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** Marcus Junius Brutus is often invoked as "the last of the Republicans" and one of the last great Romans. A man of principled Republican virtue burdened by ConflictingLoyalty and a tragic hero who failed to save the Republic. The real Brutus was according to Creator/{{Cicero}} a corrupt LoanShark who extorted the poor with exorbitant interest rates, which considering Cicero's own attitudes to the poor, is saying a lot. Likewise, the "Liberators" during the Civil War [[http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/acans/caesar/CivilWars_Libertas.htm cast coins with Brutus' likeness on it]], glorifying their assassination with the words Ides of March coated with daggers and a Purlieus (a symbol of liberty) which regardless of Brutus' motives, does not support someone who was as modest, remorseful and reluctant the way Creator/WilliamShakespeare wrote him. Likewise, putting the likeness of a living Roman on a coin is a mark of autocracy, an illegal action which Pompey and Julius Caesar did, which suggests that Brutus was more or less angling to be a strongman of some kind or another, and it's only his defeat and death that made him "Republican".

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** Marcus Junius Brutus is often invoked as "the last of the Republicans" and one of the last great Romans. A man of principled Republican virtue burdened by ConflictingLoyalty and a tragic hero who failed to save the Republic. The real Brutus was according to Creator/{{Cicero}} a corrupt LoanShark who extorted the poor with exorbitant interest rates, which considering Cicero's own attitudes to the poor, is saying a lot. Likewise, the "Liberators" during the Civil War [[http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/acans/caesar/CivilWars_Libertas.htm cast coins with Brutus' likeness on it]], glorifying their assassination with the words Ides of March coated with daggers and a Purlieus Pileus (a symbol of hat worn by freed slaves symbolizing liberty) which regardless of Brutus' motives, does not support someone who was as modest, remorseful and reluctant the way Creator/WilliamShakespeare wrote him. Likewise, putting the likeness of a living Roman on a coin is a mark of autocracy, an illegal action which Pompey and Julius Caesar did, which suggests that Brutus was more or less angling to be a strongman of some kind or another, and it's only his defeat and death that made him "Republican".


** From the late Republican era, Cato the Younger became the major one. He was a model for incorruptibility to the extent that UsefulNotes/MaximilienRobespierre considered him his role model, even if his politics was way on Cato's left. The Roman poet Lucan in his poem ''Pharsalia'' famously made Cato the hero of an epic poem. Modern historians feel that Cato's intransigence shares much of the blame for the decay of Republican institutions. They also question his courage, noting that he would often go after Pompey's henchmen for profiting of Sulla's proclamations but never go after Pompey or Crassus themselves, that he often seemed more interested in being a SpannerInTheWorks to Caesar out of some personal grudge rather than any true principles, citing his unconstitutional alliance with Pompey, where he and the senate nominated him to a Consul with EmergencyAuthority when that was an elected post. The fact that he was an influence on the Confederate Lost Cause also calls into question his influence.

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** From the late Republican era, Cato the Younger became the major one. He was a model for incorruptibility to the extent that UsefulNotes/MaximilienRobespierre considered him his role model, even if his politics was way on Cato's left. The Roman poet Lucan in his poem ''Pharsalia'' famously made Cato the hero of an epic poem. Modern historians feel that Cato's intransigence shares much of the blame for the decay of Republican institutions. They also question his courage, noting that he would often go after Pompey's henchmen for profiting of Sulla's proclamations proscriptions but never go after Pompey or Crassus themselves, that he often seemed more interested in being a SpannerInTheWorks to Caesar out of some personal grudge rather than any true principles, citing his Caesar's unconstitutional alliance with Pompey, where he and the senate nominated him to a Consul with EmergencyAuthority when that was an elected post. The fact that he was an influence on the [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar Confederate Lost Cause myth]] also calls his influence into question his influence.question.


TheRepublic expanded through Italy both through its BadassArmy and its genius for [[YouWillBeAssimilated wooing conquered people]] from nearby cities who shared similar cultures. The extreme early myths such as the [[AbductionIsLove Rape of the Sabine Women]] portray how much of Rome's early growth was due to both of these factors. At this point Rome was a regional power in Italy. The three UsefulNotes/PunicWars took Rome from merely being the dominant power in Italy to become the largest power in the Mediterranean Basin (to the point where the Romans simply called the Mediterranean ''Mare Nostrum,'' or "Our Sea"). The best known of these wars was the Second Punic War, involving the famous [[FourStarBadass Hannibal]]. Due to these conflicts, Rome [[{{Plunder}} inherited]] the domains of Carthage's [[TheEmpire Empire]], and sway over the Mediterranean rim. Unfortunately, the Roman governmental system wasn't up to governing a large multicultural empire, and internal power struggles grew more and more intense. Added to this was massive corruption and outright stealing of veterans' lands by large landowners. Popular pressure (represented by the famous Gracchi) and Civil War broke out (first between Marius and Sulla, following a war with the Italian "allies"; then between UsefulNotes/PompeyTheGreat and Caesar), until finally TheRepublic was taken over by Julius Caesar. Caesar's successor Octavian, after a long struggle first with Caesar's assassins, then with Caesar's right-hand man Marc Antony, assumed the name Augustus and supreme power as the first Emperor of Rome (''princeps,'' lit. "[[JustTheFirstCitizen first citizen]]," originally a title awarded to the person entitled to speak first in the Senate--Augustus was leery of putting on airs. "Emperor" came from "Imperator" or "commander" in Latin, i.e. commander-in-chief of the armed forces, another of his titles. Obviously having the military backing him was essential for his regime). Though Augustus pretended he was merely first among equals and actually declared the Republic restored, the ascension of Augustus is considered the death of the Republic.

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TheRepublic expanded through Italy both through its BadassArmy and its genius for [[YouWillBeAssimilated wooing conquered people]] from nearby cities who shared similar cultures. The extreme early myths such as the [[AbductionIsLove Rape of the Sabine Women]] portray how much of Rome's early growth was due to both of these factors. At this point Rome was a regional power in Italy. The three UsefulNotes/PunicWars took Rome from merely being the dominant power in Italy to become the largest power in the Mediterranean Basin (to the point where the Romans simply called the Mediterranean ''Mare Nostrum,'' or "Our Sea"). The best known of these wars was the Second Punic War, involving the famous [[FourStarBadass Hannibal]].Hannibal. Due to these conflicts, Rome [[{{Plunder}} inherited]] the domains of Carthage's [[TheEmpire Empire]], and sway over the Mediterranean rim. Unfortunately, the Roman governmental system wasn't up to governing a large multicultural empire, and internal power struggles grew more and more intense. Added to this was massive corruption and outright stealing of veterans' lands by large landowners. Popular pressure (represented by the famous Gracchi) and Civil War broke out (first between Marius and Sulla, following a war with the Italian "allies"; then between UsefulNotes/PompeyTheGreat and Caesar), until finally TheRepublic was taken over by Julius Caesar. Caesar's successor Octavian, after a long struggle first with Caesar's assassins, then with Caesar's right-hand man Marc Antony, assumed the name Augustus and supreme power as the first Emperor of Rome (''princeps,'' lit. "[[JustTheFirstCitizen first citizen]]," originally a title awarded to the person entitled to speak first in the Senate--Augustus was leery of putting on airs. "Emperor" came from "Imperator" or "commander" in Latin, i.e. commander-in-chief of the armed forces, another of his titles. Obviously having the military backing him was essential for his regime). Though Augustus pretended he was merely first among equals and actually declared the Republic restored, the ascension of Augustus is considered the death of the Republic.


The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once a Kingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud[[note]]Put out of your mind all thoughts of a large public transport vehicle that uses its powers to fight crime[[/note]]). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

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The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once a Kingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud[[note]]Put out of your mind all thoughts of a large public transport vehicle that uses its powers to fight crime[[/note]]). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], patricians, controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].


** The Romans themselves helped us by giving titles and nicknames to each other. Cato the Elder was called Cato Censorius or Cato Sapiens, Marcus Tullius was given the nickname Cicero (which means bean). Lucius Cornelius Sulla earned the name Felix referring either to his fortune. Likewise Publius Claudius Pulcher helpfully renamed himself Publius [[XtremeKoolLetterz Clodius]] Pulcher to sound more plebian.

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** The Romans themselves helped us by giving titles and nicknames to each other. Cato the Elder was called Cato Censorius or Cato Sapiens, Marcus Tullius was given the nickname Cicero (which means bean). Lucius Cornelius Sulla earned the name Felix referring either to his fortune. Likewise Publius Claudius Pulcher helpfully renamed himself Publius [[XtremeKoolLetterz Clodius]] Pulcher to sound more plebian. [[note]]Clodius actually had himself adopted by a plebian, with very questionable legality (since his adopter was younger than him and likely too young to legally adopt), so that he could become Tribune of the Plebes despite being of patrician birth. The fact that he merely plebianized his existing name rather than taking his adopter's name as was to be expected further illustrates how fake the adoption was.[[/note]]

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The Optimates were arch-traditionalists who sought to maintain the power of the Senatorial class (ie themselves) above all else. The Populares were populists who sought to make the lives of the usually-impoverished plebians (the lowest social class) better. Contrary to what might be expected, many of the leading Populare politicians were either patricians (the highest social class) or equestrians (the second highest). It's quite unclear whether they genuinely cared much about the plebes' well-being, or just saw they greatly outnumbered the upper classes and wanted to prevent plebian rebellions. Conversely, there were several plebians who managed to attain great wealth and political power...and joined the Optimates to preserve their own newfound power.


* '''The Early Republic''': The Rebellion against the Tarquins, Lucius Brutus and others founding the Republic, Lucius Brutus killing his royalist sons, the Horatii Brothers defending the Bridge (the latter two are subjects of iconic paintings by Creator/JacquesLouisDavid), Caius Marcius ''Theatre/{{Coriolanus}}'' turns renegade and betrays the Republic in opposition to the rise in power of the Plebeians, the dictatorship of Cincinnatus. The sources for this era are largely from the works of historians writing several centuries later in the Imperial Era, namely Titus Livy and Plutarch. As such the historicity of some or all of these events is widely contested and subject to much debate[[note]]Readers of Creator/GeorgeMacdonaldFraser's ''Literature/{{Flashman}}'' will remember how UsefulNotes/TheDukeOfWellington told Flashy at the end of the first book that he found the three horatii brothers single-handedly defending the bridge impossible to believe, noting that it's impossible to believe that militarily it would suffice to make that defense possible. Lord Macaulay disagrees with him in that same scene[[/note]].
* '''The Pyrrhic War''': Remembered best for the [[TropeNamer proverbial]] [[PyrrhicVictory Pyrrhic Victories]] achieved by Pyrrhos, the ambitious king of Epirus (north-western Greece), who battled the expansion of Roman hegemony over the Greek colonies of Southern Italy, and eventually had to give up after winning all battles but the last.

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* '''The Early Republic''': The Rebellion against the Tarquins, Lucius Brutus and others founding the Republic, Lucius Brutus killing his royalist sons, the Horatii Brothers defending the Bridge (the latter two are subjects of iconic paintings by Creator/JacquesLouisDavid), Caius Marcius ''Theatre/{{Coriolanus}}'' turns renegade and betrays the Republic in opposition to the rise in power of the Plebeians, the dictatorship of Cincinnatus.Cincinnatus, the Gallic sack of Rome. The sources for this era are largely from the works of historians writing several centuries later in the Imperial Era, namely Titus Livy and Plutarch. As such the historicity of some or all of these events is widely contested and subject to much debate[[note]]Readers of Creator/GeorgeMacdonaldFraser's ''Literature/{{Flashman}}'' will remember how UsefulNotes/TheDukeOfWellington told Flashy at the end of the first book that he found the three horatii brothers single-handedly defending the bridge impossible to believe, noting that it's impossible to believe that militarily it would suffice to make that defense possible. Lord Macaulay disagrees with him in that same scene[[/note]]. \n In particular, the Gallic sack of Rome ca. 390 BC destroyed most historical records, rendering the earlier history at least semi-mythical.
* '''The Pyrrhic War''': Remembered best for the [[TropeNamer proverbial]] [[PyrrhicVictory Pyrrhic Victories]] achieved by Pyrrhos, the ambitious king of Epirus (north-western Greece), who battled the expansion of Roman hegemony over the Greek colonies of Southern Italy, and eventually had to give up after winning all battles but the last.


The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once a Kingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

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The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once a Kingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud).Proud[[note]]Put out of your mind all thoughts of a large public transport vehicle that uses its powers to fight crime[[/note]]). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].


See also UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire, its successor state. For the Roman Army specifically, see UsefulNotes/TheGloryThatWasRome. See also the following pages of eminent Romans:

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See also UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire, its successor state. For the Roman Army specifically, see UsefulNotes/TheGloryThatWasRome. See also the following pages of eminent Romans:figures of the Roman Republic:


* ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalis: Rome,'', a spinoff of ParadoxInteractive's flagship series.

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* ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalis: Rome,'', a spinoff of ParadoxInteractive's Creator/ParadoxInteractive's flagship series.


The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once TheKingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].

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The second one is the overthrow of the Tarquins. The Romans were once TheKingdom a Kingdom ruled by this Etruscan family. Their last King was the tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). This King was overthrown by conspirators from the aristocratic families, led by Lucius Brutus. After overthrowing the King, he and his fellow aristocrats swore a vow that Rome would never be ruled under a King. They formed what they called a ''respublica'' (literally, "Thing of the People"), from which we gain the term "Republic." Rome was organized as an oligarchy with [[AristocratsAreEvil the Aristocracy, called patricians]], controlling the "Senate" (derived from ''senex'', meaning "old man"), though the public had some say on the issues through the tribunes[[note]]This office was created about 250 years after the republic's founding. Details are at Wiki/TheOtherWiki.[[/note]] (lit. Protector of the People) who had veto power over the Senate, as well as the less formal ability to beg favors from their patrons. This organization is reflected in the famous Roman slogan SPQR which stands for ''Senatus Populusque Romanus,'' or "The Senate and People of Rome." TheRepublic in social structure was quite family-oriented with various clans becoming centers of webs of patronage, a patron/client relationship that has modern answers in political machines and TheMafia. While Rome's system was oligarchical by modern standards it had [[FairForItsDay for its time]] a reputation for justice and stability and its elaborate checks and balances were often admired by Greeks whose cities were often troubled by [[WeAreStrugglingTogether chaos]].


[[caption-width-right:350:Romulus and Remus, Rome's legendary founders]]

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[[caption-width-right:350:Romulus and Remus, Rome's legendary founders]]
founders[[note]]The babies are a 15th-century addition to the older wolf statue. Art historians generally date the wolf to the 11th or 12th century, though it might be an imitation of an earlier Roman work.[[/note]]]]


* Creator/JuliusCaesar

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* Creator/JuliusCaesarUsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar


** Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, was a famous and celebrated socialite in her era, and so popular in her own right, that a Ptolemaic King proposed to her, which she refused. She had a loving marriage with Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and gave birth to 12 Children (which was such a huge deal that her own son Gaius, as per Plutarch, proudly boasted it as her accomplishment, which is fitting since childbirth was the number one killer of most women in the ancient world). Her children invoked Cornelia's chastity and virtue when appealing to people. When she died, long after her famous sons were killed, a statue was erected in her honour. Cicero's letters discuss her long afterwards which mentions her surviving letters that were apparently published and studied for its rhetorical qualities. The only things that survive is a disputed fragment by Cornelius Nepos' Latin biographers which is not seen as entirely authentic but it's indicative of how popular she was.

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** Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, was a famous and celebrated socialite in her era, and so popular in her own right, that a Ptolemaic King proposed to her, which she refused. She had a loving marriage with Tiberius Gracchus the Elder and gave birth to 12 Children children (which was such a huge deal that her own son Gaius, as per Plutarch, proudly boasted it as her accomplishment, which is fitting since childbirth was the number one killer of most women in the ancient world). Her children invoked Cornelia's chastity and virtue when appealing to people. When she died, long after her famous sons were killed, a statue was erected in her honour. Cicero's letters discuss her long afterwards which mentions her surviving letters that were apparently published and studied for its rhetorical qualities. The only things that survive is a disputed fragment by Cornelius Nepos' Latin biographers which is not seen as entirely authentic but it's indicative of how popular she was.



** Another darker story in Livy is that of Verginia. 10 years after the founding of the Republic, the plebes demanded a written constitution (known as the Tables of Rome) that was supposed to be framed by the Decemvirs. Verginia was the daughter of a plebe and engaged to an ex-Tribune, but a corrupt oligarch lusted after her and wanted her as his concubine (more or less a proto-DroitDuSeigneur with Patrician-Plebeian). After trying and failing to appeal to the law and the court to save her, her father finally killers her to spare her the fate of being raped and this triggers a mass uprising. Livy notes that the story is similar to Rape of Lucrece.

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** Another darker story in Livy is that of Verginia. 10 years after the founding of the Republic, the plebes demanded a written constitution (known as the Tables of Rome) that was supposed to be framed by the Decemvirs. Verginia was the daughter of a plebe and engaged to an ex-Tribune, but a corrupt oligarch lusted after her and wanted her as his concubine (more or less a proto-DroitDuSeigneur with Patrician-Plebeian). After trying and failing to appeal to the law and the court to save her, her father finally killers killed her to spare her the fate of being raped and this triggers a mass uprising. Livy notes that the story is similar to Rape of Lucrece.

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* Plutarch's ''Literature/ParallelLives'' is one of the most famous and influential secondary sources for the Republican Era. It's biographical essays on figures like Cato the Elder, the Gracchi, Cato the Younger, Sulla, Pompey, Crassus, Brutus, Cicero, Caesar, Mark Antony has greatly defined the PopCulturalOsmosis of AncientGrome.

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