Bretonnian Knights Errant in the Warhammer Fantasy. Unless they success in Leadership check, they will charge anyone in sight, being Immune to Psychology that turn. It acts as Darwinist selection; those who survive, will become new Knights of the Realm.
The supplement Tome of Battle, introduced a martial manoeuvre (functionally like a spell for a swordsman) called Iron Heart Surge. The fluff description of it is as follows: By drawing on your mental strength and physical fortitude, you break free of a debilitating state that might otherwise defeat you. For instance, if the character is paralysed due to the spell Hold Person, Iron Heart Surge allows the affected character to use their sheer hot-bloodedness to eliminate the spell's effect (It was intended to anyways, the writers neglected to add an exception to the "must be able to move to use a maneuver" rule). Some players should make use of the famous line of the hot-blooded god if using the manoeuvre at a dramatically-appropriate moment (and due to the bad wording, can end almost any "effect", like the sun or gravity, Fight the Power indeed).
Some Chaotic Good characters, particularly fighters and Barbarians, will come off like this.
Titans in the game have been described as like this, Chaotic Good and with passions of godlike magnitude. Something of the same seems to have applied to the whole Arborea, the Chaotic Good plane of existence, and its inhabitants in general.
This trope exists in the gothic horror game Vampire: The Requiem (among other anime shoutouts) in the form of a Daeva bloodline called the Tianpian Xiao. These guys are so incredibly hot-blooded, they must use their power to release their excess emotions into the people around them or go through a hot-blooded stupor.
The prevalence of this trait in Humongous Mecha anime explains Mekton's Bioenergy Power Plant. The rules for this state that the more Hot-Blooded you get, the more powerful your mecha's power plant becomes, right up to setting off turbo-boosters you probably don't even have. Make it thought-controlled and stick on a piracy system, and you can build your own Lagann.
Exalted: The Primordial known as Malfeas the Demon City. Green Sun Princes under his tutelage generally are also this way. Their most basic Charms can make them succeed by doing things in Hot-Blooded way.
Furthermore, pretty much any PC can be hot-blooded provided they have a high enough Valor score, though Dawn Caste Solars, Full Moon Lunars, and Fire-Aspect Terrestrials lend themselves to it the best. Having a high Compassion helps as well, since Solars have a Limit Break called "Red Rage of Compassion."
The Luriani in Traveller are a human subspecies that is like this. This is Justified by the fact that 90% of them are right-brain dominant.