Beam Me Up, Scotty!: Narrowly averted via Meaningful Echo. The famous line, "What we've got here is a failure to communicate!" is used towards the end of the film. The first instance of the line is "What we've got here is... failure to communicate. Some men you just can't reach" (notably, the version without the indefinite article was sampled by Guns N' Roses for "Civil War").
Bittersweet Ending: Luke dies and the camp goes back to normal, but the camp director has been one-upped and his bodyguard is similarly broken. Luke's death also appears to have transformed him into a heroic martyr figure for Dragline and the rest of the inmates.
Crucified Hero Shot: After the infamous Fifty Eggs contest... strangely enough. There's also the way Luke's photo of him with two ladies is torn, and is slammed in your face at the end. Juxstaposed over a shot of two roads intersecting like a cross, just to drive the point home.
Darkest Hour: Luke comes back on his own after he runs away the second time after he grows tired of getting abused by people who threaten to call the police on him. The camp's punishment apparently breaks him, and no one thinks of Luke as a hero anymore... until he runs away the third time by pretending to be brainwashed and dutifully fetch some water from the truck.
Determinator: Luke's spirit can't be broken, even if he's been badly trounced in a fight he doesn't give up, and he's constantly scheming ways to escape.
Fanservice: Paul Newman and a bunch of other men working, frequently shirtless? Also, Lucille, both in-universe and out-of-universe.
"She don't know what she's doing!"
The Film of the Book: Based on a novel by Donn Pearce, who co-wrote the screenplay with Frank Pierson.
Foreshadowing: The magazine page opposite the photo of Luke has a picture of a man aiming a rifle at him.
Theme Tune: While not the primary theme, a piece of music used in a scene from the film called the "Tar Sequence" was licensed by ABC to become the news theme for local newscasts on many of their stations until the mid 90's (when the network commissioned a Suspiciously Similar Song so that they wouldn't have to pay large royalties for its use) and became a critical part of the Eyewitness News local news format, where it is ubiquitous for being the Signature Song associated with American local news. Still in use today by Australia's Nine Network for their theme.