Reductio Ad Absurdum is one of the major proof techniques; a style of argument that does this to its opposition. It takes the opponent's argument and logically follows it through to an absurd or indefensible conclusion.
The well-known Aesop "Be Careful What You Wish For" operates in this way. Person X makes wish Y. Wish Y is granted to person X. Wish Y then manages to have sufficiently negative unintended consequences on person X's life that wish Y now looks like a ridiculous thing to wish for. Thus, Wish Y is deconstructed.
When it opened in 1967, the Pirates of the Caribbean boat ride at Disneyland was intended to be a deconstruction of the romanticized, swashbuckling Pirate that was popular during The Golden Age of Hollywood. While still pretty lighthearted as far as deconstructions go, it does feature a pirate ship attacking a small Caribbean town, pirates dunking the mayor in the well in order to get information out of him, pirates auctioning off women, pirates chasing women, and pirates getting drunk and burning down the town... all of which is Played for Laughs. The final show scene in the attraction shows a few pirates in an armory drunkenly firing at gunpowder barrels, which they mistake for rum barrels. "Dead men tell no tales", indeed. Conversely, the Pirates of the Caribbean movies (which were loosely based on the ride) serve as a Reconstruction to the romanticized, swashbuckling Pirate trope that the original attraction had denounced.
Ever After High deconstructs the concept of fairy tales endings. The characters are the children of fairy tale characters, and they are destined for the same endings as their parents are. Apple White is the daughter of Snow White hence she is sure to get a happily ever after, while Briar Beauty will also sleep for a hundred years, this means she will out live her friends when she wakes up. Meanwhile Raven Queen who is destined to be Apple's Evil Queen doesn't want to be like evil and chooses to defy her destiny.
Kendrick Lamar's 2nd album good kid m.A.A.d City could be considered a deconstruction of 90's Gangsta Rap made popular by bands like NWA. This album contains alot of the normal elements of west coast hiphop at the time (heavy gang violence, drug use, Working with the homies), but it changed by having the character change with the events of the story (getting paranoid about violence during "m.A.A.d City", stopping after his brother dies in "Sing about me, I'm Dying of thirst",). and the story ends with him becoming the Kendrick Lamar he is today.
Green Day's seminal rock opera American Idiot is a deconstruction of the punk movement as a whole. The protagonist, Jimmy (styling himself Jesus of Suburbia and later St. Jimmy) starts out as a drugged-up slacker who just gets bored with his life and decides to run away to the city to become a punk. But because he's a rebel without a cause or goal, he just sinks even deeper into drugs and becomes lonely and depressed, eventually leading to him returning to his old life.