There are a lot of examples of beings from any culture's mythology, but it's more common in fiction for these creatures to only carry the name, not the traits of what they are supposed to be. Things that I assume not to be used very often in fiction are creatures such as Gaelic fairies Scandinavian Jotunn.
In some sources, Gaelic fairies encompass all types of magical creatures such as:
Redcaps (Creatures who kill people and dye their hats in the blood of their victims), Sidhe/Aos Si (Fairies/Elves who live in underground mounds), Brownies (A type of goblin or hobgoblin usually friendly). There are lots more, but these creatures generally are categorised within the Seelie Court (Benevolent) or the Unseelie Court (Malevolent).
In Scandinavian mythology the Jotunn are the giants who reside in Jotunheim. They can be friendly or hostile to humans. Many of them are described as being pretty ugly. One particilar Jotun is Ymir, who's body parts created the world, or at least most of it, but i'm not actually sure since it has been a long time and I can't remember the source.
Sadly many people seem to use stock creatures in fiction such as elves, vampires, werewolves and trolls. They may have different characteristics but are all pretty much part of the same archetype. Everyone seems to use the same mould without looking into the original mythologies.
Well, that's my two cents, would take too long to list a larger amount of creatures :S. Also, Bunyips are pretty cool.
edited 12th Nov '12 7:08:38 AM by Gravyspitter