelling "fate" motifs outside Beethoven's Symphony No.5 (a unison E, played thrice) with the haunting melody of the aria "Invano, Alvaro". The melody in question was memorably adapted by Jean-Claude Petit into the score of Claude Berri's 1986 cinematic duology Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources.
    • The "Dies irae" from Verdi's Requiem Mass brings new meaning to the phrase "Day of wrath". It was used to great effect in the opening cinema of Quidditch World Cup.
  • Louis Vierne is often held up as Exhibit A in the argument that in the late 19th and early 20th century, the greatest organists and organ composers were based in France.
    • Vierne wrote two sets of 24 pieces in all the major and minor keys for organ, reminiscent of Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier. One of the most stunning pieces from the earlier set, entitled "Pièces en style libre" ("Pieces in free style"), is No.21 in B-flat major, Carillon de Longpont. The motoric ostinato which dominates the piece is based on the melody of the chapel bells from the Chateau de Longpont, and Vierne's treatment of it radiates grandeur and splendour from every note.
    • Vierne's second set of 24 pieces in all the major and minor keys for organ, "Pièces de fantaisie", is so vast he had to publish it as four separate sets of six, every one a winner. In the first set, following the buoyant Prélude, the eerie Andantino, the unsettled Caprice, the jaunty Intermezzo, and the solemn Requiem Aeternam (the main theme of which quotes the "Dies irae" plainchant theme), the final piece is the triumphant Marche Nuptiale in B-flat major, a recessional march that swells with pride and majesty from the opening block chords in the manuals through to the double octave triplets in the pedal in the final measures. The return of the opening melody in the pedal three-quarters of the way into the piece is especially powerful.note 
    • The second set of "Pièces de fantaisie" opens with the doleful Lamento (notable for its very forward-looking harmonic language) and the graceful Sicilienne (which has a truly radiant final-measure minor-to-major transition), and also includes the serene Clair de Lune (one of the most frequently performed and recorded pieces across all four suites, it is also forward-looking in its harmonies and features two-voice counterpoint in the pedals in its centre section). The other three pieces in the set are where the true awesome appears:
      • The exuberant Hymne au Soleil in G major shines every bit as brightly as the celestial body to which it pays tribute, the four-voice chords in the manuals in the outer sections filling every inch of the room (or church) with a melody that returns in glorious fashion in the piece's final third.
      • The restless Feux-follets in B minor darts in and out, suddenly building and just as quickly cutting off, painting a compelling musical picture of the will-o'-the-wisp, lights that flicker and flash and then vanish just as swiftly as they appear, leaving us wondering if we imagined them.
      • The set finishes off with the brutal Toccata in B-flat minor, technically demanding and emotionally dark. With its perpetual motion semiquavers over octave hops back and forth in the pedals, it charges along like a runaway train, retreats into the shadows for the softer yet more ominous centre section, and finally re-emerges, culminating in a dense double note passage in both hands followed by block chords over a virtuoso pedal passage, its fires burning brightly to the very end.
    • In the third set of "Pièces de fantaisie", the first three pieces are the reverent Dédicace, the playful Impromptu (another of the most frequently performed and recorded pieces across all four suites, it has a real sense of fun even before it hops from minor to major for the coda), and the shimmering Étoile du soir. The second three pieces are where things really take off:
      • The spooky Fantômes in C-sharp minornote  opens with heavy chords posing the question of "the Evoker": "Who then prepares the future?" The bulk of the piece is a five-way attempt to answer this question. A recurring arugment sets "the Young Esthete", whose parallel octave arabesque theme states that the future is his since he is free, against "the Old Pedant", whose Gregorian chant-inspired theme claims that the future is his as he guards the traditions. They are interrupted twice, first when "the Negro" and his sprightly theme suggest that the future belongs to the dancer, and second when "the Monkey" and "the Beggar" alternately declare that future is in the hands of, respectively, fancy and misery (the latter represented by a hurdy-gurdy-like rendition of "O Sole Mio"), all while "the Evoker" repeats the question. But it is Fate itself that has the final, hushed word about the future: "It is nowhere and everywhere."
      • With the towering Sur le Rhin in E-flat minor, Vierne pays homage to the river separating France and Germany. The outer sections feature a theme that is equal parts majestic and intimidating, and in the conclusion of the piece, it is accompanied by parallel octaves in the pedal, all building up to a spectacular block chord passage in which the minor key clouds finally part for what is easily the most transcendent major resolution of the six that appear across all four sets.note 
      • By far the most well-known piece in the collection is the sparkling Carillon de Westminster in D major. Vierne starts with the full set of melodies played by the famous "Big Ben" chimesnote  and constructs a spectacular virtuoso toccata around it that builds to a conclusion every bit as monumental as the clock tower to which it pays homage, especially as the "hour chimes" are condensed into a twelve-note figure that booms forth from the pedal in the coda.
    • The fourth set of "Pièces de fantaisie" gets going even sooner than the first three. After opening with the charming Aubade and the haunting Résignation, Vierne finishes off the set of twenty-four pieces in style:
      • The gargantuan Cathédrales in A major, which takes longer to perform than any other piece across all four sets, opens with a pedal theme that returns in the piece's climax, every bit as glorious and majestic as the cavernous interiors of Gothic cathedrals - particularly Vierne's beloved Notre Dame de Paris - to which it pays homage, ultimately giving way to a serene coda that almost functions as a benediction after all that has gone before.
      • The flighty Naïades in B major features a perpetual motion triplet figure that swoops and soars, occasionally played in counterpoint with a songlike figure as the water spirits represented by the piece call out to passing sailors before swimming down below the sea's surface and then up again.
      • The sinister Gargouilles et Chimères in F-sharp minor pays tribute to the exterior of the Gothic cathedrals from two pieces earlier, opening with gloomy parallel chords in the manuals and leading to sudden fast outbursts that are as compelling as they are grotesque.
      • Though somewhat overshadowed by the other tribute to English bells, the majestic Les Cloches de Hinckley in E major is still a worthy finale to the massive "Pièces de fantaisie" collection. It takes its cue from the descending scale played by the church bells in the village of Hinckley and sculpts a whirlwind of organ brilliance around it, anchored by a chorale-like melodic figure and culminating with 28 consecutive descending scales in the right hand that somehow never seem to get old.
    • Among his organ symphonies, the first movement of his Third, with the opening motif popping up again and again throughout, is brilliantly written to show off the instrument's range and the organist's talent,note  making Ominous Pipe Organ a thing of beauty and majesty in and of itself.
  • Antonio Vivaldi ranks behind only Bach and Handel among famous composers of the Baroque era, with good reason.
  • Richard Wagner may be the main focus of satires of operatic excess, but that's only because there's so much awesome to satirise.
    • Ride of the Valkyries. Sure, it's Music of Note, but it's still CMOA. Unfortunately, this one's picked up a few nasty connotations due to the Nazis' usage of it. But then, it could be argued that more people associate Ride of the Valkyries with Apocalypse Now than with Those Wacky Nazis. Or with Bugs Bunny - "Kill the wabbit, kill the wabbit!" Or the tank driver in StarCraft.
    • Also, Götterdämmerung. Oh hell, all of Der Ring des Nibelungen is pretty amazing.
    • Looking beyond the Ring, the Pilgrims' Chorus from Tannhaüser is outstanding.
  • British composer William Walton started out in the 1920s as a wild, anti-establishment avantgardist (check out his Facade from 1922). So it is a bit ironic that he is mainly remembered for writing music with a high helping of Patriotic Fervor:
    • When George VI was crowned in 1936 Walton wrote the awesome Crown Imperial march, which has since been played frequently at festive occasions in the House of Windsor.
    • Sixteen years later, when George's daughter Elizabeth was crowned, Walton did it again with Orb and Sceptre.
    • During WWII Walton drove ambulances and wrote music to morale-boosting films. His rousing music to The First of the Few, a (highly romanticized) biopic about John Mitchell, the man who constructed the Spitfire fighter plane, became an instant success and was later made into the triumphant Spitfire Prelude and Fugue.
  • In 1988, a kid named Eric Whitacre entered the University of Nevada with plans to become a rock star. But somehow he ended up in the choir instead, and since then has been turning out piece after piece of dramatic, breathtaking music in the classical style. He wrote his first piece, "Go, Lovely Rose", at 20, and his dream came true: amongst the choral-music community, he is a rock star, equaled only by the work of Morten Lauridsen. "The Seal Lullabye" (commissioned for the movie that became Kung Fu Panda), "Water Night", Pirates of the Caribbean's "Mermaid Song" (co-written with Hans Zimmer)... this guy's done it all. Perhaps his most surreal piece is "Godzilla Eats Las Vegas!", an affectionate pastiche of every cliche Las Vegas music act out there. For best results, watch the slideshow behind the ensemble and/or read Whitacre's program notes while listening.
  • Charles-Marie Widor, one of the teachers of Louis Vierne (see corresponding entry), was one of the undisputed masters of music for organ.
  • Tempered Steel by Charles R. Young; if you don't like it that much, try being backstage while an ensemble is playing it.
  • The Bohemian composer Jan Dismas Zelenka is a hidden gem among Baroque composers; he counted Bach and especially Telemann among his close friends and advocates of his music.note  He was a master of counterpoint in both vocal and instrumental music, but also more adventurous when it came to harmony and structure than many of his contemporaries. Try the six sonatas for two oboes and bassoon as a starting point; each one positively overflows with charming melodic ideas and expertly written three-voice counterpoint.

Alternative Title(s): Classical Music

http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/AwesomeMusic/Classical