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''Anatosaurus'' deserves the "duck-billed dinosaur" title more than any other hadrosaur, with its very flat head and spatula-like beak. ''Edmontosaurus'' sensu stricto had a stockier head and a an undulating-edged upper bill, but was still more duckish than most relatives. Their DonaldDuck-like face made these dinosaurs unusually nice-looking, making consequently [[{{Narm}} ridiculous]] their possible portrayal in fiction as [[DinosaursAreDragons dragonlike monsters]] -- resulting more similar to [[NightmareRetardant giant]] [[MixAndMatchCritter duck-lizards]]. In popular work, their "duckness" may even be strongly exaggerated, rendering its flat bill literally identical to a duck's, without any teeth or cheeks. In RealLife, hadrosaurs were not exactly toothless. Behind their bill they had up to ''a thousand'' teeth closely packed together in "batteries" and capable to grind the toughest vegetation (fossil pine needles have been found in the aforementioned mummies), making them the land-vertebrates with the highest number of teeth of every time.

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''Anatosaurus'' deserves the "duck-billed dinosaur" title more than any other hadrosaur, with its very flat head and spatula-like beak. ''Edmontosaurus'' sensu stricto had a stockier head and a an undulating-edged upper bill, but was still more duckish than most relatives. Their DonaldDuck-like face made these dinosaurs unusually nice-looking, making consequently [[{{Narm}} ridiculous]] their possible portrayal in fiction as [[DinosaursAreDragons dragonlike monsters]] -- resulting more similar to [[NightmareRetardant giant]] [[MixAndMatchCritter duck-lizards]]. In popular work, their "duckness" may even be strongly exaggerated, rendering its flat bill literally identical to a duck's, without any teeth or cheeks. In RealLife, hadrosaurs were not exactly toothless. Behind their bill they had up to ''a thousand'' teeth closely packed together in "batteries" and capable to grind the toughest vegetation (fossil pine needles have been found in the aforementioned mummies), making them the land-vertebrates with the highest number of teeth of every time.


This page is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurs, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.

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This page is about the stock [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurs, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.


This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurs, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.

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This subpage page is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurs, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.


Ankylosaurians were once divided in only two families: ankylosaurids (clubbed) and nodosaurids (club-less). Ankylosaurids (among them ''Ankylosaurus'', ''Euoplocephalus'', ''Scolosaurus'', and ''Pinacosaurus'') had a broad head, their armor plates formed a keratin-covered shell with short spikes in many directions, and they had a [[BewareMyStingerTail tail]] [[EpicFlail club]] except for the most primitive forms; proper nodosaurids (including ''Nodosaurus'') had a narrow head, rows of osteoderms on their backs and flanks, and longer spikes jutting out sideways. In recent years a third subgroup has been recognized as distinct from nodosaurids: the polacanthids (including ''Polacanthus'', ''Gastonia'', and possibly ''Hylaeosaurus''), variably classified as either closer to ankylosaurids or to nodosaurids. Finally, the early Jurassic ''Scelidosaurus'' was once considered basal between stegosaurs and ankylosaurs, but many today classify it as an extremely primitive ankylosaur well outside the three subgroups above.

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Ankylosaurians were once divided in only two families: ankylosaurids (clubbed) and nodosaurids (club-less). Ankylosaurids (among them ''Ankylosaurus'', ''Euoplocephalus'', ''Scolosaurus'', and ''Pinacosaurus'') had a broad head, their armor plates formed a keratin-covered shell with short spikes in many directions, and they had a [[BewareMyStingerTail tail]] [[EpicFlail club]] except for the most primitive forms; proper nodosaurids (including ''Nodosaurus'') ''Nodosaurus'', ''Sauropelta'', and ''Edmontonia'') had a narrow head, rows of osteoderms on their backs and flanks, and longer spikes jutting out sideways. In recent years a third subgroup has been recognized as distinct from nodosaurids: the polacanthids (including ''Polacanthus'', ''Gastonia'', and possibly ''Hylaeosaurus''), variably classified as either closer to ankylosaurids or to nodosaurids. Finally, the early Jurassic ''Scelidosaurus'' was once considered basal between stegosaurs and ankylosaurs, but many today classify it as an extremely primitive ankylosaur well outside the three subgroups above.


This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurus, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.

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This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurus, Ankylosaurs, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.


''Stegosaurus''' tail was shorter than that of most sauropods: it was muscular and flexible but not ending with a narrow "whip" like in diplodocid sauropods. The animal may have been able to rest it on the ground to assume a tripod stance and reach higher vegetation, just like what has been hypothized about sauropods. When swung from side to side, this tail made a [[BewareMyStingerTail powerful weapon]] against enemies. Near the tip of the tail was a group of four long spikes known as the ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thagomizer thagomizer]]'', a term that originates from a ''[[ComicStrip/TheFarSide Far Side]]'' cartoon, later adopted by the paleontological community (you can find it used in serious scientific publications) in an even more awesome case of AscendedFanon than the word "raptors".

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''Stegosaurus''' tail was shorter than that of most sauropods: it was muscular and flexible but not ending with a narrow "whip" like in diplodocid sauropods. The animal may have been able to rest it on the ground to assume a tripod stance and reach higher vegetation, just like what has been hypothized about sauropods. When swung from side to side, this tail made a [[BewareMyStingerTail powerful weapon]] [[ToughArmoredDinosaur against enemies.enemies]]. Near the tip of the tail was a group of four long spikes known as the ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thagomizer thagomizer]]'', a term that originates from a ''[[ComicStrip/TheFarSide Far Side]]'' cartoon, later adopted by the paleontological community (you can find it used in serious scientific publications) in an even more awesome case of AscendedFanon than the word "raptors".



''Ankylosaurus'' has been famous since the 1940s as the UpToEleven example of an armored dinosaur. In both fictional and documentary media it is often portrayed in a battle against ''T. rex'', similarly to ''Triceratops''. In these struggles the ankylosaur is seen defending itself by sheltering under its impenetrable bony armor, and using its tail-club like a Medieval mace, breaking the legs of its opponent and making it fall down. This might be TruthInTelevision, even though tyrannosaurs almost certainly didn't prey upon adult ankylosaurians frequently (hadrosaurs were much more abundants and armor-less). Despite their heavy build and short legs, ankylosaurians may have been able to charge the carnivore: their limbs were not pillar-like as the sauropods and stegosaurs, but more similar to those of a rhino or a hippo who are known for their fast charges. Like stegosaurs, ankylosaurs tend today to be portrayed as more agile and active in fights now than in the past: in ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' one easily wins the struggle (despite being shown as a very slow-walking animal), delivering to the carnivore a fatal blow with its tail-mace. When the tyrannosaur is shown winning the battle, it's seen "overturning" the ankylosaur to expone the soft vulnerable underbelly and devouring its flesh there.

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''Ankylosaurus'' has been famous since the 1940s as the UpToEleven example of an armored dinosaur. In both fictional and documentary media it is often portrayed in a battle against ''T. rex'', similarly to ''Triceratops''. In these struggles the ankylosaur is seen defending itself by sheltering under its impenetrable bony armor, and using its tail-club like a Medieval mace, breaking the legs of its opponent and making it fall down. This might be TruthInTelevision, even though tyrannosaurs almost certainly didn't prey upon adult ankylosaurians frequently (hadrosaurs were much more abundants and armor-less). Despite their heavy build and short legs, ankylosaurians may have been able to charge the carnivore: their limbs were not pillar-like as the sauropods and stegosaurs, but more similar to those of a rhino or a hippo who are known for their fast charges. Like stegosaurs, ankylosaurs tend today to be portrayed as more agile and active in fights now than in the past: in ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' one easily wins [[ToughArmoredDinosaur wins]] the struggle (despite being shown as a very slow-walking animal), delivering to the carnivore a fatal blow with its tail-mace. When the tyrannosaur is shown winning the battle, it's seen "overturning" the ankylosaur to expone the soft vulnerable underbelly and devouring its flesh there.


This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurus, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic without leaving descendants.

to:

This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurus, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a still-unknown common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic Mesozoic, this time without leaving descendants.


This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs.

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This subpage is about the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithischia ornithischian]] dinosaurs.
dinosaurs. Ornithischians ("bird-hipped dinosaurs") included a variety of usually herbivorous dinosaurs, from Ceratopsians to Stegosaurs, to Ornithopods, to Ankylosaurus, to still others: some big and other small, some bipedal and other quadrupedal, and others in part bipedal in part quadrupedal. All were accomunated by their skeletal anatomy, expecially their specialized jaws, and this time were surely a natural grouping of dinosaurs that arose in the Triassic from a common ancestor. They eventually went extinct 66 mya in the Mass Extinction that ended the Mesozoic without leaving descendants.


The bony covering on its back should be a snugly fitting mix of large and small plates and be interspersed with short spikes. Many classic portrayals, on the other hand, show long spikes only on the sides, similar to the related nodosaurids. Other portraits go even further, showing totally spikeless ''Ankylosaurus''es: see the aforementioned finale of ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', in which ''Ankylosaurus'' has keeled plates instead of true spines. Finally, the broad head should have four horns behind the eyes and the ends of the mouth, but hornless ''Ankylosaurus''es are not unseen elsewhere. Ironically, one of the few correctly-shaped ankylosaurs in cinema is the [[AllAnimalsAreDogs dog-like]] Url from Disney's ''Dinosaurs'': he was highly undersized, but this may be justified if he was young. Many other inaccuracies seen in ankylosaur portrayals are substantially the same as the stegosaurs.

Being related to each other, stegosaurs and ankylosaurs shared many features. They had the typical ornithischian jaws, with teeth only on the back and a toothless beak on the tip. However, their beaks and teeth were weaker than other ornithischians (ceratopsians, ornithopods); they may have chewed only soft plant material near the ground-level, and/or swallowed small stones to aid digestion, like sauropods. Even though were much smaller-sized, stegosaurians and ankylosaurians tend to be shown as slow-moving as the sauropods: ex. the aforementioned Url which has the slowest pace among all the dinosaurs of its herd, just as slow as its companion brachiosaur Baylene. Pre-"Renaissance" depictions used to portray ankylosaurians and other four-legged dinosaurs with splayed legs and dragging tails. Actually quadrupedal dinos had erect limbs (among them only sauropods had true claws, the others had blunt nails), and footprints show they usually kept their bodies and tails above the ground when walking around. Of course, expect to see splayed-limbed ankylosaurs even in relatively recent works — Rooter of ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' appears even slower than the sauropods of the same film (the latter have correct upright limbs, though).

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The bony covering on its back should be a snugly fitting mix of large and small plates and be interspersed with short spikes. Many classic portrayals, on the other hand, show long spikes only on the sides, similar to the related nodosaurids. Other portraits go even further, showing totally spikeless ''Ankylosaurus''es: see the aforementioned finale of ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', in which ''Ankylosaurus'' has keeled plates instead of true spines. Finally, the broad head should have four horns behind the eyes and the ends of the mouth, but hornless ''Ankylosaurus''es are not unseen elsewhere. elsewhere.

Ironically, one of the few correctly-shaped ankylosaurs plausible ankylosauruses in cinema is the [[AllAnimalsAreDogs dog-like]] Url from Disney's ''Dinosaurs'': he was highly undersized, but this may be justified if he was young. Another is in the controversial documentary ''Clash of the Dinosaurs'', qualified by many as a DocumentaryOfLies, but at least has the merit to show the correct shape of its head. Still another rather correct ''Ankylosaurus'' is in TheNineties-related ''Series/PlanetOfDinosaurs''.

Many other inaccuracies seen in ankylosaur portrayals are substantially the same as the stegosaurs.

stegosaurs. Being related to each other, stegosaurs and ankylosaurs shared many features. They had the typical ornithischian jaws, with teeth only on the back and a toothless beak on the tip. However, their beaks and teeth were weaker than other ornithischians (ceratopsians, ornithopods); they may have chewed only soft plant material near the ground-level, and/or swallowed small stones to aid digestion, like sauropods. Even though were much smaller-sized, stegosaurians and ankylosaurians tend to be shown as slow-moving as the sauropods: ex. the aforementioned Url which has the slowest pace among all the dinosaurs of its herd, just as slow as its companion brachiosaur Baylene. Pre-"Renaissance" depictions used to portray ankylosaurians and other four-legged dinosaurs with splayed legs and dragging tails. Actually quadrupedal dinos had erect limbs (among them only sauropods had true claws, the others had blunt nails), and footprints show they usually kept their bodies and tails above the ground when walking around. Of course, expect to see splayed-limbed ankylosaurs even in relatively recent works — Rooter of ''WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime'' appears even slower than the sauropods of the same film (the latter have correct upright limbs, though).



# '''Entry Time:''' 2008 (''Gastonia'')
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''Jurassic Fight Club'' (documentary)

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# '''Entry Time:''' 2008 (''Gastonia'')
(''Gastonia''), 2009 (''Sauropelta''), 2011 (''Edmontonia'')
# '''TropeMaker:''' ''Jurassic Fight Club'' (documentary)
speculative documentaries


Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Sauropelta'', ''Panoplosaurus'', ''Edmontonia'' ''Acanthopholis'', ''Saichania'', ''Struthiosaurus'', ''Gargoyleosaurus'', ''Talarurus'', ''Minmi'', ''Antarctopelta'', ''Tianchisaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].

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Sorry, these aren't here. If you're looking for ''Sauropelta'', ''Borealopelta'', ''Panoplosaurus'', ''Edmontonia'' ''Dracopelta'' ''Acanthopholis'', ''Saichania'', ''Struthiosaurus'', ''Gargoyleosaurus'', ''Talarurus'', ''Minmi'', ''Antarctopelta'', ''Tianchisaurus'', and others, see [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeAnkylosaurs here]].


!! Gimme the Club: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euoplocephalus Euoplocephalus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scolosaurus Scolosaurus]]'' *

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!! Gimme the Club: Artistic Armor: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euoplocephalus Euoplocephalus]]'' & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scolosaurus Scolosaurus]]'' *



!! Young struggling Dinosaurs: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinacosaurus Pinacosaurus]]'' *

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!! Young struggling Struggling Dinosaurs: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinacosaurus Pinacosaurus]]'' *



!! The real Unicorns: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrosaurus Centrosaurus]]'' & "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoclonius Monoclonius]]" *

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!! The real Unicorns: Immense Herds: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrosaurus Centrosaurus]]'' & "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoclonius Monoclonius]]" *



Another centrosaur graveyard even bigger by number of specimens was found around 2010 in Alberta, and is believed today by many the biggest dinosaurian bonebed of the whole world, named the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_mega-bonebed Hilda mega-bonebed]]. Curiously, the centrosaur was unnecessarily renamed "Eucentrosaurus" in year 1988, but returned ''Centrosaurus'' again soon after. It should not be confused with the small stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', which was Jurassic (70 my earlier) and only half the bulk of it. To avoid the confusion, one can pronunce them differently: "sEn-trO-SAURus" the ceratopsian, and "kEn-trO-SAURus" the stegosaur.

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Another centrosaur graveyard even bigger by number of specimens was found around 2010 in Alberta, and is believed today by many the biggest dinosaurian bonebed of the whole world, named the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_mega-bonebed Hilda mega-bonebed]]. Curiously, the centrosaur was unnecessarily renamed "Eucentrosaurus" in year 1988, but returned ''Centrosaurus'' again soon after. It should not be confused with the small stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', which was Jurassic (70 my earlier) and only half the bulk of it. To avoid the confusion, one can pronunce them differently: "sEn-trO-SAURus" "sEn-trO-[=SAURus=]" the ceratopsian, and "kEn-trO-SAURus" "kEn-trO-[=SAURus=]" the stegosaur.


Another centrosaur graveyard even bigger by number of specimens was found around 2010 in Alberta, and is believed today by many the biggest dinosaurian bonebed of the whole world, named the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_mega-bonebed Hilda mega-bonebed]]. Curiously, the centrosaur was unnecessarily renamed "Eucentrosaurus" in year 1988, but returned ''Centrosaurus'' again soon after. It should not be confused with the small stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', which was Jurassic (70 my earlier) and only half the bulk of it. To avoid the confusion, one can pronunce them differently: "sEn-trO-sAw-rUs" the ceratopsian, and "kEn-trO-sAw-rUs" the stegosaur.

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Another centrosaur graveyard even bigger by number of specimens was found around 2010 in Alberta, and is believed today by many the biggest dinosaurian bonebed of the whole world, named the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_mega-bonebed Hilda mega-bonebed]]. Curiously, the centrosaur was unnecessarily renamed "Eucentrosaurus" in year 1988, but returned ''Centrosaurus'' again soon after. It should not be confused with the small stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', which was Jurassic (70 my earlier) and only half the bulk of it. To avoid the confusion, one can pronunce them differently: "sEn-trO-sAw-rUs" "sEn-trO-SAURus" the ceratopsian, and "kEn-trO-sAw-rUs" "kEn-trO-SAURus" the stegosaur.



Known since the 1910s, ''Chasmosaurus'' is one of the most common ceratopsids in fossil record, and is often considered the prototype of the usually long-shielded subgroup: the Chasmosaurines or Ceratopsines, which includes also ''Triceratops'', ''Torosaurus'' and ''Pentaceratops''. However, the genus ''Chasmosaurus'' has been recently split in several new genera, in year 2010. In Fictionland, the chasmosaur was portrayed in a bunch of old movies, and some modern-cartoon "Triceratops" have a suspiciously ''Chasmosaurus''-like triangular frill. Also worthy of note is ''Series/PlanetDinosaur'', which shows also a huge herd of ''Centrosaurus'' dying in a flood.

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Known since the 1910s, ''Chasmosaurus'' is one of the most common ceratopsids in fossil record, and is often considered the prototype of the usually long-shielded subgroup: the Chasmosaurines or Ceratopsines, which includes also ''Triceratops'', ''Torosaurus'' and ''Pentaceratops''. However, the genus ''Chasmosaurus'' has been recently split in several new genera, in year 2010. In Fictionland, the chasmosaur was portrayed in a bunch of old movies, and some modern-cartoon "Triceratops" have a suspiciously ''Chasmosaurus''-like triangular frill. Also worthy of note is the docu ''Series/PlanetDinosaur'', which shows also a huge herd of ''Centrosaurus'' dying in a flood.



''Pachycephalosaurus'' (pronounced "pAcky-sEfalo-[=SAURus=]" ("-kEfalo-" is OK too) means "thick-headed lizard", and is by far the biggest known pachycephalosaur, but still small compared with most stock ornithischian dinosaurs. Its actual length is uncertain: popular books often set its size at up to 30 ft/9 m; a length of 15-18 ft/4.6-5.5 m is more likely. The other relatives were not longer than 10 ft. Described in 1931 from a single skull, it was initially identified as ''Troodon'' because the troodon was at the time known only from one tooth, which is similar to some pachycephalosaur teeth, and renamed ''Pachycephalosaurus'' only in 1943. No other parts of the body have been found since then: reconstructions are typically based on smaller pachycephalosaurians, expecially ''Stegoceras'', the most complete pachy to date.

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''Pachycephalosaurus'' (pronounced "pAcky-sEfalo-[=SAURus=]" ("-kEfalo-" "pAcky-sEfalo-[=SAURus=]"; "-kEfalo-" is OK too) means "thick-headed lizard", and is by far the biggest known pachycephalosaur, but still small compared with most stock ornithischian dinosaurs. Its actual length is uncertain: popular books often set its size at up to 30 ft/9 m; a length of 15-18 ft/4.6-5.5 m is more likely. The other relatives were not longer than 10 ft. Described in 1931 from a single skull, it was initially identified as ''Troodon'' because the troodon was at the time known only from one tooth, which is similar to some pachycephalosaur teeth, and renamed ''Pachycephalosaurus'' only in 1943. No other parts of the body have been found since then: reconstructions are typically based on smaller pachycephalosaurians, expecially ''Stegoceras'', the most complete pachy to date.


''Pinacosaurus'' has appeared in speculative documentaries or mockumentaries about dinosaurs, even though usually unnamed -- or at least, generically called "ankylosaur". Examples include ''Series/PlanetOfDinosaurs'', "The Research of the Dragon", and ''Series/TheTruthAboutKillerDinosaurs''. The first two mention it because of the finding of the juveniles dead together: the third, more prosaically, to [[RedShirt give a prey]] to ''Velociraptor'', just like what happens to ''Protoceratops''. Being the adult ''Pinacosaurus'' 15 ft long, far bigger than the 6 ft long ''Protoceratops'', the programers chose a juvenile pinacosaur for the "raptor"'s meal. In the show, the dromeosaur kills ''Pinacosaurus'' cutting its throat with its sickle-claw after a hard battle.

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''Pinacosaurus'' has appeared in speculative documentaries or mockumentaries about dinosaurs, even though usually unnamed -- or at least, generically called "ankylosaur". Examples include ''Series/PlanetOfDinosaurs'', "The Research of the Dragon", and ''Series/TheTruthAboutKillerDinosaurs''. The first two mention it because of the finding of the juveniles dead together: the third, more prosaically, to [[RedShirt give a prey]] to ''Velociraptor'', just like what happens to ''Protoceratops''. Being the adult ''Pinacosaurus'' 15 ft long, far bigger than the 6 ft long ''Protoceratops'', the programers chose a juvenile pinacosaur for the "raptor"'s meal. In the show, the dromeosaur kills ''Pinacosaurus'' by cutting its throat with its sickle-claw after a hard battle.



Named in the beginning of the XX century, most of its remains were then attributed to another relative, “Monoclonius”, which has long been the archetypical “unicorn-dinosaur” in books and documentaries. Then, a spectacular find was made in Alberta in year 1980: a whole graveyard of about 500 ''Centrosaurus''es died together, probably killed while trying to cross a river in flood. This discovery was one of the first concrete evidence of migrating behaviour in dinosaurs, a bit like modern caribous and wildebeest which also sometimes die in group during their river-crossings. Since then, ''Centrosaurus'' has mainly replaced “Monoclonius” in books/docus as “the one-horned ceratopsid”. Another centrosaur graveyard even bigger by number of specimens was found around 2010 in Alberta. Curiously, the centrosaur was unnecessarily renamed "Eucentrosaurus" in year 1988, but returned ''Centrosaurus'' again soon after.

About “Monoclonius”, this one has been a very early discover, made in the XIX century during the Bone-Wars, but now is regarded by many as the juvenile-stage of ''Centrosaurus'' and its relatives. If so, then “Centrosaurus” would become invalid, because "Monoclonius" was the first name created. "Monoclonius" (which doesn't mean "one horn" as sometimes said, but "one sprout") was slightly smaller than ''Centrosaurus'' but with the same rhinoceros-like appearence: long nose-horn and no real front-horns, but its frill had not the famous downwarding "hooks" of ''Centrosaurus'' or it had them much shorter. While ''Triceratops'' was officially described by Marsh, "Monoclonius" was one of the few prominent bone-war dinosaurs first-described by Cope. Unlike alot of other "stock obscure" dinosaurs (the ones signed with one single star here to be clear), ''Monoclonius'' has a notable appearance in popular culture: ''Prehistoric Beast'' by [[Creator/TippettStudio Phil Tippett]], who would go on to be a supervisor and consultant for the ''Jurassic Park'' films.

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Named in the beginning of the XX century, most of its remains were then attributed to another relative, “Monoclonius”, which has long been the archetypical “unicorn-dinosaur” in books and documentaries. Then, a spectacular find was made in Alberta in year 1980: a whole graveyard of about 500 ''Centrosaurus''es died together, probably killed while trying to cross a river in flood. This discovery was one of the first concrete evidence of migrating behaviour in dinosaurs, a bit like modern caribous and wildebeest which also sometimes die in group during their river-crossings. Since then, ''Centrosaurus'' has mainly replaced “Monoclonius” in books/docus as “the one-horned ceratopsid”. ceratopsid”.

Another centrosaur graveyard even bigger by number of specimens was found around 2010 in Alberta.Alberta, and is believed today by many the biggest dinosaurian bonebed of the whole world, named the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_mega-bonebed Hilda mega-bonebed]]. Curiously, the centrosaur was unnecessarily renamed "Eucentrosaurus" in year 1988, but returned ''Centrosaurus'' again soon after. \n\n It should not be confused with the small stegosaur ''Kentrosaurus'', which was Jurassic (70 my earlier) and only half the bulk of it. To avoid the confusion, one can pronunce them differently: "sEn-trO-sAw-rUs" the ceratopsian, and "kEn-trO-sAw-rUs" the stegosaur.

About “Monoclonius”, this one has been a very early discover, made in the XIX century during the Bone-Wars, but now is regarded by many as the juvenile-stage of ''Centrosaurus'' and its relatives. If so, then “Centrosaurus” would become invalid, because "Monoclonius" was the first name created. "Monoclonius" (which doesn't mean "one "kone horn" as sometimes said, but "one sprout") was slightly smaller than ''Centrosaurus'' but with the same rhinoceros-like appearence: long nose-horn and no real front-horns, but its frill had not the famous downwarding "hooks" of ''Centrosaurus'' or it had them much shorter. While ''Triceratops'' was officially described by Marsh, "Monoclonius" was one of the few prominent bone-war dinosaurs first-described by Cope. Unlike alot of other "stock obscure" dinosaurs (the ones signed with one single star here to be clear), ''Monoclonius'' has a notable appearance in popular culture: ''Prehistoric Beast'' by [[Creator/TippettStudio Phil Tippett]], who would go on to be a supervisor and consultant for the ''Jurassic Park'' films.



''Pachycephalosaurus''[[note]]Pronounced "pAcky-sEfalo-[=SAURus=]" ("-kEfalo-" is OK too)[[/note]] ("thick-headed lizard") is by far the biggest known pachycephalosaur, but still small compared with most stock ornithischian dinosaurs. Its actual length is uncertain: popular books often set its size at up to 30 ft/9 m; a length of 15-18 ft/4.6-5.5 m is more likely. The other relatives were not longer than 10 ft. Described in 1931 from a single skull, it was initially identified as ''Troodon'' because the troodon was at the time known only from one tooth, which is similar to some pachycephalosaur teeth, and renamed ''Pachycephalosaurus'' only in 1943. No other parts of the body have been found since then: reconstructions are typically based on smaller pachycephalosaurians, expecially ''Stegoceras'', the most complete pachy to date.

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''Pachycephalosaurus''[[note]]Pronounced ''Pachycephalosaurus'' (pronounced "pAcky-sEfalo-[=SAURus=]" ("-kEfalo-" is OK too)[[/note]] ("thick-headed lizard") too) means "thick-headed lizard", and is by far the biggest known pachycephalosaur, but still small compared with most stock ornithischian dinosaurs. Its actual length is uncertain: popular books often set its size at up to 30 ft/9 m; a length of 15-18 ft/4.6-5.5 m is more likely. The other relatives were not longer than 10 ft. Described in 1931 from a single skull, it was initially identified as ''Troodon'' because the troodon was at the time known only from one tooth, which is similar to some pachycephalosaur teeth, and renamed ''Pachycephalosaurus'' only in 1943. No other parts of the body have been found since then: reconstructions are typically based on smaller pachycephalosaurians, expecially ''Stegoceras'', the most complete pachy to date.


''Ankylosaurus'' probably retains the record of being the worst-known Stock Dinosaur. Even in ''documentary works'', its size, shape, and composition tend to be pictured incorrectly, often with traits from other ankylosaurian species. The incompleteness of the remains only partially justify this. One common mistake is to leave out the tail club, or to have it shaped incorrectly — for example, adding spikes to it. A famous example of the latter is the "Ankylosaurus" (actually a ''Scolosaurus'') painted by Zdenek Burian defending itself against a tyrannosaurid: it is undersized and has two spikes on the tip of its tail. When based on RealLife fossils, the club usually appears two-lobed like that of a ''Euoplocephalus'' (a close relative commonly depicted in popular dino-books), instead of elliptical. The bony covering on its back should be a snugly fitting mix of large and small plates and be interspersed with short spikes. Many classic portrayals, on the other hand, show long spikes only on the sides, similar to the related nodosaurids. Other portraits go even further, showing totally spikeless ''Ankylosaurus''es (see the aforementioned finale of ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs''). Finally, the broad head should have four horns behind the eyes and the ends of the mouth, but hornless ''Ankylosaurus''es are not unseen elsewhere. Ironically, one of the few correctly-shaped ankylosaurs in cinema is the [[AllAnimalsAreDogs dog-like]] Url from Disney's ''Dinosaurs'': he was highly undersized, but this may be justified if he was young. Many other inaccuracies seen in ankylosaur portrayals are substantially the same as the stegosaurs.

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''Ankylosaurus'' probably retains the record of being the worst-known Stock Dinosaur. Even in ''documentary works'', its size, shape, and composition tend to be pictured incorrectly, often with traits from other ankylosaurian species. The incompleteness of the remains only partially justify this. One common mistake is to leave out the tail club, or to have it shaped incorrectly — for example, adding spikes to it. A famous example of the latter is the "Ankylosaurus" (actually a ''Scolosaurus'') painted by Zdenek Burian defending itself against a tyrannosaurid: it is undersized and has two spikes on the tip of its tail. When based on RealLife fossils, the club usually appears two-lobed like that of a ''Euoplocephalus'' (a close relative commonly depicted in popular dino-books), instead of elliptical. elliptical.

The bony covering on its back should be a snugly fitting mix of large and small plates and be interspersed with short spikes. Many classic portrayals, on the other hand, show long spikes only on the sides, similar to the related nodosaurids. Other portraits go even further, showing totally spikeless ''Ankylosaurus''es (see ''Ankylosaurus''es: see the aforementioned finale of ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'').''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'', in which ''Ankylosaurus'' has keeled plates instead of true spines. Finally, the broad head should have four horns behind the eyes and the ends of the mouth, but hornless ''Ankylosaurus''es are not unseen elsewhere. Ironically, one of the few correctly-shaped ankylosaurs in cinema is the [[AllAnimalsAreDogs dog-like]] Url from Disney's ''Dinosaurs'': he was highly undersized, but this may be justified if he was young. Many other inaccuracies seen in ankylosaur portrayals are substantially the same as the stegosaurs.


''Gastonia'' has recently become popular in paleo-media, both because its armor was expecially spiky and impenetrable among ankylosaurians, and because lived just alongside the famous "giant raptor" ''Utahraptor'' -- both dinosaurs were found in the same geological formation. It's easy to imagine that someone ultimately made them fighting against each other in a show, like a more ancient version of ''Tyrannosaurus'' vs ''Ankylosaurus'''Albertosaurus'' vs ''Euoplocephalus'', or ''Velociraptor'' vs ''Pinacosaurus''. In the show, the ankylosaur ''Gastonia'' is portrayed rather accurately: it finally wins the fight by using [[BewareMyStingerTail its stingy tail]] to hit the dromeosaur to death, just like what the ''Ankylosaurus'' did with its club-tail against the ''T. rex'' in the earlier documentary ''Walking With Dinosaurs''.

# '''Entry Time:''' 2008

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''Gastonia'' has recently become popular in paleo-media, both because its armor was expecially spiky and impenetrable among ankylosaurians, and because lived just alongside the famous "giant raptor" ''Utahraptor'' -- both dinosaurs were found in the same geological formation. It's easy to imagine that someone ultimately made them fighting against each other in a show, like a more ancient version of ''Tyrannosaurus'' vs ''Ankylosaurus'''Albertosaurus'' ''Ankylosaurus'', ''Albertosaurus'' vs ''Euoplocephalus'', or ''Velociraptor'' vs ''Pinacosaurus''. In the show, the ankylosaur ''Gastonia'' is portrayed rather accurately: it finally wins the fight by using [[BewareMyStingerTail its stingy tail]] to hit the dromeosaur to death, just like what the ''Ankylosaurus'' did with its club-tail against the ''T. rex'' in the earlier documentary ''Walking With Dinosaurs''.

# '''Entry Time:''' 20082008 (''Gastonia'')

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