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** The R46 fleet was once [[TheAllegedCar the subway's lemon]], as the cars were plagued with many issues from the beginning. Pullman Standard, the train manufacturer, delivered them behind schedule due to a worker strike in 1977. Design issues such as cracks on the train bogies, faulty train controls, and steel wearing off from the cars forced the MTA to limit the [=R46=] fleet's usage and sue Pullman for $80 million in damages. Later on, they were overhauled in the 1990s to improve their reliability.

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** The R46 fleet was once [[TheAllegedCar the subway's lemon]], as the cars were plagued with many issues from the beginning. Pullman Standard, the train manufacturer, delivered them behind schedule due to a worker strike in 1977. Design issues such as cracks on the train bogies, bogies and faulty train controls, and steel wearing off from the cars controls forced the MTA to limit the [=R46=] fleet's usage and sue Pullman for $80 million in damages. Later on, they were overhauled in the 1990s to improve their reliability.



* During summertime, the platforms in the older subway stops are unbearable and muggy with the heat, as temperatures can be as much as 20 degrees hotter than standing outside, sometimes exceeding 100 degrees during heat waves. Part of the reason why they get hot is because the they were built without adequate cooling and ventilation systems to begin with.

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* During summertime, the platforms in on the older subway stops are unbearable and muggy with the heat, as temperatures can be as much as 20 degrees hotter than standing outside, sometimes exceeding 100 degrees during heat waves. Part of the reason why they get hot is because the they were built without adequate cooling and ventilation systems to begin with.



* The MTA still remains in the red despite repeated fare and toll hikes in recent years. While fares actually cover regular operating costs for the system, its sheer size means ongoing maintenance and capital costs are enormous. They're supposed to be funded separately, but the state and city governments never seem to give enough. Therefore, the MTA must rely on other sources of revenue to remain afloat, such as sales, payroll and real estate taxes to contain the deficit, or issuing bonds to finance expansion projects, though it has contributed to a rising debt burden, as by 2017, a sixth of the budget was allocated to paying off interest, aside from non-labor expenses, wages, and employee benefits. The MTA has also been criticized for the 2nd Avenue Line's rising costs, as they have ballooned due to wasteful spending, mismanagement, and corruption. The UsefulNotes/COVID19Pandemic not only caused ridership to decline, but it has accelerated the burgeoning debt crisis, causing the MTA to consider drastic service reductions and wage cuts if it doesn't receive federal aid to prop it up.

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* The MTA still remains in the red despite repeated fare and toll hikes in recent years. While fares actually cover regular operating costs for the system, its sheer size means ongoing maintenance and capital costs are enormous. They're supposed to be funded separately, but the state and city governments never seem to give enough. Therefore, the MTA must rely on other sources of revenue to remain afloat, such as sales, payroll and real estate taxes to contain the deficit, or issuing bonds to finance expansion projects, though it that has contributed to a rising debt burden, as by 2017, a sixth of the budget was allocated to paying off interest, aside from non-labor expenses, wages, and employee benefits. debt payments. The MTA has also been criticized for the 2nd Second Avenue Line's rising construction costs, as they have ballooned due to wasteful spending, mismanagement, spending and corruption. The UsefulNotes/COVID19Pandemic not only caused ridership to decline, but it has accelerated the burgeoning debt crisis, causing the MTA to consider drastic service reductions and wage cuts if it doesn't receive federal aid to prop it up.



* Fare evasion remains an occasional problem, though not so much as it was in the past, and it contributes to lost revenues. The most basic is jumping over or crawling under the turnstiles, unauthorized entry to subway yards or tunnels, or entering through the gate intended for wheelchair exit when it happens to be open. To crack down on this, the MTA has implemented several measures, including adding police officers and CCTV cameras at high-risk areas, turnstiles designed to make jumping difficult, and installing high entry/exit gates (nicknamed "Iron Maidens").

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* Fare evasion remains an occasional problem, though not so much as it was in the past, and it contributes to lost revenues. The most basic is jumping over or crawling under the turnstiles, unauthorized entry to subway yards or tunnels, or entering through the gate intended for wheelchair exit when it happens to be open. To crack down on this, the MTA has implemented several measures, including adding police officers and CCTV cameras at high-risk areas, areas and installing turnstiles designed to make jumping difficult, and installing high entry/exit gates (nicknamed "Iron Maidens"). difficult.



* Litter accumulation is a perennial issue in the subway system. In the 1970s and 1980s, dirty trains and platforms, as well as graffiti, were a serious problem. The situation has improved since then, but the 2010 budget crisis, which caused over 100 of the cleaning staff to lose their jobs, threatened to curtail trash removal from the subway system. Sometimes, objects thrown on the tracks can touch the electrified third rail, resulting in a track fire, which in turn disrupts subway service. The litter also poses a health hazard, as this often attracts vermin. The MTA even tried to curtail littering by removing trash bins from several stations in 2011, but it didn't work out as intended and was abandoned in 2017.
* Noise is another perennial problem. Many portions of the subway still use jointed tracks, making a "clickety-clack" sound when train wheels pass over the small gap. They also make a loud, metallic scraping noise when going around tight turns, especially on older portions of the subway. Notorious examples of this include the Crescent Street curve along the Jamaica Line (noted to be the tightest one on the B Division and 2nd tightest overall), the City Hall-Cortlandt Street curve on the Broadway Line via lower Manhattan, the South Ferry loops, the City Hall loop (on the Lexington Avenue Line — the tightest curve in the entire system), 14th Street-Union Square on the Lexington Avenue Line, and the curve along the West End-4th Avenue interlocking south of 36th Street. In fact, many have noted that the screeching can cause hearing loss within minutes, and in some cases, higher decibels than what's safe for human ears.

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* Litter accumulation is a perennial issue in the subway system.issue. In the 1970s and 1980s, dirty trains and platforms, as well as graffiti, were a serious problem. The situation has improved since then, but the 2010 budget crisis, which caused over 100 of the cleaning staff to lose their jobs, threatened to curtail trash removal from the subway system. Sometimes, objects thrown on the tracks can touch the electrified third rail, resulting in a track fire, which in turn disrupts subway service. The litter also poses a health hazard, as this often attracts vermin. The MTA even tried to curtail littering by removing trash bins from several stations in 2011, but it didn't work out as intended and was abandoned in 2017.
* Noise is another perennial problem. Many portions of the subway still use jointed tracks, making a "clickety-clack" sound when train wheels pass over the small gap. They also make a loud, metallic scraping noise when going around tight turns, especially on older portions of the subway. Notorious examples of this include the Crescent Street curve along the Jamaica Line (noted to be the tightest one on the B Division and 2nd tightest overall), the City Hall-Cortlandt Street curve on the Broadway Line via lower Manhattan, the South Ferry loops, the City Hall loop (on the Lexington Avenue Line — the tightest curve in the entire system), system) and 14th Street-Union Square on the Lexington Avenue Line, and the curve along the West End-4th Avenue interlocking south of 36th Street.Line. In fact, many have noted that the screeching can cause hearing loss within minutes, and in some cases, higher decibels than what's safe for human ears.


* Crime remains a perennial problem, though not so much in recent years as it was in the 70s and 80s, when people feared riding the subway due to risk of being mugged or worse. In order to fight crime, various approaches have been used over the years such as PR campaigns, more CCTV cameras, heavier fines and adding more cops at high-risk areas. The Bernhard Goetz incident[[note]]in which a straphanger shot four would-be muggers in a subway car. Goetz became known as the "Subway Vigilante" because of the media coverage[[/note]] attracted national attention highlighting the subway's crime problems. Terrorism became high-priority for the MTA after the 9/11 attacks, especially with terrorists targeting major rapid transit systems and a similar plot to blow up trains during rush hour being foiled by the FBI in 2009.

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* Crime remains a perennial problem, though not so much in recent years as it was in the 70s and 80s, when people feared riding the subway due to risk of being mugged or worse. In order to fight crime, various approaches have been used over the years such as PR campaigns, more CCTV cameras, heavier fines and adding more cops at high-risk areas. The Bernhard Goetz incident[[note]]in which a straphanger shot four would-be muggers in a subway car. Goetz became known as the "Subway Vigilante" because of the media coverage[[/note]] attracted national attention highlighting the subway's crime problems. Terrorism became high-priority for the MTA after the 9/11 attacks, especially what with terrorists targeting attacks at major rapid transit systems such as London and Moscow, and a similar plot to blow up trains during rush hour being foiled by the FBI in 2009.



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* Crime remains a perennial problem, though not so much in recent years as it was in the 70s and 80s, when people feared riding the subway due to risk of being mugged or worse. In order to fight crime, various approaches have been used over the years such as PR campaigns, more CCTV cameras, heavier fines and adding more cops at high-risk areas. The Bernhard Goetz incident[[note]]in which a straphanger shot four would-be muggers in a subway car. Goetz became known as the "Subway Vigilante" because of the media coverage[[/note]] attracted national attention highlighting the subway's crime problems. Terrorism became high-priority for the MTA after the 9/11 attacks, especially with terrorists targeting major rapid transit systems and a similar plot to blow up trains during rush hour being foiled by the FBI in 2009.


** The R46 fleet was once viewed as [[TheAllegedCar the subway's lemon]], as the cars were plagued with maintenance issues from the beginning: the train manufacturer (Pullman) delivered them behind schedule due to a strike at one of its production factories; cracks appearing in the frame of the train bogies, faulty hand brakes, and an inspection revealing that the steel where the car body was joined to the bogie was wearing away. These issues forced the MTA to limit the usage of the [=R46=] and sue Pullman for $80 million in damages, while being forced to use retired fleets for the time being. Later on, they were overhauled in the 1990s to improve their reliability.
** The recently acquired R179 fleet has become the new "lemon," having been plagued with the same issues that affected the R46 trains. Because of this, Bombardier was banned from bidding on the R211 contract for new subway cars. Train workers have also complained about stiff windows, faulty train controls and design flaws. To make matters worse, defects that could cause doors to open even when a train is in motion caused the entire fleet to be grounded in January 2020, forcing the MTA to reuse the retired R42 fleet for service. [[HereWeGoAgain The entire fleet was once again grounded]] in June 2020 when a set of cars accidentally unlinked while in service, causing the consist to be split into two. The R179 fleet was restored to service in September 2020.

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** The R46 fleet was once viewed as [[TheAllegedCar the subway's lemon]], as the cars were plagued with maintenance many issues from the beginning: beginning. Pullman Standard, the train manufacturer (Pullman) manufacturer, delivered them behind schedule due to a worker strike at one of its production factories; in 1977. Design issues such as cracks appearing in the frame of on the train bogies, faulty hand brakes, train controls, and an inspection revealing that the steel where the car body was joined to the bogie was wearing away. These issues off from the cars forced the MTA to limit the usage of the [=R46=] fleet's usage and sue Pullman for $80 million in damages, while being forced to use retired fleets for the time being.damages. Later on, they were overhauled in the 1990s to improve their reliability.
** The recently acquired R179 fleet has become the new "lemon," having been plagued with the same issues that affected the R46 trains.contract. Because of this, Bombardier was banned from bidding on the R211 contract for new subway cars. Train workers have also complained about stiff windows, faulty train controls and design flaws. To make matters worse, defects that could cause doors to open even when a train is in motion caused the entire fleet to be grounded in January 2020, forcing the MTA to reuse the retired R42 fleet for service. [[HereWeGoAgain The entire fleet was once again grounded]] in June 2020 when a set of cars accidentally unlinked while in service, causing the consist to be split into two. The R179 fleet was restored to full service in September 2020.


** While the [=JFK=] and Newark airports have rail connections, [=LaGuardia=] lacks a direct connection to any subway or rail line. Earlier proposals to extend the Astoria Line to [=LaGuardia=] were kiboshed due to a combination of budget woes and [=NIMBY=]ism.

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** While the [=JFK=] and Newark airports have rail connections, [=LaGuardia=] lacks a direct connection to any subway or rail line. Earlier proposals to extend the Astoria Line to [=LaGuardia=] and beyond were kiboshed due to a combination of budget woes woes, lack of political interest, and [=NIMBY=]ism.


* '''F - Jamaica Express-Sixth Avenue-Culver Local via 63rd Street''': The F operates at all times between 179th Street in Jamaica, Queens and Coney Island via the Culver Line, serving all stops except for an express section between 21st Street-Queensbridge and Forest Hills along the Queens Boulevard Line. Some trains short-turn at Kings Highway due to capacity issues at Coney Island during rush hours. In recent years, there were calls to restore express service on the Culver Line during rush hours, although this has been controversial as some riders along the line feared they would lose their one-seat ride to Manhattan. Previously, the Culver Line had express service from Jay Street to Kings Highway between 1967 and 1987, but this was eliminated due to low usage, rider complaints, and budget cuts. To alleviate rider concerns, a rush hour-only Culver express service was implemented in 2019 on a limited scale.

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* '''F - Jamaica Express-Sixth Avenue-Culver Local via 63rd Street''': The F operates at all times between 179th Street in Jamaica, Queens and Coney Island via the Culver Line, serving all stops except for an express section between 21st Street-Queensbridge and Forest Hills along the Queens Boulevard Line. Some trains short-turn at Kings Highway due to capacity issues at Coney Island during rush hours. In recent years, there were calls to restore express service on the Culver Line during rush hours, although this has been controversial as some riders along the line feared they would lose their one-seat ride to Manhattan. Previously, the Culver Line had express service from Jay Street to Kings Highway between 1967 and 1987, but this was eliminated due to low usage, rider complaints, and budget cuts.service reductions. To alleviate rider concerns, a rush hour-only Culver express service was implemented in 2019 on a limited scale.



* '''M - Queens Boulevard-Sixth Avenue-Myrtle Avenue Local via 53rd Street''': The M operates between Forest Hills and Metropolitan Avenue in Middle Village, Queens via the Queens Boulevard, 6th Avenue (via 53rd Street), Jamaica and Myrtle Avenue Lines, making it the only service that travels through the same borough via two different, unconnected lines. The M short turns at Delancey-Essex Streets in Manhattan on weekends, and at Myrtle Avenue–Broadway in Brooklyn during late nights; late night service on the Queens Boulevard Line is supplemented by the E train. This route is the only non-shuttle service that has both of its full-run terminals in the same borough (Queens). The 71st Avenue and Metropolitan Avenue termini of the M are 2.47 miles (3.98 km) apart, marking this as the shortest geographic distance between termini for a non-shuttle service. Prior to June 28, 2010, the M traveled during weekday rush hours to Bay Parkway on the West End Line via Nassau Street, and to Chambers Street during midday hours. As part of the 2010 service changes, it was combined with the V train to allow a one-seat ride to Midtown for passengers on the BMT Jamaica Line.[[note]]The rush hour service to Bay Parkway was a remnant of the Bankers' Specials the BMT used to run over the Manhattan Bridge until 1967, when the Nassau Street connection to the bridge was severed due to the Chrystie Street Connection linking the Sixth Avenue Line to Manhattan Bridge north side, while the south side tracks into Chambers Street were rerouted to the Broadway Line express tracks; the Broadway Line used to feed into the north side tracks. The Nassau Street Loop allowed trains to originate in Brooklyn either via the Fourth Avenue or Brighton lines (and through either the bridge or the Montague Street Tunnel), run via Nassau Street and return to Brooklyn (again, either the bridge or tunnel) without having to terminate and reverse directions during rush hours. The Chrystie Street Connection also saw the opening of connecting tracks from the IND Sixth Avenue Line to the BMT Nassau Street Line at Essex Street, and it is these tracks the M uses to move from the BMT to the IND.[[/note]]\\

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* '''M - Queens Boulevard-Sixth Avenue-Myrtle Avenue Local via 53rd Street''': The M operates between Forest Hills and Metropolitan Avenue in Middle Avenue-Middle Village, Queens via the Queens Boulevard, 6th Avenue (via 53rd Street), Jamaica and Myrtle Avenue Lines, making it the only service that travels through the same borough via two different, unconnected lines. The M short turns at Delancey-Essex Streets in Manhattan on weekends, and at Myrtle Avenue–Broadway in Brooklyn during late nights; late nights. Late night service on the Queens Boulevard Line is supplemented by the E train. This route It is the only non-shuttle service that has both of its full-run terminals in the same borough (Queens). The 71st Avenue and Metropolitan Avenue termini of the M are 2.47 miles (3.98 km) apart, marking this as the shortest geographic distance between termini for a non-shuttle service. Prior to June 28, 2010, the M traveled during weekday rush hours to Bay Parkway on the West End Line via Nassau Street, and to Chambers Street during midday hours. As part of the 2010 service changes, it was combined with the V train to allow a one-seat ride to Midtown for passengers on the BMT Jamaica Line.[[note]]The rush hour service to Bay Parkway was a remnant of the Bankers' Specials the BMT used to run over the Manhattan Bridge until 1967, when the Nassau Street connection to the bridge was severed due to the Chrystie Street Connection linking the Sixth Avenue Line to Manhattan Bridge north side, while the south side tracks that originally fed into Chambers Street were rerouted to the Broadway Line express tracks; the Broadway Line used to feed into the north side tracks. The Nassau Street Loop allowed trains to originate in Brooklyn from either via the Fourth 4th Avenue or Brighton lines (and through either the bridge or the Montague Street Tunnel), run via Nassau Street and return to Brooklyn (again, either the bridge or tunnel) without having to terminate and reverse directions during rush hours. The Chrystie Street Connection also saw the opening of connecting tracks from the IND Sixth Avenue Line to the BMT Nassau Street Line at Essex Street, and it is these tracks the M uses to move from the BMT to the IND.[[/note]]\\



* '''G - Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Line''': The G operates at all times between Court Square in Long Island City, Queens and Church Avenue in Kensington, Brooklyn via the Crosstown and Culver Lines. In Queens, it only serves two stations – Court Square and 21st Street, both in Long Island City – but previously served all stations to/from Forest Hills on the Queens Boulevard Line. It is the only non-shuttle line in the system that does not serve Manhattan and suffers from ongoing disruptions and poor service, leading to frequent criticism from locals. For much of its history, the G terminated at Smith-9th Streets by switching over to the express tracks on the Culver Line, then relaying back on the northbound local platform. It proved to be inefficient, as F service was held up and express service couldn't be operated, except for a brief period in the 1970s. This practice ended in 2009, when the G was extended to Church Avenue, coinciding with repairs on the aging Culver viaduct.\\

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* '''G - Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Line''': The G operates at all times between Court Square in Long Island City, Queens and Church Avenue in Kensington, Brooklyn via the Crosstown and Culver Lines. In Queens, it only serves two stations – Court Square and 21st Street, both in Long Island City – but previously served all stations to/from Forest Hills on the Queens Boulevard Line. It is the only non-shuttle line in the system that does not serve Manhattan Manhattan, and suffers from ongoing disruptions and poor service, frequent service disruptions, leading to frequent criticism from locals. For much of its history, the G terminated at Smith-9th Streets by switching over to the express tracks on the Culver Line, then relaying back on the northbound local platform. It proved to be inefficient, as F service was held up and express service couldn't be operated, except for a brief period in the 1970s. This practice ended in 2009, when the G was extended to Church Avenue, coinciding with repairs on the aging Culver viaduct.\\



* '''Q - Second Avenue-Broadway Express-Brighton Local via Bridge''': The Q operates between 96th Street-2nd Avenue on the Upper East Side in Manhattan and Coney Island at all times, running express on the Broadway Line in Manhattan (except during late nights, when it runs local between Canal Street and 57th Street-7th Avenue via the Manhattan Bridge), crossing over the Manhattan Bridge south side, and serving all stops on the Brighton Line in Brooklyn (the B runs express only on weekdays between Prospect Park and Brighton Beach). Prior to this service realignment, the Q ran to Astoria on weekdays (and to 57th Street-7th Avenue during late nights and weekends), serving as a replacement for the W, which was originally eliminated in 2010 due to budget cuts. Also, the lone northbound R train that is sent to 96th Street during rush hours is then re-designated as a southbound Q train to Coney Island.\\

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* '''Q - Second Avenue-Broadway Express-Brighton Local via Bridge''': The Q operates between 96th Street-2nd Avenue on the Upper East Side in Manhattan and Coney Island at all times, running express on the Broadway Line in Manhattan (except during late nights, when it runs local between Canal Street and 57th Street-7th Avenue via the Manhattan Bridge), crossing over the Manhattan Bridge south side, and serving all stops on the Brighton Line in Brooklyn (the B runs express only on weekdays between Prospect Park and Brighton Beach). Prior to this service realignment, the Q ran to Astoria on weekdays (and to 57th Street-7th Avenue during late nights and weekends), serving as a replacement for the W, which was originally eliminated in 2010 due to budget cuts. Also, the lone northbound R train trip that is sent to 96th Street during rush hours is then re-designated as a southbound Q train to Coney Island.\\



* '''R - Queens Boulevard-Broadway-4th Avenue Local via Tunnel''': The R operates between Forest Hills, Queens and 95th Street-Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn at all times except late nights (when it short-turns at South Ferry), running local on the Queens Boulevard, Broadway (via the Montague Street Tunnel) and 4th Avenue Lines; some 95th Street-bound trains short turn at 59th Street-4th Avenue during rush hours, while some northbound put-ins begin their trip at 36th Street-4th Avenue. Late night service originally ended at 36th Street in Brooklyn, but was extended to South Ferry in November 2016 in order to reduce the need to transfer at 36th Street, thereby eliminating the need for northbound trains to skip the 45th and 53rd Street stops. Also, many southbound trips used to short-turn at either Canal Street or South Ferry during rush hours, resulting in long headways along the R in Brooklyn. Beginning November 2017, one northbound rush hour trip terminates at 96th Street-2nd Avenue due to rising demand for service along the 2nd Avenue Line; the rush-hour only trip that goes to 96th Street is then re-designated as a southbound Q train to Coney Island. Until 1987, the R's northbound terminal was Astoria, while the N terminated at Forest Hills, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to run light to/from the Coney Island Yard. Also until 1987, some rush-hour only trips ran from Bay Ridge to Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line.\\
Until 2016, late night R service only ran to 36th Street on the Fourth Avenue Line, and passengers had to transfer to a D or N train to continue to Manhattan. The 2016 service changes that re-intorduced the W train also extended late night R service to Whitehall Street for the purposes of increasing frequencies along the Fourth Avenue Line. The N still replaces the R at stations from Whitehall Street to Lexington Avenue-59th Street during late nights, and the E replaces it in Queens during these times.\\

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* '''R - Queens Boulevard-Broadway-4th Avenue Local via Tunnel''': The R operates between Forest Hills, Queens and 95th Street-Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn at all times except late nights (when it short-turns at South Ferry), running local on the Queens Boulevard, Broadway (via the Montague Street Tunnel) and 4th Avenue Lines; some 95th Street-bound trains short turn at 59th Street-4th Avenue during rush hours, while some northbound put-ins begin their trip at 36th Street-4th Avenue. Late night service originally ended at 36th Street in Brooklyn, but was extended to South Ferry in November 2016 in order to reduce the need to transfer at 36th Street, thereby eliminating the need for northbound trains to skip the 45th and 53rd Street stops. Also, many southbound trips used to short-turn at either Canal Street or South Ferry during rush hours, resulting in long headways along the R in Brooklyn. Beginning November 2017, one northbound rush hour trip terminates at 96th Street-2nd Avenue due to rising demand for service along the 2nd Avenue Line; the rush-hour only this trip that goes to 96th Street is then re-designated as a southbound Q train to Coney Island. Until 1987, the R's northbound terminal was Astoria, while the N terminated at Forest Hills, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to run light to/from the Coney Island Yard. Also until 1987, some rush-hour only trips ran from Bay Ridge to Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line.\\
Until 2016, late night R service only ran to 36th Street on the Fourth Avenue Line, and passengers had to transfer to a D or N train to continue to Manhattan. The 2016 service changes that re-intorduced re-introduced the W train also extended late night R service to Whitehall Street for the purposes of increasing frequencies along the Fourth Avenue Line. The N still replaces the R at stations from Whitehall Street to Lexington Avenue-59th Street during late nights, and the E replaces it in Queens during these times.\\



* '''W - Astoria-Broadway Local''': The W is a weekday-only service, running local between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan. Some rush-hour trains originate from Coney Island (running local via the Sea Beach and 4th Avenue Lines) while the last-scheduled trips are extended to Gravesend-86th Street on the Sea Beach Line to be sent down to the Coney Island Yard. On weekends, the N and R trains replace it. The W was first introduced on July 22, 2001 as part of the major service realignments caused by years of track work on the Manhattan Bridge. It was created to replace the B in Brooklyn and provide service between Coney Island (via the West End Line) and Manhattan. On Feburary 22, 2004, when the north tracks on the Manhattan Bridge reopened, the W was cut back to its current service pattern while the D train replaced it in Brooklyn (prior to the track closures, the D ran to Coney Island as the Brighton express). On June 28, 2010, the W was eliminated due to budget cuts, and was replaced by the Q in Queens and the N and R in Manhattan. However, on November 7, 2016, the W was restored to fill in the service gap created by the full-time rerouting of the Q to the Second Avenue Subway, and maintain weekday service capacity on the Astoria and Broadway Lines.\\

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* '''W - Astoria-Broadway Local''': The W is a weekday-only service, running local between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan. Some rush-hour trains originate from Coney Island (running local via the Sea Beach and 4th Avenue Lines) while the last-scheduled trips are extended to Gravesend-86th Street on the Sea Beach Line to be sent down to the Coney Island Yard. On weekends, the N and R trains replace it. The W was first introduced on July 22, 2001 as part of the major service realignments caused by years of track work on the Manhattan Bridge. It was created to replace the B in Brooklyn and provide service between Coney Island (via the West End Line) and Manhattan. On Feburary February 22, 2004, when the north tracks on the Manhattan Bridge reopened, the W was cut back to its current service pattern while the D train replaced it in Brooklyn (prior to the track closures, the D ran to Coney Island as the Brighton express). On June 28, 2010, the W was eliminated due to budget cuts, and was replaced by the Q in Queens and the N and R in Manhattan. However, on November 7, 2016, the W was restored to fill in the service gap created by the full-time rerouting of the Q to the Second Avenue Subway, and maintain weekday service capacity on the Astoria and Broadway Lines.\\


Up until 1985, the MTA used single and double letters to denote the various services on the B Division. Locals were designated with double letters, while expresses had a single letter, with the idea that this would make the system amenable for tourists and outsiders, who may not know or even get confused by historic or community names. The lines were also color-coded as the MTA wanted to ensure that no two services with exactly the same color would operate over the same line. It became problematic for several reasons:

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Up until Until 1985, the MTA used single and double letters to denote the various services on the B Division. Locals were designated with double letters, while expresses had a single letter, with the idea that this would make the system amenable for tourists and outsiders, visitors, who may not know or even get confused by historic or community names. The lines were also color-coded as the MTA wanted to ensure that no two services with exactly the same color would operate over the same line. It became problematic for several reasons:



* Service labels are ephemeral. The TA frequently shifted lettered routes from one branch line to another, and introduced, changed or deleted letters, making a description like "the D train" meaningless. The D has been on three completely different Brooklyn branch lines (Fulton Street, Culver, Brighton) since 1954. K was introduced for a rush hour-only service on the Jamaica el, but was later used for an Eighth Avenue local which had formerly been the [=AA=].
* The same lettered or numbered lines may have different destinations by time of day, despite efforts to minimize this problem.

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* Service labels are ephemeral.were ephemeral and confusing at times. The TA frequently shifted lettered routes from one branch line to another, and introduced, changed or deleted letters, making a description like "the D train" meaningless. The D has been on three completely different Brooklyn branch lines (Fulton Street, Culver, Brighton) since 1954. K was introduced for a rush hour-only service on the Jamaica el, but was later used for an Eighth Avenue local which had formerly been the [=AA=].
* The same lettered or numbered lines may have different destinations by time of day, day despite efforts to minimize this problem.



** While the [=JFK=] and Newark airports have rail connections, [=LaGuardia=] Airport lacks a direct connection to any subway or rail line. Earlier proposals to extend the Astoria Line from Ditmars Boulevard to [=LaGuardia=] were kiboshed due to a combination of budget woes and [=NIMBY=]ism.

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** While the [=JFK=] and Newark airports have rail connections, [=LaGuardia=] Airport lacks a direct connection to any subway or rail line. Earlier proposals to extend the Astoria Line from Ditmars Boulevard to [=LaGuardia=] were kiboshed due to a combination of budget woes and [=NIMBY=]ism.



** Reactivating the disused portion of the LIRR's Rockaway Branch for passenger service by connecting it with the Queens Boulevard Line east of 63rd Drive-Rego Park.

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** Reactivating the disused portion of the LIRR's Rockaway Branch for passenger service by connecting it with the Queens Boulevard Line east of 63rd Drive-Rego Park.


* The New York Subway is one of many metros you can reinvent in ''VideoGame/MiniMetro''.

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* The New York Subway is one of many metros you can reinvent in ''VideoGame/MiniMetro''. The game also has an alternate level based on an older version of the map (New York City 1972).


* '''C - Eighth Avenue-Fulton Street Local''': The C is a local supplement to the A train, running from 168th Street in Washington Heights to Euclid Avenue only during daytime hours. During late nights, the A serves as a replacement for the C, originating to/from Far Rockaway only, while a shuttle runs between Euclid Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard. Until the 1980s, the C was a rush-hour only service that ran from Bedford Park Boulevard to Rockaway Park, as off-peak service was provided by the now-eliminated K train. Similar to the terminal swap between the N and R trains, the B and C trains swapped their northern terminals, ending the connection between the C and the Bronx. This was done to eliminate rider confusion between the C's three different terminals depending on the time of day and reduce crowding.\\

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* '''C - Eighth Avenue-Fulton Street Local''': The C is a local supplement to the A train, running from 168th Street in Washington Heights to Euclid Avenue only during daytime hours. During late nights, the A serves as a replacement for the C, originating to/from Far Rockaway only, while a shuttle runs between Euclid Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard. Until the 1980s, the C was a rush-hour only service that ran from Bedford Park Boulevard to Rockaway Park, as off-peak service was provided by the now-eliminated K train. K. Similar to the terminal swap between the N and R trains, R, the B and C trains lines swapped their northern terminals, ending the connection between the C and the Bronx. This was done to eliminate rider confusion between the C's three different terminals depending on the time of day and reduce crowding.\\



* '''E - Jamaica Express-Eighth Avenue Local via 53rd Street''': The E runs from Jamaica Center to World Trade Center at all times (with some peak-direction rush hour-only trips coming to/from 179th Street due to capacity issues at Jamaica Center, while a few Jamaica-bound rush hour trips short-turn at Kew Gardens), running express between Queens Plaza and Jamaica-Van Wyck during weekdays, and between Queens Plaza and Forest Hills during weekends. During late nights, the E runs local on Queens Boulevard to replace the R and M trains. Prior to the Archer Avenue Lines opening in 1988, the E ran full-time between 179th Street and World Trade Center. The E also ran to Brooklyn and the Rockaways during rush hours only until the 1970s, when it was replaced by the A and C trains.\\

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* '''E - Jamaica Express-Eighth Avenue Local via 53rd Street''': The E runs from Jamaica Center to World Trade Center at all times (with some peak-direction rush hour-only trips coming to/from 179th Street due to capacity issues at Jamaica Center, while a few Jamaica-bound rush hour trips short-turn at Kew Gardens), running express between Queens Plaza and Jamaica-Van Wyck during weekdays, and between Queens Plaza and Forest Hills during weekends. During late nights, the E runs local on Queens Boulevard to replace the R and M trains.lines. Prior to the Archer Avenue Lines opening in 1988, the E ran full-time between 179th Street and World Trade Center. The E also ran to Brooklyn and the Rockaways during rush hours only until the 1970s, when it was replaced by the A and C trains.lines.\\



* '''N - Astoria-Broadway-Sea Beach Express via Bridge''': The N operates at all times between Astor-a-Ditmars Boulevard in Queens and Coney Island via the Sea Beach Line, running express between 34th Street-Herald Square in Manhattan and 59th Street-4th Avenue in Brooklyn (via the Manhattan Bridge and skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue) during daytime hours on weekdays, with some rush hour trips coming to/from to 96th Street on the 2nd Avenue Line (skipping 49th Steet); some rush hour put-ins also begin and end their trips at Gravesend-86th Street. During weekends, it operates as an express between Canal Street and 59th Street-4th Avenue (also via the bridge, skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue), and runs local via the Montague Street Tunnel during late nights, replacing the R (which runs only between Whitehall and 95th Streets during late nights; local service on Queens Boulevard is supplemented by the E). Until 1987, the N's northbound terminal was Forest Hills, while the R terminated at Astoria, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to deadhead to/from the Coney Island Yard.\\

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* '''N - Astoria-Broadway-Sea Beach Express via Bridge''': The N operates at all times between Astor-a-Ditmars Astoria-Ditmars Boulevard in Queens and Coney Island via the Sea Beach Line, running express between 34th Street-Herald Square in Manhattan and 59th Street-4th Avenue in Brooklyn (via the Manhattan Bridge and skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue) during daytime hours on weekdays, with some rush hour trips coming to/from to 96th Street on the 2nd Avenue Line (skipping 49th Steet); some rush hour put-ins also begin and end their trips at Gravesend-86th Street. During weekends, it operates as an express between Canal Street and 59th Street-4th Avenue (also via the bridge, skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue), and runs local via the Montague Street Tunnel during late nights, replacing the R (which runs only between Whitehall and 95th Streets during late nights; local service on Queens Boulevard is supplemented by the E). Until 1987, the N's northbound terminal was Forest Hills, while the R terminated at Astoria, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to deadhead to/from the Coney Island Yard.\\



* '''R - Queens Boulevard-Broadway-4th Avenue Local via Tunnel''': The R operates between Forest Hills, Queens and 95th Street in Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn at all times except late nights (when it short-turns at South Ferry-Whitehall Street), running local on the Queens Boulevard, Broadway (via the Montague Street Tunnel) and 4th Avenue Lines; some 95th Street-bound trains short turn at 59th Street-4th Avenue during rush hours, while some northbound put-ins begin their trip at 36th Street-4th Avenue. Late night service originally ended at 36th Street in Brooklyn, but was extended to South Ferry in November 2016 in order to reduce the need to transfer at 36th Street, thereby eliminating the need for northbound trains to skip the 45th and 53rd Street stops. Also, many southbound trips used to short-turn at either Canal Street or South Ferry during rush hours, resulting in long headways along the R in Brooklyn. Beginning November 2017, one northbound rush hour trip terminates at 96th Street-2nd Avenue due to rising demand for service along the 2nd Avenue Line; the rush-hour only trip that goes to 96th Street is then re-designated as a southbound Q train to Coney Island. Until 1987, the R's northbound terminal was Astoria, while the N terminated at Forest Hills, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to run light to/from the Coney Island Yard. Also until 1987, some rush-hour only trips ran from Bay Ridge to Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line.\\
Until 2016, late night R service only ran to 36th Street on the Fourth Avenue Line, and passengers had to transfer to a D or N train to continue to Manhattan. The 2016 service changes that re-intorduced the W train also extended late night R service to Whitehall Street, for the purposes of increasing frequencies along the Fourth Avenue Line. The N still replaces the R at stations from Whitehall Street to Lexington Avenue-59th Street during late nights, and the E replaces it in Queens during these times.\\

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* '''R - Queens Boulevard-Broadway-4th Avenue Local via Tunnel''': The R operates between Forest Hills, Queens and 95th Street in Fort Street-Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn at all times except late nights (when it short-turns at South Ferry-Whitehall Street), Ferry), running local on the Queens Boulevard, Broadway (via the Montague Street Tunnel) and 4th Avenue Lines; some 95th Street-bound trains short turn at 59th Street-4th Avenue during rush hours, while some northbound put-ins begin their trip at 36th Street-4th Avenue. Late night service originally ended at 36th Street in Brooklyn, but was extended to South Ferry in November 2016 in order to reduce the need to transfer at 36th Street, thereby eliminating the need for northbound trains to skip the 45th and 53rd Street stops. Also, many southbound trips used to short-turn at either Canal Street or South Ferry during rush hours, resulting in long headways along the R in Brooklyn. Beginning November 2017, one northbound rush hour trip terminates at 96th Street-2nd Avenue due to rising demand for service along the 2nd Avenue Line; the rush-hour only trip that goes to 96th Street is then re-designated as a southbound Q train to Coney Island. Until 1987, the R's northbound terminal was Astoria, while the N terminated at Forest Hills, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to run light to/from the Coney Island Yard. Also until 1987, some rush-hour only trips ran from Bay Ridge to Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line.\\
Until 2016, late night R service only ran to 36th Street on the Fourth Avenue Line, and passengers had to transfer to a D or N train to continue to Manhattan. The 2016 service changes that re-intorduced the W train also extended late night R service to Whitehall Street, Street for the purposes of increasing frequencies along the Fourth Avenue Line. The N still replaces the R at stations from Whitehall Street to Lexington Avenue-59th Street during late nights, and the E replaces it in Queens during these times.\\



* '''W - Astoria-Broadway Local''': The W is a weekday-only service, running local between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan. Some rush-hour trains originate from Coney Island (running local via the Sea Beach and 4th Avenue Lines) while the last-scheduled trips are extended to Gravesend-86th Street on the Sea Beach Line to be sent down to the Coney Island Yard. On weekends, the N and R trains replace it. The W was first introduced on July 22, 2001 as part of the major service realignments caused by years of track work on the Manhattan Bridge. It was created to replace the B in Brooklyn and provide service between Coney Island (via the BMT West End Line) and Manhattan. On Feburary 22, 2004, when the north tracks on the Manhattan Bridge reopened, the W was cut back to its current service pattern while the D train replaced it in Brooklyn (prior to the track closures, the D ran to Coney Island as the Brighton express). On June 28, 2010, the W was eliminated due to budget cuts, and was replaced by the Q in Queens and the N and R in Manhattan. However, on November 7, 2016, the W was restored to fill in the service gap created by the full-time rerouting of the Q to the Second Avenue Subway, and maintain weekday service capacity on the Astoria and Broadway Lines.\\

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* '''W - Astoria-Broadway Local''': The W is a weekday-only service, running local between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan. Some rush-hour trains originate from Coney Island (running local via the Sea Beach and 4th Avenue Lines) while the last-scheduled trips are extended to Gravesend-86th Street on the Sea Beach Line to be sent down to the Coney Island Yard. On weekends, the N and R trains replace it. The W was first introduced on July 22, 2001 as part of the major service realignments caused by years of track work on the Manhattan Bridge. It was created to replace the B in Brooklyn and provide service between Coney Island (via the BMT West End Line) and Manhattan. On Feburary 22, 2004, when the north tracks on the Manhattan Bridge reopened, the W was cut back to its current service pattern while the D train replaced it in Brooklyn (prior to the track closures, the D ran to Coney Island as the Brighton express). On June 28, 2010, the W was eliminated due to budget cuts, and was replaced by the Q in Queens and the N and R in Manhattan. However, on November 7, 2016, the W was restored to fill in the service gap created by the full-time rerouting of the Q to the Second Avenue Subway, and maintain weekday service capacity on the Astoria and Broadway Lines.\\



Unlike the other IRT lines, the 7 train is unique for running 11 car trains instead of the normal ten car trains. This has been in place since the 1964-1965 World's Fair in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in April 1964, when trains were lengthened to eleven cars. The Flushing Line received 430 new R33 and R36 "World's Fair" cars for this enhanced service, and due to platform lengths, it was chosen to maintain the existing train length. Note though that while 7 trains have the most cars of any in-service trains, they are ''not'' the longest trains on the system in overall length as they are still shorter than 600 foot long IND and BMT mainline trains.\\

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Unlike the other IRT lines, the 7 train is unique for running 11 car trains instead of the normal ten car trains. This has been in place since the 1964-1965 World's Fair in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in April 1964, when trains were lengthened to eleven cars. The Flushing Line received 430 new R33 and R36 "World's Fair" cars for this enhanced service, and due to platform lengths, it was chosen to maintain the existing train length. Note though that while 7 trains have the most cars of any in-service trains, they are ''not'' the longest trains on the system in overall length as they are still shorter than 600 foot long IND and BMT mainline trains.\\


* The infamous Second Avenue Subway, [[DevelopmentHell which was on the city's to-do list for many decades]] [[SavedFromDevelopmentHell until very recently]]. It will be built with provisions to expand the line to the Bronx and Brooklyn.

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* The infamous Second Avenue Subway, [[DevelopmentHell which was on the city's to-do list for many decades]] [[SavedFromDevelopmentHell until very recently]]. It will be built with provisions to expand the line to the Bronx and Brooklyn.Brooklyn, but that remains to be seen given the MTA's limited funding and looming debt crisis.



** There were also proposals to build branches of the subway into New Jersey. A proposal in the 1930s recommended using the George Washington Bridge's lower level to Fort Lee, while a more recent proposal suggested an expansion of the Flushing Line south of 34th Street to Secaucus Junction via Hoboken.

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** There were also proposals to build branches of expand the subway into New Jersey. A proposal in the 1930s recommended using the George Washington Bridge's lower level to Fort Lee, while a more recent proposal suggested an expansion of the Flushing Line south of 34th Street to Secaucus Junction via Hoboken.




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** Reactivating the disused portion of the LIRR's Rockaway Branch for passenger service by connecting it with the Queens Boulevard Line east of 63rd Drive-Rego Park.



* '''C - Eighth Avenue-Fulton Street Local''': The C is a local supplement to the A train, running from 168th Street in Washington Heights to Euclid Avenue only during daytime hours. During late nights, the A serves as a replacement for the C, originating to/from Far Rockaway only, while a shuttle runs between Euclid Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard. Until the 1980s, the C was a rush-hour only service that ran from Bedford Park Boulevard to Rockaway Park, as off-peak service was provided by the now-eliminated K train. Similar to the terminal swap between the N and R trains, the B and C trains swapped their northern terminals, ending the connection between the C and the Bronx. This was done to eliminate rider confusion between the C's three different terminals depending on the time of day and to reduce crowding.\\

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* '''C - Eighth Avenue-Fulton Street Local''': The C is a local supplement to the A train, running from 168th Street in Washington Heights to Euclid Avenue only during daytime hours. During late nights, the A serves as a replacement for the C, originating to/from Far Rockaway only, while a shuttle runs between Euclid Avenue and Lefferts Boulevard. Until the 1980s, the C was a rush-hour only service that ran from Bedford Park Boulevard to Rockaway Park, as off-peak service was provided by the now-eliminated K train. Similar to the terminal swap between the N and R trains, the B and C trains swapped their northern terminals, ending the connection between the C and the Bronx. This was done to eliminate rider confusion between the C's three different terminals depending on the time of day and to reduce crowding.\\



* '''E - Jamaica Express-Eighth Avenue Local via 53rd Street''': The E runs from Jamaica Center to World Trade Center at all times (with some peak-direction rush hour-only trips coming to/from 179th Street due to capacity issues at Jamaica Center, while a few Jamaica-bound rush hour trips short-turn at Kew Gardens), running express along the IND Queens Boulevard Line between Queens Plaza and Jamaica-Van Wyck during weekdays, and between Queens Plaza and Forest Hills during weekends. During late nights, the E runs local on the rest of the IND Queens Boulevard Line to replace the R and M trains. Prior to the Archer Avenue Lines opening in 1988, the E ran full-time between 179th Street and World Trade Center. The E also ran to Brooklyn and the Rockaways during rush hours only until the 1970s, when it was replaced by the A and C trains.\\

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* '''E - Jamaica Express-Eighth Avenue Local via 53rd Street''': The E runs from Jamaica Center to World Trade Center at all times (with some peak-direction rush hour-only trips coming to/from 179th Street due to capacity issues at Jamaica Center, while a few Jamaica-bound rush hour trips short-turn at Kew Gardens), running express along the IND Queens Boulevard Line between Queens Plaza and Jamaica-Van Wyck during weekdays, and between Queens Plaza and Forest Hills during weekends. During late nights, the E runs local on the rest of the IND Queens Boulevard Line to replace the R and M trains. Prior to the Archer Avenue Lines opening in 1988, the E ran full-time between 179th Street and World Trade Center. The E also ran to Brooklyn and the Rockaways during rush hours only until the 1970s, when it was replaced by the A and C trains.\\



* '''F - Jamaica Express-Sixth Avenue-Culver Local via 63rd Street''': The F operates at all times between 179th Street in Jamaica, Queens and Coney Island via the Culver Line, serving all stops except for an express section between 21st Street-Queensbridge and Forest Hills along the Queens Boulevard Line. Some trains short-turn at Kings Highway due to capacity issues at Coney Island during rush hours. In recent years, there were calls to restore express service on the Culver Line during rush hours, although this has been controversial as some riders along the line feared they would lose their one-seat ride to Manhattan. Previously, the Culver Line had express service from Jay Street to Kings Highway between 1967 and 1987, but this was eliminated due to low usage, rider complaints, and budget cuts. To alleviate rider concerns along the Culver Line, a limited express service was implemented in 2019.

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* '''F - Jamaica Express-Sixth Avenue-Culver Local via 63rd Street''': The F operates at all times between 179th Street in Jamaica, Queens and Coney Island via the Culver Line, serving all stops except for an express section between 21st Street-Queensbridge and Forest Hills along the Queens Boulevard Line. Some trains short-turn at Kings Highway due to capacity issues at Coney Island during rush hours. In recent years, there were calls to restore express service on the Culver Line during rush hours, although this has been controversial as some riders along the line feared they would lose their one-seat ride to Manhattan. Previously, the Culver Line had express service from Jay Street to Kings Highway between 1967 and 1987, but this was eliminated due to low usage, rider complaints, and budget cuts. To alleviate rider concerns along the concerns, a rush hour-only Culver Line, a limited express service was implemented in 2019.2019 on a limited scale.



* '''N - Astoria-Broadway-Sea Beach Express via Bridge''': The N operates at all times between Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria, Queens and Coney Island via the Sea Beach Line, running express between 34th Street-Herald Square in Manhattan and 59th Street-4th Avenue in Brooklyn (via the Manhattan Bridge and skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue) during daytime hours on weekdays, with some rush hour trips coming to/from to 96th Street on the 2nd Avenue Line (skipping 49th Steet); some rush hour put-ins also begin and end their trips at Gravesend-86th Street. During weekends, it operates as an express between Canal Street and 59th Street-4th Avenue (also via the bridge, skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue), and runs local via the Montague Street Tunnel during late nights, replacing the R (which runs only between Whitehall and 95th Streets during late nights; local service on Queens Boulevard is supplemented by the E). Until 1987, the N's northbound terminal was Forest Hills, while the R terminated at Astoria, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to deadhead to/from the Coney Island Yard.\\

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* '''N - Astoria-Broadway-Sea Beach Express via Bridge''': The N operates at all times between Ditmars Astor-a-Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria, Queens and Coney Island via the Sea Beach Line, running express between 34th Street-Herald Square in Manhattan and 59th Street-4th Avenue in Brooklyn (via the Manhattan Bridge and skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue) during daytime hours on weekdays, with some rush hour trips coming to/from to 96th Street on the 2nd Avenue Line (skipping 49th Steet); some rush hour put-ins also begin and end their trips at Gravesend-86th Street. During weekends, it operates as an express between Canal Street and 59th Street-4th Avenue (also via the bridge, skipping [=DeKalb=] Avenue), and runs local via the Montague Street Tunnel during late nights, replacing the R (which runs only between Whitehall and 95th Streets during late nights; local service on Queens Boulevard is supplemented by the E). Until 1987, the N's northbound terminal was Forest Hills, while the R terminated at Astoria, but this was switched over in order to give the R a direct access to a train yard. Previously, the N had easy access to the Jamaica and Coney Island yards, while the R had to deadhead to/from the Coney Island Yard.\\


* The MTA still remains in the red despite repeated fare and toll hikes in recent years. While fares actually cover regular operating costs for the system, its sheer size means ongoing maintenance and capital costs are enormous. They're supposed to be funded separately, but the state and city governments never seem to give enough. Therefore, the MTA must rely on other sources of revenue to remain afloat, such as sales, payroll and real estate taxes to contain the deficit, or issuing bonds to finance expansion projects, though it has contributed to a rising debt burden, as by 2017, a sixth of the budget was allocated to paying off interest, aside from non-labor expenses, wages, and employee benefits. The MTA has also been criticized for the 2nd Avenue Line's rising costs, as they have ballooned due to wasteful spending, mismanagement, and corruption.

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* The MTA still remains in the red despite repeated fare and toll hikes in recent years. While fares actually cover regular operating costs for the system, its sheer size means ongoing maintenance and capital costs are enormous. They're supposed to be funded separately, but the state and city governments never seem to give enough. Therefore, the MTA must rely on other sources of revenue to remain afloat, such as sales, payroll and real estate taxes to contain the deficit, or issuing bonds to finance expansion projects, though it has contributed to a rising debt burden, as by 2017, a sixth of the budget was allocated to paying off interest, aside from non-labor expenses, wages, and employee benefits. The MTA has also been criticized for the 2nd Avenue Line's rising costs, as they have ballooned due to wasteful spending, mismanagement, and corruption. The UsefulNotes/COVID19Pandemic not only caused ridership to decline, but it has accelerated the burgeoning debt crisis, causing the MTA to consider drastic service reductions and wage cuts if it doesn't receive federal aid to prop it up.


The A train fleet is primarily made of R46 cars, but also has a few trains of R32 cars, plus a single train of [=R68A=] cars and a few ten car trains of R179 cars.

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The A train fleet is primarily made of R46 cars, but also has a few trains of R32 cars, plus a single train of R68 and [=R68A=] cars cars, and a few ten car trains of R179 cars.



The C train is operated with a mix of R179 and R32 cars.

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The C train is operated with a mix of R179 and R32 R46 cars.



The E train uses a fleet made entirely of R160 cars.

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The E train uses a fleet made entirely of R160 cars.



The F train is operated with a mix of R160 and R46 cars.

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The F train is operated with uses a mix fleet made entirely of R160 and R46 cars.



The M train is operated entirely with R160 cars.

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The M train is operated entirely with R160 cars.



The G train uses R68 cars, though it has also used R46 and R160 equipment from the F train in times of service disruption.

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The G train uses a fleet made entirely of R68 cars, though it has also used R46 and R160 equipment from the F train in times of service disruption.cars.



The N train is operated primarily with R160 cars, as well as a limited number of R68 trains.

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The N train is operated primarily with R160 R46 cars, as well as a limited number of R68 R68, [=R68A=], and R160 trains.



The Q train is operated entirely with R160 cars except for a morning rush hour R train that is sent down to Coney Island, and an afternoon rush hour train that uses an R68 set from Coney Island Yard.

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The Q train is operated entirely primarily with R46 cars, as well as a limited number of R68, [=R68A=], and R160 cars except for a morning rush hour R train that is sent down to Coney Island, and an afternoon rush hour train that uses an R68 set from Coney Island Yard.trains.



The R train is operated entirely by R46 trains stationed at Jamaica Yard, though it has also used a few R160 put-ins in times of service disruptions.

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The R train is operated entirely by R46 trains stationed at Jamaica Yard, though it has also used a few with R160 put-ins in times of service disruptions.cars.



The L uses a mix of CBTC compatible R143 and R160 cars.

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The L uses a mix of CBTC compatible CBTC-compatible R143 and R160 cars.



The 3 train fleet is made up of R62 and [=R62A=] cars stationed at Livonia Yard.

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The 3 train fleet is made up entirely composed of R62 and [=R62A=] cars stationed at Livonia Yard.cars.



The 4 train is operated with R142 and [=R142A=] cars. It is the only line to use [=R142A=] cars, thanks to the [=R142A=] cars on the 6 train being converted to R188 cars for the IRT Flushing Line.

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The 4 train is operated with R142 and [=R142A=] cars. It is the only line to use [=R142A=] cars, thanks to the [=R142A=] cars on the 6 train being converted to R188 cars for the IRT Flushing Line.



The 5 train fleet is made up entirely of R142 cars, stationed out of East 180th Street and 239th Street Yards. The fleet is shared between it and the 2 train. Because the two lines have so much overlap in the Bronx and Brooklyn, and only separate for their trips through Manhattan, much frustration has ensued thanks to the electronic strip maps in the trains only having the map for one route or the other. To solve this problem, the MTA began replacing the individual strip maps for cars assigned to these yards in 2016, with combined strip maps showing both services.
* '''6 - Pelham-Lexington Avenue Local / <6> - Pelham Express-Lexington Avenue Local''': The 6 is the local service on the Lexington Avenue Line. It operates local at all times between Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx and Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall in Lower Manhattan. Some trains run express in the peak direction between Parkchester and 3rd Avenue-138th Street and are marked as <6>, while locals are marked in a circular bullet. During weekdays in the peak direction, <6> Pelham Express trains replace 6 local ones north of Parkchester, and run express between that station and 3rd Avenue–138th Street, only stopping at Hunts Point Avenue along the route. During this time, 6 Pelham Local trains short turn at Parkchester. Weekdays from 9 AM to 11 AM, select Manhattan-bound <6> trains run local from Parkchester to Hunts Point Avenue while select Parkchester-bound 6 trains run express in that section. The 6 train is operated with a fleet of [=R62A=] cars, which were displaced from the line from 2001 to 2003 by the [=R142A=] cars and moved to the IRT Flushing Line to retire that line's Redbird trains. However, the change only lasted for 13 years before the [=R62A=] trains were transferred back to the 6 as part of the Flushing Line automation program, and the 6's [=R142A=] trains were given to the 7 to be converted to R188 cars.

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The 5 train fleet is made up entirely of R142 cars, stationed out of East 180th Street and 239th Street Yards. The fleet is shared between it and the 2 train.2. Because the two lines have so much overlap in the Bronx and Brooklyn, and only separate for their trips through Manhattan, much frustration has ensued thanks to the electronic strip maps in the trains only having the map for one route or the other. To solve this problem, the MTA began replacing the individual strip maps for cars assigned to these yards in 2016, with combined strip maps showing both services.
* '''6 - Pelham-Lexington Avenue Local / <6> - Pelham Express-Lexington Avenue Local''': The 6 is the local service on the Lexington Avenue Line. It operates local at all times between Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx and Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall in Lower Manhattan. Some trains run express in the peak direction between Parkchester and 3rd Avenue-138th Street and are marked as <6>, while locals are marked in a circular bullet. During weekdays in the peak direction, <6> Pelham Express trains replace 6 local ones north of Parkchester, and run express between that station and 3rd Avenue–138th Street, only stopping at Hunts Point Avenue along the route. During this time, 6 Pelham Local trains short turn at Parkchester. Weekdays from 9 AM to 11 AM, select Manhattan-bound <6> trains run local from Parkchester to Hunts Point Avenue while select Parkchester-bound 6 trains run express in that section. The 6 train is operated operates with a fleet of [=R62A=] cars, which were displaced from the line from 2001 to 2003 by the [=R142A=] cars and moved to the IRT Flushing Line to retire that line's Redbird trains. However, the change only lasted for 13 years before the [=R62A=] trains were transferred back to the 6 as part of the Flushing Line automation program, and the 6's [=R142A=] trains were given to the 7 to be converted to R188 cars.



The 7 train fleet is entirely made of R188 cars.

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The 7 train fleet is entirely made of CBTC-compatible R188 cars.



* '''Rockaway Park Shuttle''': The IND shuttle service connects with the A at the Broad Channel station and utilizes the Rockaway Line's Rockaway Park branch, terminating at Beach 116th Street at all times (though some A trains come to/from Rockaway Park during rush hours in the peak direction). Also, in order to distinguish it from the other shuttles in the system, NYCT Rapid Transit Operations internally refers to it as the H, though the shuttle was designated that letter at various times in the past. Throughout its history, this service was extended to Euclid Avenue and/or Far Rockaway, serving as a replacement for other services that didn't run during off-peak hours. During summer weekends, the shuttle runs all the way to Rockaway Boulevard on the mainland, allowing single transfers for A train passengers originating on the Lefferts Boulevard Branch. The Rockaway Park Shuttle uses its own fleet of R46 trains.

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* '''Rockaway Park Shuttle''': The IND shuttle service connects with the A at the Broad Channel station and utilizes the Rockaway Line's Rockaway Park branch, terminating at Beach 116th Street at all times (though some A trains come to/from Rockaway Park during rush hours in the peak direction). Also, in order to distinguish it from the other shuttles in the system, NYCT Rapid Transit Operations internally refers to it as the H, though the shuttle was previously designated that letter at various times as such in the past. Throughout its history, this service the shuttle was extended to Euclid Avenue and/or Far Rockaway, serving as a replacement for other services that didn't run during off-peak hours. During summer weekends, the shuttle runs all the way to Rockaway Boulevard on the mainland, allowing single transfers for A train passengers originating on the Lefferts Boulevard Branch. The Rockaway Park Shuttle uses its own fleet of R46 trains.



* '''Fourth Avenue Shuttle''': During late nights, the R runs only between South Ferry and Bay Ridge-95th Street on the 4th Avenue Line, connecting with the 1 at South Ferry. Previously, this shuttle ran only between 36th Street-4th Avenue and 95th Street, with northbound trains began skipping 53rd and 45th Streets to avoid discharging passengers on tracks used by through trains.

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* '''Fourth Avenue Shuttle''': During late nights, the R runs only between South Ferry and Bay Ridge-95th Street on the 4th Avenue Line, connecting with the 1 at South Ferry. Previously, this shuttle ran only between 36th Street-4th Avenue and 95th Street, with northbound trains began skipping 53rd and 45th Streets to avoid discharging passengers on tracks used by through trains.


* The subways don't run on anything that resembles a schedule. Locals don't expect it to, out-of-towners get frustrated, and yet the MTA still tries to claim that [[http://www.mta.info/nyct/service/schemain.htm their official schedules have worth]]. Some of the stations do have countdown clocks that are reasonably reliable, but the spread is slow in coming for [[http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/11/why-dont-we-know-where-all-the-trains-are/415152/ incredibly complicated reasons]]. This includes the MTA's limited funding to the fact that much of the system's equipment is ''original'' from when it was built (as in, there are ''1930s'' controls on some of the older interlockings).

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* The subways Trains don't run on anything that resembles a schedule. Locals Residents don't expect it to, out-of-towners visitors get frustrated, and yet the MTA still tries to claim that [[http://www.mta.info/nyct/service/schemain.htm their official schedules have worth]]. Some of the stations do have countdown clocks that are reasonably reliable, but the spread is slow in coming for [[http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/11/why-dont-we-know-where-all-the-trains-are/415152/ incredibly complicated reasons]]. This includes the MTA's limited funding to the fact that much of the system's equipment is ''original'' from when it was built (as in, there are ''1930s'' controls on some of the older interlockings).



** The recently acquired R179 fleet has become the new "lemon," having been plagued with the same issues that affected the R46 trains. Because of this, Bombardier was banned from bidding on the R211 contract for new subway cars. Train workers have also complained about stiff windows, faulty train controls and design flaws. To make matters worse, defects that could cause doors to open even when a train is in motion caused the entire fleet to be grounded in January 2020, forcing the MTA to reuse the retired R42 fleet for service. [[HereWeGoAgain The entire fleet was once again grounded]] in June 2020 when a set of cars accidentally unlinked while in service, causing the consist to be split into two.

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** The recently acquired R179 fleet has become the new "lemon," having been plagued with the same issues that affected the R46 trains. Because of this, Bombardier was banned from bidding on the R211 contract for new subway cars. Train workers have also complained about stiff windows, faulty train controls and design flaws. To make matters worse, defects that could cause doors to open even when a train is in motion caused the entire fleet to be grounded in January 2020, forcing the MTA to reuse the retired R42 fleet for service. [[HereWeGoAgain The entire fleet was once again grounded]] in June 2020 when a set of cars accidentally unlinked while in service, causing the consist to be split into two. The R179 fleet was restored to service in September 2020.


** The [[https://www.topviewnyc.com/packages/history-of-the-new-york-city-subway replacement of tokens]] with [=MetroCards=] in the 1990s killed off some of the old fare evasion techniques. One method once used was token sucking, as it was done by jamming the token slot in an entrance gate with paper. A passenger would insert a token into the turnstile, be frustrated when it did not open the gate, and have to spend another token to enter at another gate. A token thief would then suck the token from the jammed slot with their mouth, and it was done as long as nobody was around. Some station attendants sprinkled chili powder in the slots to discourage this. Another method was the use of "slugs," counterfeit tokens that had a similar shape and weight so they could be used to trick the turnstiles. These "slugs" came in many forms, including washers, arcade tokens, and coins of different currencies that resembled the real one. The newer vending machines used by the MTA have measures that can identify and detect slugs that do not resemble real coins.

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** The [[https://www.topviewnyc.com/packages/history-of-the-new-york-city-subway replacement of tokens]] with [=MetroCards=] in the 1990s killed off some of the old fare evasion techniques. One method once used was token sucking, as it was done by jamming the token slot in an entrance gate with paper. A passenger would insert a token into the turnstile, be frustrated when it did not open the gate, and have to spend another token to enter at another gate. A token thief would then suck the token from the jammed slot with their mouth, and it was done as long as nobody was around. Some station attendants sprinkled chili powder in the slots to discourage this. Another method was the use of "slugs," counterfeit tokens that had a similar shape and weight so they could be used to trick the turnstiles. These "slugs" [[CounterfeitCash slugs]] came in many forms, including washers, forms such as washers and arcade tokens, and coins of different currencies that resembled the real one.tokens. The newer vending machines used by the MTA have measures that can identify and detect slugs that do not resemble real coins.

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